591,793 results match your criteria studies differences


No association of cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms with cortisol concentration in adolescents. Results from a population-based Swedish cohort.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 26;301:113968. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm Region, Stockholm, Sweden.

Several studies have shown that smoking increases the risk of depressive symptoms, and suggested a possible role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the smoking-depression pathway. This study aimed to assess if smokers have higher cortisol levels than non-smokers, and if higher cortisol levels are associated with depressive symptoms. Saliva samples were collected from a subgroup of 409 participants at enrolment (13-14 years old) and two years later (15-16 years old). Read More

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French handlers' perspectives on Animal-Assisted Interventions.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2021 Mar 27;44:101356. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Laboratoire D'Anthropologie Sociale et Culturelle, Université de Liège, France.

Background: Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAI) are well implemented in human healthcare, in France as elsewhere; yet there are still difficulties in characterizing these practices and misconceptions about their mechanisms - little is known about the French practice of AAI and about the human-animal team.

Objectives: This study aims to characterize AAI by exploring their specificities through French handlers' perspectives.

Material And Method: An online survey addressed to French handlers working in AAI with mainly one dog was carried out. Read More

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Trainee performed total knee arthroplasty is safe and effective: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing outcomes between trainees and consultants.

Knee 2021 May 10;30:291-304. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, United Kingdom.

Background: There are concerns that trainee performed knee arthroplasty (KA) may adversely affect patient outcomes. Demand for KA is projected to increase, and trainees must therefore be competent to perform it.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed identifying articles comparing outcomes following trainee versus consultant surgeon performed primary KA. Read More

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Interactions of core cross-linked poly(2-oxazoline) and poly(2-oxazine) micelles with immune cells in human blood.

Biomaterials 2021 May 4;274:120843. Epub 2021 May 4.

ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science & Technology, and Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia; Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Water-soluble poly(cyclic imino ether)s (PCIEs) have emerged as promising biocompatible polymers for nanomedicine applications in recent years. Despite their generally accepted stealth properties, there has been no comprehensive evaluation of their interactions with primary immune cells in human blood. Here we present a library of core cross-linked micelles (CCMs) containing various PCIE shells. Read More

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Global prevalence of chlamydial infections in birds: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Prev Vet Med 2021 May 5;192:105370. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

Chamydia species are bacterial pathogens that can infect a wide range of animal hosts including humans. In birds, Chlamydia psittaci is a leading cause of chlamydial infections (avian chlamydiosis) and is a zoonotic pathogen causing human psittacosis. The objectives of this study were to estimate the global prevalence of chlamydial infections in birds, to assess heterogeneity of the prevalence for some particular characteristics (continents, bird orders, specimen types, and diagnostic techniques), and to determine the trend of the prevalence over time. Read More

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A six-factor structure of individual variation in the tendencies to become sleepy and to sleep at different times of the day.

Acta Psychol (Amst) 2021 May 10;217:103327. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology and Biophysics of the North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russia.

A multidimensional approach has been previously applied for modeling and assessment of individual differences in the ability to sleep or to stay awake at certain clock hours. More recently the 19 time-point Visuo-verbal Judgment Task (VJT) has been proposed to predict changes in sleepiness level from the morning hours to the next day afternoon. The dimensionality of the VJT has not been explored so far. Read More

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Variations in phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of navel orange at different growth stages.

Food Chem 2021 May 6;360:129980. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Ripe navel orange has abundant amounts of phenolic compounds. Few studies monitored changes in these compounds during ripening. In this study, the effects of navel orange maturation on dynamic changes in antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and phenolic acids were investigated. Read More

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Sentinel lymph node sampling as an alternative to lymphadenectomy in patients with endometrial cancer and obesity.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, affiliated with the Hebrew.

Objective: Although its use in endometrial cancer staging is relatively new, sentinel lymph node (SLN) sampling has been shown to be highly accurate and is associated with few complications. However, some studies report lower rates of detection with SLN sampling among patients with obesity. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the feasibility of SLN sampling in endometrial cancer for patients with obesity, and to determine whether omitting lymph node dissection (LND) in surgical staging using SLN sampling impacts oncologic outcomes. Read More

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Cardiovascular responses to putative chemoreceptor stimulation of embryonic common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) chronically incubated in hypoxia (10% O).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 May 10:110977. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #310559, Denton, TX 76203, United States of America. Electronic address:

Developmental hypoxia has been shown to result in significant changes in cardiovascular development of American alligators and common snapping turtles. These include similar effects on cardiac mass and aspects of cardiovascular function. However, given the distant phylogenetic relationship between crocodilians and chelonians, we hypothesized that snapping turtles would also exhibit differences in the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular regulation. Read More

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Differences between the child and adult brain in the local functional structure of the cerebral cortex.

Neuroimage 2021 May 10:118150. Epub 2021 May 10.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Ciber on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Imaging studies on neuronal network formation provide relevant information as to how the brain matures during adolescence. We used a novel imaging approach combining well-established MRI measures of local functional connectivity that jointly provide qualitatively different information relating to the functional structure of the cerebral cortex. To investigate the adolescent transition into adulthood, we comparatively assessed 169 preadolescents aged 8-12 years and 121 healthy adults. Read More

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Does vitamin C supplementation exert profitable effects on serum lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes? A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 10:105665. Epub 2021 May 10.

Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Previous studies have reported that vitamin C supplementation may decrease lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the influence of vitamin C supplementation on lipid profile in patients with T2DM. Studies examining the effects of vitamin C supplementation on lipid profile in patients with T2DM, published up to November 2020, were identified through PubMed, SCOPUS, and Embase databases. Read More

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Degradation of p53 by HPV16-E6 variants isolated from cervical cancer specimens of Moroccan women.

Gene 2021 May 10:145709. Epub 2021 May 10.

Biology and Medical Research Unit, National Centre for Energy, Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (CNESTEN), Rabat, Morocco. Electronic address:

Cervical cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in Moroccan women. The main etiological factor for developing cervical cancer is the persistent infection with HPV16. Genetic studies have reported the occurrence of amino acid variations within the E6 oncoprotein that promotes host cell transformation by targeting p53 for degradation. Read More

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Evaluation and comparison of in vitro intrinsic clearance rates measured using cryopreserved hepatocytes from humans, rats, and rainbow trout.

Toxicology 2021 May 10:152819. Epub 2021 May 10.

US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Science Coordination and Policy (OSCP), William Jefferson Clinton Building, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20460 USA. Electronic address:

In vitro and in silico methods that can reduce the need for animal testing are being used with increasing frequency to assess chemical risks to human health and the environment. The rate of hepatic biotransformation is an important species-specific parameter for determining bioaccumulation potential and extrapolating in vitro bioactivity to in vivo effects. One approach to estimating hepatic biotransformation is to employ in vitro systems derived from liver tissue to measure chemical (substrate) depletion over time which can then be translated to a rate of intrinsic clearance (CL). Read More

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Prolonged release and shelf-life of anticoagulant sulfated polysaccharides encapsulated with ZIF-8.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180, USA.

Natural active polysaccharides are attracting increased attention from pharmaceutical industries for their valuable biological activities. However, the application of polysaccharides has been restricted due to their relatively large molecular weight, complex structure, and instability. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged to help deliver cargo to specific locations, achieving the objectives of eliminating the potential damage to the body, protecting the drugs, and improving therapeutic effectiveness. Read More

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Effects of intermittent fasting combined with resistance training on body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Physiol Behav 2021 May 10:113453. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, via Marzolo 3, 35131, Padova, Italy.

This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the influence of intermittent fasting (IF) in combination with resistance training (RT) on body composition outcomes. Studies examining IF vs. non-IF diets in individuals performing RT, published up to February 2021, were identified through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, and SCOPUS databases. Read More

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Racial and Ethnic Differences in Reconstructive Surgery for Apical Vaginal Prolapse.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Science, University of California San.

Background: There is limited literature identifying racial and ethnic health disparities among surgical modalities and outcomes in the field of urogynecology and specifically pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

Objective: To evaluate differences in surgical approach for apical vaginal prolapse and postoperative complications by race and ethnicity STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing surgical repair for apical vaginal prolapse between 2014 and 2017 using data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they underwent either a vaginal colpopexy or abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). Read More

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Post-acute effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals not requiring hospital admission: a Danish population-based cohort study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Clinical Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Individuals admitted to hospital for COVID-19 might have persisting symptoms (so-called long COVID) and delayed complications after discharge. However, little is known regarding the risk for those not admitted to hospital. We therefore examined prescription drug and health-care use after SARS-CoV-2 infection not requiring hospital admission. Read More

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Does atorvastatin therapy change the anti-Xa activity in xabans-treated patients with atrial fibrillation?

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 May;9(3):e00730

Department of Internal Medicine I, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, Martin, Slovak Republic.

Atorvastatin and direct oral factor Xa inhibitors (xabans) are frequently co-administrated in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, no studies investigating the possibility of the pharmacologic interaction between these agents have been conducted. The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine the impact of atorvastatin therapy on anti-Xa activity in xabans-treated patients with AF. Read More

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Prevalence, incidence and mortality of delirium in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Age Ageing 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: Attention should be paid to delirium in COVID-19 patients, especially older people, since advanced age poses increased risk of both delirium and COVID-19-related death.

Objective: This study aims to summarize the evidence on prevalence, incidence and mortality of delirium in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search on Pubmed and Embase from inception to December 1, 2020. Read More

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Antiviral kinetics of tenofovir alafenamide and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate over 24 weeks in women of childbearing potential with chronic HBV.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251552. Epub 2021 May 13.

New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit, Auckland Clinical Studies, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background/purpose: Use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) improves patient outcomes in preventing mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in mothers with chronic HBV and high viral loads. Given the lack of data for tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in pMTCT, rates of early viral suppression with TAF and TDF were evaluated in women of childbearing potential (WOCBP) participating in 2 randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 studies in chronic HBV.

