151,810 results match your criteria studied vitro

Study on structural characterization, physicochemical properties and digestive properties of euryale ferox resistant starch.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 22;359:129924. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

At present, the raw materials for industrialized RS3 products are relatively simple and its purity is low. In addition, the correlation between structure and digestion characteristics of RS3 are rarely studied. In this study, euryale ferox, a kind of annual aquatic herb crop with high content of starch was used as a raw material to prepare RS3 by different methods, including autoclaving, enzymolysis-autoclaving and dual enzymolysis, respectively. Read More

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Degradable magnesium implants inhibit gallbladder cancer.

Acta Biomater 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China; Suzhou Origin Medical Technology Co. Ltd., Suzhou, Jiangsu 215513, China. Electronic address:

Gallbladder cancer can be difficult to detect in its early stages and is prone to metastasize, causing bile duct obstruction, which is usually treated by stent implantation in clinic. However, the commonly used biliary stents are non-degradable, which not only prone to secondary blockage, but also need to be removed by secondary surgery. Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) is expected to one of the promising candidates for degradable biliary stents due to its excellent physicochemical property and biocompatibility. Read More

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Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG defense against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection through modulation of M1 macrophage polarization.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 5:104939. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin Agricultural University, Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Key Laboratory of Animal Production and Product Quality Safety of Ministry of Education, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a model probiotic strain, plays an important role in immune regulatory activity to prevent and treat intestinal inflammation or diarrhea. However, the effect of the immune modulation of LGG on macrophages to prevent Salmonella infection has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were pre-administered LGG for 7 days continuously, and then infected with Salmonella entericasubsp. Read More

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Prostate Cancer Targeted X-ray Fluorescence Imaging via Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA).

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Miller school of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Purpose: Gold nanoparticle (GNP) as a promising theranostic probe has been increasingly studied. The tumor-targeting efficiency of GNPs is crucial to increase the therapeutic ratio. In this study, we developed PSMA-targeted GNPs to enhance GNP uptake in prostate cancer and developed an x-ray fluorescence imaging system to noninvasively monitor and assess GNP delivery. Read More

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p-Coumaric acid loaded into liquid crystalline systems as a novel strategy to the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 5:120658. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an extremely common type of vaginal infection, which is mainly caused by Candida albicans. However, non-albicans Candida species are frequently more resistant to conventional antifungal agents and can represent up to 30% of cases. Due to side effects and increasing antifungal resistance presented by standard therapies, phenolic compounds, such as p-coumaric acid (p-CA), have been studied as molecules from natural sources with potential antifungal activity. Read More

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Substrate-driven differences in tryptophan catabolism by gut microbiota and Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor activation.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 May 8:e2100092. Epub 2021 May 8.

Food Quality and Design Group, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, Wageningen, 6700 AA, the Netherlands.

Scope: This study aims to investigate the effect of tryptophan sources on tryptophan catabolism by gut microbiota and the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activation.

Methods And Results: Four substrates (free tryptophan, soybean protein, single and clustered soybean cells) containing an equimolar amount of tryptophan, but with a different bioaccessibility were studied using in vitro batch fermentation. Tryptophan catabolites were identified by LC-MS/MS. Read More

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Formulation of Pickering emulsions for the development of surfactant-free sunscreen creams.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, University of Lyon, CNRS, LAGEPP UMR 5007, 43 Bd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622, Villeurbanne, France.

Objective: Pickering emulsions are increasingly used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, especially for topical applications, since these systems require solid particles as emulsifiers instead of surfactants which are known to cause skin irritation. The solid inorganic nanoparticles (TiO and ZnO) used as UV filters in sunscreen formulations may also stabilize emulsion droplets, so that the utility of surfactants may be questioned. Surfactant-free sunscreen emulsions solely stabilized by such nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied. Read More

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Myomixer is expressed during embryonic and post-larval hyperplasia, muscle regeneration and differentiation of myoblats in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Gene 2021 May 4:145688. Epub 2021 May 4.

INRAE, UR1037 Laboratory of Fish Physiology and Genomics, 35000 Rennes, France. Electronic address:

In contrast to mice or zebrafish, trout exhibits post-larval muscle growth through hypertrophy and formation of new myofibers (hyperplasia). The muscle fibers are formed by the fusion of mononucleated cells (myoblasts) regulated by several muscle-specific proteins such as Myomaker or Myomixer. In this work, we identified a unique gene encoding a Myomixer protein of 77 amino acids (aa) in the trout genome. Read More

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ADORA1 promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell progression through regulation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling.

Life Sci 2021 May 4;278:119581. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Yue Bei People's Hospital, Shaoguan, Guangdong, China.

Aims: For most human cancers, the expression pattern and biological function of ADORA1 (Adenosine A1 Receptor) are largely unknown. This study has been designed to explore the clinical significance and the mechanism of ADORA1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells.

Materials And Methods: The level of ADORA1 in NPC and its adjacent tissues was analyzed by IHC, real-time PCR and western blotting. Read More

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Human-monkey chimeras: Monkey see, monkey do.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 May;28(5):787-789

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA.

