483 results match your criteria structures rarity


The origins, relationships, evolution and conservation of the weirdest marine bivalves: The watering pot shells. A review.

Adv Mar Biol 2021 21;88:137-220. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Animal Biology, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. Electronic address:

The fossil record shows that the two clavagelloid or watering pot families evolved at different times, the Clavagellidae first in the late Mesozoic (100-66mya), the Penicillidae later in the Cenozoic (33-23mya)-the former originally with, thus, a near-global Tethyan distribution, the latter restricted to the Indo-West Pacific. Representatives of the two clavagelloid families, moreover, have wholly different adventitious tube/crypt structures and, thus, methods of formation suggesting that evolutionary experiments have been undertaken to achieve such radical architectural novelties. This has resulted in one of the most surprising examples of convergent evolution in the Bivalvia. Read More

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Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor (IMT) of the Trachea Excised by Transtracheal Surgery: Case Report.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 May 19:1455613211014076. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, 12847Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Japan.

This report describes an extremely rare case of a primary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the trachea. The patient underwent surgical resection by a transtracheal approach and reconstruction with esophageal tracheoplasty. This case report highlights the rarity of such tumors and a minimally invasive and safe surgical technique for tumors around the central neck structures. Read More

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Giant hemorrhagic trochanteric bursitis mimicking a high-grade soft tissue sarcoma: report of two cases.

Acta Biomed 2021 04 30;92(S1):e2021043. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Rizzoli-Sicilia Department, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli.

Background: The giant haemorrhagic bursitis of the hip joint is a rare clinical condition that requires evidence-based guidelines for adequate diagnosis and management. Usually, this pathology requires conservative treatment; however, when abnormal size or clinical symptoms of compression of the surrounding noble structures are reported, an accurate differential diagnosis is required, in order to exclude other malignant conditions that can be included into differential diagnosis, and a surgical approach should be considered. The purpose of this work is to provide an appropriate description of the diagnostic and therapeutic path, providing an accurate analysis of the possible differential diagnoses. Read More

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Case Report: Multiple Cavernous Pericardial Lymphangioma (Pericardial Lymphangiomatosis) in a Captive Peregrine Falcon ().

Front Vet Sci 2021 14;8:662157. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Instituto de Ganadería de Montaña (CSIC-ULE), Universidad de León, León, Spain.

A 12-year-old female peregrine falcon () from a private raptor breeding facility that presented a good body condition, died suddenly without showing previous symptoms. At necropsy, in the coelomic cavity, multiple cystic structures demarcated by a thin transparent wall and filled with a serous content were observed. They were firmly adhered to the cranial part of the epicardium and adjacent tissues and occupied the entire thoracic area of the coelomic cavity. Read More

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Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumour of Infancy: Clinical Courses and Therapeutic Options-A Review of Three Cases.

J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2021 Jun 2;20(2):219-226. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Plastic Operations, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, School of Medicine of the University of Göttingen, Bremen, Germany.

Background: Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare benign neoplasm. MNTI appears most often during the first year of life, arises predominantly in the maxilla and tends to recur. We discuss possible therapeutic options given in the literature and within our experience in three cases. Read More

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Pattern of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Mixed Epithelial and Stromal Tumor of the Kidney: A Review of Five Cases.

Cells 2021 Apr 16;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Korea.

Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney (MESTK), a benign rare tumor with malignant transformation potential, is thought to be derived from fetal or immature cells originating from the mesonephric and Müllerian ducts. However, due to its rarity, little is known about the anti-tumor immune responses in MESTK. Herein, we present five cases of MESTK and evaluate the population of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) using a freshly obtained MESTK sample. Read More

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Mechanisms of human drug-induced anaphylaxis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Apr;147(4):1133-1142

Department "Auto-immunité et Hypersensibilités," DMU BioGeM, APHP, Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France; "Inflammation, Microbiome and Immunosurveillance" INSERM UMR 996, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris-Saclay, Châtenay-Malabry, France. Electronic address:

Drug-induced anaphylaxis is a hyperacute reaction affecting multiple organs that can be of fatal consequence. Its incidence is increasing, consistent with a global increased sensitization to various allergens and drugs in the population. Few risk factors and mechanisms have been identified from human studies due to the rarity of anaphylactic events and their unpredictability. Read More

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Outcomes and Patterns of Care in Adult Skull Base Chondrosarcoma Patients in the United States.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 27;150:71-83. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Chondrosarcomas of the skull base are rare intracranial tumors of chondroid origin. The rarity of these lesions has made it difficult to form a consensus on optimal treatment regimens. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and survival outcomes in patients with chondrosarcoma of the skull base. Read More

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Laparoscopic Left Hepatectomy with Middle Hepatic Vein Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Mar 1;22:e928801. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Surgery, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan.

