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Vaccine hesitancy, state bias, and Covid-19: Evidence from a survey experiment using Phase-3 results announcement by BioNTech and Pfizer.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jun 15;282:114115. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Political Science, University of South Carolina, USA.

Background: Past survey studies document that people strongly prefer Covid-19 vaccines developed domestically over those developed abroad. Available evidence suggests that this preference for domestic vaccines over foreign ones may stem from prejudice against foreign countries, but identifying prejudice-based vaccine preferences is difficult because people also draw inferences about the quality of vaccines based on country of origin. We exploit a unique opportunity provided by the announcement of a viable vaccine by a bi-national venture, BioNTech and Pfizer, to examine the effect of such prejudice on vaccination intentions while controlling for beliefs about the vaccine quality. Read More

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Analysis of the DNA-binding properties of Alx1, an evolutionarily conserved regulator of skeletogenesis in echinoderms.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 19:100901. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA. Electronic address:

Alx1, a homeodomain (HD)-containing transcription factor, is a highly conserved regulator of skeletogenesis in echinoderms. In sea urchins, Alx1 plays a central role in the differentiation of embryonic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) and positively regulates the transcription of most biomineralization genes expressed by these cells. The alx1 gene arose via duplication and acquired a skeletogenic function distinct from its paralog (alx4) through the exonization of a 41-amino acid motif (the D2 domain). Read More

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Erythropoiesis and Iron Parameters in Transfusion-dependent and Nontransfusion-dependent Thalassemias.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Jul;43(5):186-192

Pediatric Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya.

Introduction: To clarify mechanisms of ineffective erythropoiesis on iron metabolism, studies on erythroid factors that regulating hepcidin suppression have been carried out. The aim of the current study is to identify associations between erythropoiesis and iron homeostasis parameters in β-thalassemias.

Materials And Methods: This study consisted of 83 subjects: 21 thalassemia major (TM), 20 thalassemia intermedia (TI), 20 thalassemia trait (TT), and 22 healthy subjects (HS). Read More

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Factors Affecting Fast Food Consumption among College Students in South Asia: A Systematic Review.

J Am Coll Nutr 2021 Jun 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Food Technology and Nutrition Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh.

Unhealthy dietary practices have increased among college students in South Asia. Higher intakes of energy-dense foods may increase health risks such as weight gain in college students. The purpose of the study was to gather evidence on fast food consumption patterns and factors that influenced fast food consumption among college students in South Asia. Read More

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Highly Dense and Stable p-Type Thin-Film Transistor Based on Atomic Layer Deposition SnO Fabricated by Two-Step Crystallization.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea.

Over the past several decades, tin monoxide (SnO) has been studied extensively as a p-type thin film transistor (TFT). However, its TFT performance is still insufficient for practical use. Many studies suggested that the instability of the valence state of Sn (Sn/Sn) is a critical reason for the poor performance such as limited mobility and low on/off ratio. Read More

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Crystal seed-enhanced ammonia nitrogen and phosphate recovery from landfill leachate using struvite precipitation technique.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, 620 015, India.

Nitrogen and phosphorous are limiting and crucial elements for all living organisms. The recovery of nitrogen and phosphorous as struvite gained attention due to its ecofriendly fertilizer application. In the present study, feasible recovery of NH -N available in the landfill leachate with addition of economically viable waste resources like sewage sludge and Mg source as struvite is investigated. Read More

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Assessment of Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure in Men with Idiopathic Abnormal Semen Analysis: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study.

Int J Fertil Steril 2021 Jul 22;15(3):219-225. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, India.

Background: Because of the widespread use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agriculture, they are major environmental contaminants in developing countries. OP pesticides decrease sperm concentration and affect its quality, viability, and motility. studies have demonstrated the association between abnormal semen analysis and OP pesticides exposure among the high-risk population. Read More

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Ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rh1 prevent liver injury induced by acetaminophen in mice.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jun 21:e13816. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

College of Food science and Engineering, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

With the development of technology, drugs are being developed for different purposes. Thus, the rate of drug injury considerably increased worldwide. Liver is the largest detoxification organ in the human body, but it is also the organ most vulnerable to drug damage. Read More

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Treating two pandemics for the price of one: Chronic and infectious disease impacts of the built and natural environment.

Sustain Cities Soc 2021 Oct 12;73:103089. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Urban Design 4 Health, Inc., 24 Jackie Circle East, Rochester, NY, 14612, USA.

Compact walkable environments with greenspace support physical activity and reduce the risk for depression and several obesity-related chronic diseases, including diabetes and heart disease. Recent evidence confirms that these chronic diseases increase the severity of COVID-19 infection and mortality risk. Conversely, denser transit supportive environments may increase risk of exposure to COVID-19 suggesting the potential for contrasting chronic versus infectious disease impacts of community design. Read More

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October 2021

Methods to assess advanced glycation end-products.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, MEDyC Unit CNRS UMR n°7369, Faculty of Medicine University Hospital of Reims, Biochemistry Department, Reims, France.