Recently in Cell, Tan et al. (2021) report the successful generation of human-monkey chimeras in vitro, providing an opportunity for new insights into the biology of human stem cells and early human development in an embryonic environment that is evolutionary closer to human than previously studied rodent and domestic species. Read More

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In vitro studies of Annona muricata L. extract-loaded electrospun scaffolds for localized treatment of breast cancer.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

This paper presents in vitro studies of the sustained release of Annona muricata leaf extracts (AME) from hybrid electrospun fibers for breast cancer treatment. Electrospun hybrid scaffolds were fabricated from crude AME extracts, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/gelatin (PLGA/Ge) and pluronic F127. The physicochemical properties of the AME extract and scaffolds were studied. Read More

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In-vitro effect of pine bark extract on melanin synthesis, tyrosinase activity, production of endothelin-1 and PPAR in cultured melanocytes exposed to Ultraviolet, Infrared, and Visible light radiation.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Instituto de Assistência Médica ao Servidor Público Estadual, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster) extract (PBE), the registered trade name of which is Pycnogenol , has been studied for its depigmenting action due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-melanogenic activity. However, the mechanisms through which PBE are still not fully clear.

Objective: Evaluate the impact of PBE on four in-vitro parameters closely associated with cutaneous pigmentation, including melanin synthesis, tyrosinase activity, endothelin-1 (ED1) and production of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, δ, and γ (PPAR α, δ, and γ), by studying the modulation of action of ultraviolet radiation A (UVA)/ultraviolet radiation B (UVB), infrared-A (IR-A), visible light (VL), and association of UVA/UVB, IR-A, and VL (ASS). Read More

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Apigenin Inhibits the Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Affecting the Expression of microRNA Transcriptome.

Front Oncol 2021 6;11:657665. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pathology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Apigenin, as a natural flavonoid, has low intrinsic toxicity and has potential pharmacological effects against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms involving microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes regulated by apigenin in the treatment of HCC have not been addressed.

Objective: In this study, the molecular mechanisms of apigenin involved in the prevention and treatment of HCC were explored and using miRNA transcriptomic sequencing to determine the basis for the clinical applications of apigenin in the treatment of HCC. Read More

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Development of paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite core-shell nanoparticles as a stimuli-responsive drug delivery system.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 24;8(3):202030. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560, Japan.

Biodegradable nanoparticles have been well studied as biocompatible delivery systems. Nanoparticles of less than 200 nm in size can facilitate the passive targeting of drugs to tumour tissues and their accumulation therein via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Recent studies have focused on stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems (DDS) for improving the effectiveness of chemotherapy; for example, pH-sensitive DDS depend on the weakly acidic and neutral extracellular pH of tumour and normal tissues, respectively. Read More

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Angiogenic property of silk fibroin scaffolds with adipose-derived stem cells on chick chorioallantoic membrane.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 24;8(3):201618. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Biomedical Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Angiogenesis is a crucial step in tissue regeneration and repair. Biomaterials that allow or promote angiogenesis are thus beneficial. In this study, angiogenic properties of salt-leached silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds seeded with human adipose stem cells (hADSCs) were studied using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as a model. Read More

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Curcumin improves adipocytes browning and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 cells and obese rodent model.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 17;8(3):200974. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Traditional Chinese Medicine School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China.

Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and adipocyte differentiation promote lipid accumulation in the development of obesity and diabetes. Curcumin is an active ingredient extracted from that has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency in metabolic disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms of curcumin in adipocytes remain largely unexplored. Read More

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A Combination of Atorvastatin and Aspirin Enhances the Pro-Regenerative Interactions of Marrow Stromal Cells and Stroke-Derived Monocytes .

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:589418. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, Institute for Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX, United States.

Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are being tested in clinical trials for stroke patients. MSCs appear to promote recovery through secretomes that promote modulation of immune cells, including myeloid phagocytes. Many stroke patients have comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes for which they are prescribed medications that might affect the function of MSCs and monocytes (Mo) when they are administered in stroke patients. Read More

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OSU-03012 Disrupts Akt Signaling and Prevents Endometrial Carcinoma Progression in vitro and in vivo.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 30;15:1797-1810. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: OSU-03012 is a celecoxib derivative lacking cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity and a potent PDK1 inhibitor which has been shown to inhibit tumor growth in various ways. However, the role of OSU-03012 in endometrial carcinoma (EC) in which the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway highly activated has not been studied. Here, we determined the potency of OSU-03012 in suppressing EC progression in vitro and in vivo, and studied the underlined mechanisms. Read More

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Lycium barbarum mitigates radiation injury via regulation of the immune function, gut microbiota, and related metabolites.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 3;139:111654. Epub 2021 May 3.

Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China; Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Previous studies have suggested that Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum) has a radioprotective function, although more in-depth investigation is still required. We investigated the radioprotective efficacy of extract of the fruits of L. Read More

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Preparation and in-vitro evaluation of mesoporous biogenic silica nanoparticles obtained from rice and wheat husk as a biocompatible carrier for anti-cancer drug delivery.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 May 3:105866. Epub 2021 May 3.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

In this study, mesoporous silica nanocarriers were synthesized from natural sources such as rice and wheat husk for drug delivery application. First, the biogenic silica in cereals husk was extracted by acid leaching and then converted to sodium silicate as a silica precursor. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles were then synthesized by adding sodium silicate to the template mixture by continuous and discrete modes during the sol-gel process. Read More

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Structure and Mechanics of Dynein Motors.

Annu Rev Biophys 2021 May;50:549-574

Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

Dyneins make up a family of AAA+ motors that move toward the minus end of microtubules. Cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for transporting intracellular cargos in interphase cells and mediating spindle assembly and chromosome positioning during cell division. Other dynein isoforms transport cargos in cilia and power ciliary beating. Read More

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The Serpin-like Loop Insertion of Ovalbumin Increases the Stability and Decreases the OVA 323-339 Epitope Processing Efficiency.

Biochemistry 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, United States.

Chicken ovalbumin (cOVA) has been studied for decades primarily due to the robust genetic and molecular resources that are available for experimental investigations. cOVA is a member of the serpin superfamily of proteins that function as protease inhibitors, although cOVA does not exhibit this activity. As a serpin, cOVA possesses a protease-sensitive reactive center loop that lies adjacent to the OVA 323-339 CD4+ T-cell epitope. Read More

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Specialized nutrition improves muscle function and physical activity without affecting chemotherapy efficacy in C26 tumour-bearing mice.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory of Translational Oncology, Division of Imaging and Cancer, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Skeletal muscle wasting and fatigue are commonly observed in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and associated with reduced treatment outcome and quality of life. Nutritional support may mitigate these side effects, but potential interference with chemotherapy efficacy could be of concern. Here, we investigated the effects of an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), leucine-enriched, high-protein (100% whey), additional vitamin D, and prebiotic fibres 'specific nutritional composition' (SNC) and chemotherapy on state-of-the-art tumour organoids and muscle cells and studied muscle function, physical activity, systemic inflammation, and chemotherapy efficacy in a mouse model of aggressive colorectal cancer (CRC). Read More

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In-vitro performance of a single-chambered total artificial heart in a Fontan circulation.

J Artif Organs 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Cardiovascular Engineering, Institute of Applied Medical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 20, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

An in-vitro study was conducted to investigate the general feasibility of using only one pumping chamber of the SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) as a replacement of the single ventricle palliated by Fontan circulation. A mock circulation loop was used to mimic a Fontan circulation. The combination of both ventricle sizes (50 and 70 cc) and driver (Freedom Driver and Companion C2 Driver) was investigated. Read More

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GSK-3β S9A overexpression leads murine hippocampal neural precursors to acquire an astroglial phenotype in vivo.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Molecular Neuropathology, Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa", CBMSO, CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.

The addition of new neurons to the existing hippocampal circuitry persists in the adult dentate gyrus (DG). During this process, named adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN), adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPs) give rise to newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). The acquisition of a neuronal lineage by AHPs is tightly regulated by numerous signaling molecules and transcription factors. Read More

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4-hydroxy-2-nonenal antimicrobial toxicity is neutralized by an intracellular pathogen.

Elife 2021 May 6;10. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, United States.

Pathogens encounter numerous antimicrobial responses during infection, including the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. ROS-mediated oxidation of host membrane poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) generates the toxic alpha-beta carbonyl 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). Though studied extensively in the context of sterile inflammation, research into 4-HNE's role during infection remains limited. Read More

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Functional Interactions of Ribosomal Intersubunit Bridges in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Genetics 2019 Dec;213(4):1329-1339

Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, 51010 Estonia.

Ribosomes of Archaea and Eukarya share higher homology with each other than with bacterial ribosomes. For example, there is a set of 35 r-proteins that are specific only for archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomes. Three of these proteins-eL19, eL24, and eL41-participate in interactions between ribosomal subunits. Read More

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December 2019

Functional Interactions of Ribosomal Intersubunit Bridges in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Genetics 2019 Dec;213(4):1329-1339

Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, 51010 Estonia.

Ribosomes of Archaea and Eukarya share higher homology with each other than with bacterial ribosomes. For example, there is a set of 35 r-proteins that are specific only for archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomes. Three of these proteins-eL19, eL24, and eL41-participate in interactions between ribosomal subunits. Read More

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December 2019

Biodegradable zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine) microgel for sustained delivery of antibodies with extended stability and preserved function.

Soft Matter 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Many recent innovative treatments are based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other protein therapies. Nevertheless, sustained subcutaneous, oral or pulmonary delivery of such therapeutics is limited by the poor stability, short half-life, and non-specific interactions between the antibody (Ab) and delivery vehicle. Protein stabilizers (osmolytes) such as carboxybetaine can prevent non-specific interactions within proteins. Read More

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Total flavonoids of Ameliorated Bile Acid Metabolism Dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 12;2021:6675567. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Faculty of Chinese Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macao, China.

is one of the common traditional Chinese medicines used to treat diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Flavones are a class of active components that have been reported to exert various activities. Read More

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