BACKGROUND Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is one of the most important diseases that causes pre-hepatic portal hypertension, and EHPVO sometimes develops cavernous transformation to maintain hepatopetal flow. In this report, we describe the first case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with EHPVO having underwent pure laparoscopic left hepatectomy with middle hepatic vein (MHV) resection. CASE REPORT A 70-year-old woman with a diagnosis of mixed-type HCC or cholangiocarcinoma located in segment 4b was referred to our hospital, and computed tomography revealed EHPVO with cavernous transformation. Read More

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Analysis of local invasion and regional spread in malignant sublingual gland tumour: Implications for surgical planning.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Departments of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Malignant tumours arising from the sublingual glands are very rare, and the extent and frequency of local invasion or regional spread in malignant sublingual gland tumour (MSLT) has not been fully studied due to the disease rarity. To provide comprehensive features of local and regional spread of MSLT, we reviewed 20 surgical cases for detailed pathological analyses among 26 cases diagnosed as having primary MSLT. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) was the most common pathological subtype, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Read More

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February 2021

Neuroimaging in primary lateral sclerosis.

Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2020 11;21(sup1):18-27

Computational Neuroimaging Group, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Increased interest in the underlying pathogenesis of primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and its relationship to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has corresponded to a growing number of CNS imaging studies, especially in the past decade. Both its rarity and uncertainty of definite diagnosis prior to 4 years from symptom onset have resulted in PLS being less studied than ALS. In this review, we highlight most relevant papers applying magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and positron emission tomography (PET) to analyzing CNS changes in PLS, often in relation to ALS. Read More

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November 2020

Managing axial bone sarcomas in childhood.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2021 Mar 1:1-18. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Orthopedic Oncology and Spinal Reconstruction Surgery, Orthopedic Oncology Department, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano, Italy.

: Axial osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are rare, aggressive neoplasms with a worse prognosis than with tumors involving the extremities because they are more likely to be associated with larger tumor volumes, older age, primary metastases, and a poor histological response to chemotherapy. The 5-year OS rates are reportedly in the range of 18-41% for axial osteosarcoma, and 46-64% for Ewing sarcoma.: The treatment of axial bone tumors is the same as for extremity bone tumors, and includes chemotherapy, surgery and/or radiotherapy. Read More

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Subtemporal, Transapical, and Transcavernous Approach to Clip Low-Lying Basilar Tip Aneurysm: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 05;20(6):E436

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Basilar tip aneurysm clipping is technically challenging because of the depth of operative corridor, rarity in presentation, and important perforators supplying deep, critical structures. Two major approaches to basilar tip aneurysms include (1) a frontotemporal (transorbital) trans-sylvian approach for most aneurysms and (2) a modified subtemporal approach for aneurysms with low-lying necks. A 53-yr-old woman presented to our institution with a large unruptured basilar tip aneurysm notable for a low, broad neck (6. Read More

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Delayed Diagnosis of a Testicular Mass During COVID-19 Pandemic in Lombardy: A Case Report.

Res Rep Urol 2021 25;13:41-44. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Pathology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center - IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Signs and symptoms associated with testicular and paratesticular structures should not be underestimated because they may hide diseases requiring immediate evaluation and treatment, such as germline tumors or sarcomas, with the latter histotypes being more common among elderly patients. Unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy has led to a diagnostic delay of several malignancies and the impact of this delay has likely been underestimated. Paratesticular leiomyosarcoma represents a very rare subtype of sarcoma. Read More

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January 2021

Breast fat necrosis secondary to warfarin-induced calciphylaxis, a rare mimicker of breast cancer: A case report and a review of literature.

Breast J 2021 Mar 21;27(3):258-263. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Surgery, Breast and Endocrine Surgery Section, King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Breast fat necrosis (BFN) is usually a benign inflammatory response to breast trauma. However, an extremely rare cause of fat necrosis is calciphylaxis, a calcification of small- and medium-sized arteries causing thrombosis and ischemia. It is classified into (A) uremic (B) nonuremic-induced calciphylaxis. Read More

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Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor (RAT): a rare distinct entity with diagnostic challenges-a case report.

J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2021 Jan 7;33(1). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Radiology, Goa Medical College, Bambolim, Goa, India.

Background: Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor (RAT) is a recently described rare renal neoplasm with variations in the presentation, gross, and microscopic findings, and having a benign course and good prognosis. It is characterized microscopically by the admixture of three components-epithelial cells arranged in tubules and nests, angiomyomatous stroma, and capillary-sized interconnecting vascular channels in close association with the epithelial cell clusters. Microscopically, these tumors can be confused with clear cell carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, mixed epithelial and stromal tumors, and angiomyolipoma. Read More

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January 2021

Follicular carcinoma arising from struma ovarii. A case report.

Pathologica 2020 Dec;112(4):224-228

University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis Faculty of Medicine, Tunisia.

Struma ovarii is a monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma. Thyroid-type carcinoma arising in struma ovarii is rare. The most common type is papillary carcinoma, followed by typical follicular carcinoma. Read More

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December 2020

When Marriage Hurts: A Literature Review of Embedded Jewellery Ring Injuries.

Cureus 2020 Nov 22;12(11):e11624. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Trauma and Orthopaedics, Kettering General Hospital, Kettering, GBR.