Purpose Of The Review: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) resulting from protein glycoxidation constitute biomarkers of interest in different pathological situations. Several methods for quantifying AGEs in biological fluids or tissues have been developed without any real consensus on a gold standard method. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent publications in the field helping to decide if these markers could find their place as diagnostic tools in clinical practice. Read More

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The Physical Health of Caregivers of Children With Life-Limiting Conditions: A Systematic Review.

Pediatrics 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Louis Dundas Centre for Children's Palliative Care, University College London Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health

Context: Parental caregiving for a child with a life-limiting condition (LLC) is complex physical and mental work. The impact of this caregiving on parents' physical health is unknown.

Objectives: (1) To review existing evidence on the physical health of parents caring for a child with a LLC and (2) to determine how physical health of parents is measured. Read More

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Beyond question wording: How survey design and administration shape estimates of disability.

Disabil Health J 2021 May 15:101115. Epub 2021 May 15.

Social, Economic, And Housing Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau, 4600 Silver Hill Rd., Suitland, MD 20746, USA.

Background: Between 2008 and 2014, annual estimates of disability prevalence among U.S. adults varied somewhat across federal surveys that use a standardized measure of disability, but trends over-time were relatively stable and consistent. Read More

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Sero-molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in pigs and human contacts in Ghana.

One Health Outlook 2021 Jun 22;3(1):13. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Institute of Virology, Charite, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is among the leading causes of viral hepatitis in most developing countries. Zoonotic acquisition of HEV genotype 3 from swine has come into focus more recently. Available studies on HEV in Ghana and other countries in the region do not provide enough information towards understanding the epidemiology of HEV in human and animal populations. Read More

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Effectiveness of a psychological online training to promote physical activity among students: protocol of a randomized-controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Jun 21;22(1):409. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Engelbergerstr. 41, 79085, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Many students in Germany do not meet recommended amounts of physical activity. In order to promote physical activity in students, web-based interventions are increasingly implemented. Yet, data on effectiveness of web-based interventions in university students is low. Read More

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Hyperactivation of monocytes and macrophages in MCI patients contributes to the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

Immun Ageing 2021 Jun 21;18(1):29. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Research Center on Aging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, 3001, 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 5N4, Canada.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease ultimately manifesting as clinical dementia. Despite considerable effort and ample experimental data, the role of neuroinflammation related to systemic inflammation is still unsettled. While the implication of microglia is well recognized, the exact contribution of peripheral monocytes/macrophages is still largely unknown, especially concerning their role in the various stages of AD. Read More

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Effectiveness of comprehensive geriatric assessment intervention on quality of life, caregiver burden and length of hospital stay: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

BMC Geriatr 2021 Jun 21;21(1):377. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Research Office of Chronic Disease Management and Rehabilitation, Wuxi School of Medicine, Jiangnan University, No. 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) interventions can improve functional ability and reduce mortality in older adults, but the effectiveness of CGA intervention on the quality of life, caregiver burden, and length of hospital stay remains unclear. The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of CGA intervention on the quality of life, length of hospital stay, and caregiver burden in older adults by conducting meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs).

Methods: A literature search in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted for papers published before February 29, 2020, based on inclusion criteria. Read More

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Phase I study protocol: NKTR-255 as monotherapy or combined with daratumumab or rituximab in hematologic malignancies.

Future Oncol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

NKTR-255 is an investigational polyethylene glycol-modified recombinant human IL-15 (rhIL-15) receptor agonist, designed to improve the immunotherapeutic and anti-cancer benefit observed with rhIL-15 while circumventing the toxicities associated with this therapy. In preclinical studies, NKTR-255 has demonstrated enhanced proliferation and function of CD8 T cells and natural killer cells, as well as enhanced anti-tumor activity and survival both as monotherapy and in combination with monoclonal antibodies in multiple cancer models. Here, we describe the rationale and design of the first-in-human Phase I, dose-escalation and dose-expansion study of NKTR-255 alone and in combination with daratumumab or rituximab in adults with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that will determine the maximum tolerated dose and recommended Phase II dose for NKTR-255. Read More

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Phonon lasing with an atomic thin membrane resonator at room temperature.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(11):16241-16248

Graphene has been considered as one of the best materials to implement mechanical resonators due to their excellent properties such as low mass, high quality factors and tunable resonant frequencies. Here we report the observation of phonon lasing induced by the photonthermal pressure in a few-layer graphene resonator at room temperature, where the graphene resonator and the silicon substrate form an optical cavity. A marked threshold in the oscillation amplitude and a narrowing linewidth of the vibration mode are observed, which confirms a phonon lasing process in the graphene resonator. Read More

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Same goals, different challenges: a systematic review of perspectives of people with diabetes and healthcare professionals on Type 2 diabetes care.

Diabet Med 2021 Jun 21:e14625. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Centre for Health Services Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Aims: To identify the views of people with diabetes (PWD) and healthcare professionals (HCP) about Type 2 diabetes care.

Methods: A systematic review of qualitative studies reporting both groups' views using thematic synthesis frameworked by the eHealth Enhanced Chronic Care Model was conducted.

Results: We searched six electronic databases between 2010-2020, identified 6,999 studies and included 21. Read More

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Long-term care spending and hospital use among the older population in England.