Methods: In a patient subset meeting WOCBP criteria and with baseline HBV DNA >200,000 IU/mL, rates of viral suppression with TAF or TDF in achieving the target of HBV DNA <200,000 IU/mL at weeks 12 and 24 were assessed. Read More

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Applying time series analyses on continuous accelerometry data-A clinical example in older adults with and without cognitive impairment.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251544. Epub 2021 May 13.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Many clinical studies reporting accelerometry data use sum score measures such as percentage of time spent in moderate to vigorous activity which do not provide insight into differences in activity patterns over 24 hours, and thus do not adequately depict circadian activity patterns. Here, we present an improved functional data analysis approach to model activity patterns and circadian rhythms from accelerometer data. As a use case, we demonstrated its application in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and age-matched healthy older volunteers (HOV). Read More

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Gut microbiome differences among Mexican Americans with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251245. Epub 2021 May 13.

College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.

Purpose: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an urgent public health problem and disproportionately affects Mexican Americans. The gut microbiome contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes; however, no studies have examined this association in Mexican-Americans. The objective of this study was to compare gut microbiome composition between Mexican-Americans with and without T2DM. Read More

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Outcomes and costs of publicly funded patient navigation interventions to enhance HIV care continuum outcomes in the United States: A before-and-after study.

PLoS Med 2021 May 13;18(5):e1003418. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Background: In the United States, patients with HIV face significant barriers to linkage to and retention in care which impede the necessary steps toward achieving the desired clinical outcome of viral suppression. Individual-level interventions, such as patient navigation, are evidence based, effective strategies for improving care engagement. In addition, use of surveillance and clinical data to identify patients who are not fully engaged in care may improve the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these programs. Read More

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Assessment of the causal relevance of ECG parameters for risk of atrial fibrillation: A mendelian randomisation study.

PLoS Med 2021 May 13;18(5):e1003572. Epub 2021 May 13.

CTSU, Nuffield Department of Population Health, BHF Centre of Research Excellence, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Atrial electrical and structural remodelling in older individuals with cardiovascular risk factors has been associated with changes in surface electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters (e.g., prolongation of the PR interval) and higher risks of atrial fibrillation (AF). Read More

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Rapid Emergence and Epidemiologic Characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.526 Variant - New York City, New York, January 1-April 5, 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 14;70(19):712-716. Epub 2021 May 14.

Recent studies have documented the emergence and rapid growth of B.1.526, a novel variant of interest (VOI) of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in the New York City (NYC) area after its identification in NYC in November 2020 (1-3). Read More

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Exploring The Psychometric Properties of a Self-Efficacy Scale For High School Students.

J Appl Meas 2020 ;21(3):313-328

Yuan Ge, College of Education, Box 870231, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA,

In previous studies, researchers have focused on the development and interpretation of measurement tools related to self-efficacy. However, researchers have seldom investigated whether these instruments demonstrate acceptable psychometric properties, including similar item interpretations between subgroups of respondents. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which a self-efficacy measure has a consistent interpretation for two self-reported gender subgroups. Read More

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January 2020

How Well Do Simulation Studies Inform Decisions About Multistage Testing?

J Appl Meas 2020 ;21(3):271-281

Wenhao Wang, Center for Accessible Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Systems, University of Kansas, 1122 West Campus Road, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA,

Most research on multistage testing (MST) uses simulated data. This study adds to the literature by using both operational test data and simulated data to compare two different MST designs with regard to proficiency estimation accuracy and module exposure rates and by investigating whether simulation studies and operational test studies yield similar results. Two MST designs (1-2 and 1-3-4 designs) from one state's sixth-grade summative mathematics assessment across two years were compared in this study. Read More

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January 2020

Evaluating the Impact of Summer Drought on Vegetation Growth Using Space-Based Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Across Extensive Spatial Measures.

Big Data 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Process Control for Light Industry, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Drought is the primary and dominant natural cause of stress on vegetation, and thus, it needs our full attention. Current understanding of drought across extensive spatial measures, around the world, is considerably limited. As case studies to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing space-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) across extensive spatial measures, here, we have used data from 2007 to 2017 in Heilongjiang and Jiangsu provinces of China. Read More

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Distal and proximal family contextual effects on adolescents' interparental conflict appraisals: A daily diary study.

J Fam Psychol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University.

Adolescent appraisals of interparental conflict (IPC)-perceiving IPC as threatening to their well-being or that of the family, and self-blaming attributions-are well-established processes through which IPC confers risk for developmental disruptions and psychopathology. Recent work documents intraindividual change in IPC and appraisals that occur on a daily timescale. However, considerably less is known about how the broader family context may temper appraisals of IPC. Read More

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Maternal stress programs a demasculinization of glutamatergic transmission in stress-related brain regions of aged rats.

Geroscience 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, University of Lille, CNRS, UMR 8576, UGSF, F-59000, Lille, France.

Brain aging may be programmed by early-life stress. Aging affects males and females differently, but how perinatal stress (PRS) affects brain aging between sexes is unknown. We showed behavioral and neurobiological sex differences in non-stressed control rats that were strongly reduced or inverted in PRS rats. Read More

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