J Health Econ 2021 Jun 4;78:102477. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute for Fiscal Studies, 7 Ridgmount Street, London WC1E 7AE, UK. Electronic address:

This paper examines the impact of changes in public long-term care spending on the use of public hospitals among the older population in England. Mean per-person long-term care spending fell by 31% between 2009/10 and 2017/18, but cuts varied considerably geographically. We instrument public long-term care spending with predicted spending based on historical national funding shares and national spending trends. Read More

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Long-term air pollution and other risk factors associated with COVID-19 at the census tract level in Colorado.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 14;287:117584. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, United States.

Previous nationwide studies have reported links between long-term concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and COVID-19 infection and mortality rates. In order to translate these results to the state level, we use Bayesian hierarchical models to explore potential links between long-term PM2. Read More

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PHYSICIANS' VIEWPOINTS ON FACULTY ANATOMISTS AND DISSECTION OF HUMAN BODIES IN THE UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDIES.

Ann Anat 2021 Jun 18:151786. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine and Nursing, The University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Leioa (Biscay), Spain.

Background: Studies abound regarding the views of faculty anatomists and medical students on the importance of anatomy and the dissection of human bodies, but very little is known about the views of practicing physicians.

Methods: A survey was distributed among physicians and surgeons practicing in Spain in order to find out their views on the practice and consequences of human dissection by undergraduate students of medicine. The most relevant definition to qualify faculty anatomists of medical schools was also requested. Read More

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Food Insecurity and Cardiometabolic Conditions: a Review of Recent Research.

Curr Nutr Rep 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To understand recent literature that examines associations between food insecurity and cardiometabolic conditions and risk factors. We included original research, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the topic of food insecurity and cardiometabolic risk published from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2020. Editorials, perspectives, and case reports were excluded. Read More

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Visual detection thresholds in the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

IISER TVM Centre for Research and Education in Ecology and Evolution (ICREEE), School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695551, India.

To understand how insect pollinators find flowers against complex backgrounds in diverse natural habitats, it is required to accurately estimate the thresholds for target detection. Detection thresholds for single targets vary between bee species and have been estimated in the Western honeybee, a species of bumblebee and in a stingless bee species. We estimated the angular range of detection for coloured targets in the Asian honeybee Apis cerana. Read More

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Multistep Dissociation of Fluorine Molecules under Extreme Compression.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jun;126(22):225704

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, Northridge, California 91220, USA.

All elements that form diatomic molecules, such as H_{2}, N_{2}, O_{2}, Cl_{2}, Br_{2}, and I_{2}, are destined to become atomic solids under sufficiently high pressure. However, as revealed by many experimental and theoretical studies, these elements show very different propensity and transition paths due to the balance of reduced volume, lone pair electrons, and interatomic bonds. The study of F under pressure can illuminate this intricate behavior since F, owing to its unique position on the periodic table, can be compared with H, with N and O, and also with other halogens. Read More

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Sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children with dual positivity of serum anti-EBV IgM and anti-CMV IgM antibodies: a preliminary study.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Audiology Unit, Department of Specialist Surgical Sciences, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Background: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is rare in children, and its etiology remains largely unknown, although viral infections seem to play an important role. The aim of this study is to report 5 children who experienced permanent SSNHL and had dual positivity of serum anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgM and anti-Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM antibodies.

Methods: The study was conducted in a third-level referral audiological center. Read More

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Expansion and Accelerated Evolution of 9-Exon Odorant Receptors in Polistes Paper Wasps.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Laboratory for Animal Social Evolution and Recognition, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Independent origins of sociality in bees and ants are associated with independent expansions of particular odorant receptor (OR) gene subfamilies. In ants, one clade within the OR gene family, the 9-exon subfamily, has dramatically expanded. These receptors detect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), key social signaling molecules in insects. Read More

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February 2021

O-GlcNAcylation in early stages of chronic lymphocytic leukemia; protocol development for flow cytometry.

Cancer Biomark 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Background: Recent studies proved that metabolic changes in malignant disorders have an impact on protein glycosylation, however, only a few attempts have been made so far to use O-GlcNAc analysis as a prognostic tool. Glucose metabolism is reported to be altered in hematological malignancies thus, we hypothesized that monitoring intracellular O-GlcNAc levels in Rai stage 0-I (Binet A) CLL patients could give deeper insights regarding subtle metabolic changes of progression which are not completely detected by the routine follow-up procedures.

Objective: In this proof of concept study we established a flow cytometric detection method for the assessment of O-GlcNAcylation as a possible prognostic marker in CLL malignancy which was supported by fluorescence microscopy. Read More

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L a potential source of traditional medicine: chemometric analysis, and study.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Jun 21:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Postgraduate Department of Zoology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India.

'Mayurbhanj is the ethnic dominant tribal population district in Odisha, India. The triabl's of Mayurbhanj depends on traditional medicines since time immemorial for health-related issues. Due to the imperative ethnic claim of traditional healers, the financial stringency of the patient community and the necessity to produce a better therapeutic effect has led to investigate ethno zoological sources and to find out the biochemical moiety responsible for the healing process. Read More

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