A ring is traditionally worn as a symbol of love and affection or as decorative ornamental jewellery. However, rings are not without risk. The spectrum of danger can range from debilitating avulsion injuries to simple contact dermatitis. Read More

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November 2020

Hybrid Speciation and Introgression Both Underlie the Genetic Structures and Evolutionary Relationships of Three Morphologically Distinct Species of (Liliaceae) Forming a Hybrid Zone Along an Elevational Gradient.

Front Plant Sci 2020 7;11:576407. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization & Ecological Restoration and Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China.

We studied hybrid interactions of , , and using an integrative approach combining population genetics, fieldwork, and phenological research. These three species occur along an elevational gradient, with occurring at lower elevations, at higher elevations, and between them. The species show strong morphological differentiation despite there being no clear environmental barriers to gene flow among them. Read More

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December 2020

Pterygoid hamulus elongation syndrome.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jan 1;78:81-84. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Egypt; Oral & Maxillofacial Department at Nasser Institute for Treatment and Research, Egypt.

Introduction: Pain in the soft palate and pharynx can originate from numerous related anatomical structures. Therefore, the diagnosis of patients who complain of pain in these areas is also difficult and challenging. One of the anatomic disorders that causes pain and discomfort in this region is pterygoid hamulus elongation syndrome. Read More

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January 2021

[Hirayama Disease can be Caused by Loss of Attachment of the Cervical Posterior Dura to the Pedicle due to Immunological Abnormalities of the Dura and Posterior Ligaments: A New Hypothesis].

Authors:
Toshio Fukutake

Brain Nerve 2020 Dec;72(12):1371-1381

Department of Neurology, Kameda Medical Center.

Hirayama disease is a rare and self-limiting cervical myelopathy related to neck flexion in adolescents, predominantly male, originally described by Hirayama in 1959 and until today reported worldwide. It characteristically presents with asymmetric distal upper extremity muscular weakness and atrophy without objective sensory disturbance or lower extremity involvement, which spontaneously halts within 3-5 years after onset with some sequelae. Neuroradiological and autopsy/neuropathological studies have shown that the condition is caused by chronic ischemic changes to the anterior horn cells of the lower cervical cord due to abnormal forward-shifting of the lower cervical posterior dura on neck flexion. Read More

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December 2020

Expert recommendation from the Swiss Amyloidosis Network (SAN) for systemic AL-amyloidosis.

Swiss Med Wkly 2020 Nov 5;150:w20364. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

Systemic amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases associated with protein misfolding into insoluble beta-sheet rich structures that deposit extracellularly in different organs, eventually compromising their function. There are more than 30 different proteins, known to be amyloidogenic with “light chain” (AL)-amyloidosis being the most common type, followed by transthyretin (ATTR)-, and amyloid protein A (AA)-amyloidosis. Systemic amyloidosis is a rare disease with an incidence of around 10 patients in 1 million inhabitants. Read More

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November 2020

Solid state mononuclear divalent nickel spin crossover complexes.

Dalton Trans 2020 Dec 18;49(47):17106-17114. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE), Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University, 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing 21186, China.

Spin crossover complexes containing 3d-3d transition metal ions with tunable electronic configurations in appropriate ligand field environments have been extensively investigated. In contrast, the development of 3d divalent nickel complexes displaying such a spin crossover behavior is far behind. The increasing number of X-ray single crystal structures along with magnetic evidence and thermodynamic equilibrium indicate that bistable divalent nickel complexes are gradually recognized to be a formal member of the "spin crossover family". Read More

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December 2020

Laparoscopic excision of a voluminous mesenteric cyst: Case report of a rare entity and review of literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 15;77S:S64-S66. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of General Surgery, Presidio Ospedaliero Martini, 91 Via Tofane, 10141, Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Introduction: The diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric cysts (MC) is a challenge due to rarity, lack of specific symptoms and variability in location and size. Mesenteric cysts are rare surgical entities that occur approximately in 1: 200,000-1: 350,000 hospitalizations.

Presentation Of Case: A 47-year-old female patient presented in August 2018 with occasional abdominal pains and an abdominal swelling palpable in the lower right quadrant. Read More

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October 2020

Ciliated Muconodular Papillary Tumors of the Lung: Distinct Molecular Features of an Insidious Tumor.

Front Genet 2020 29;11:579737. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Pathology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, China.

Introduction: Ciliated muconodular papillary tumors (CMPTs) are rare special peripheral pulmonary nodule composed of different cell proportions, characterized by papillary structures and significant alveolar mucus. Because of their rarity, underrecognized processes, the full range clinical course and histogenesis of CMPTs remains uncertain.

Methods: Molecular features of 5 CMPTs cases (one case with mucinous adenocarcinoma simultaneously) were observed by whole exon gene detection. Read More

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September 2020

Current management of type III and IV laryngotracheoesophageal clefts: the case for a revised cleft classification.

Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020 Dec;28(6):435-442

University of Washington, Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery and Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes the paediatric laryngotracheoesophageal cleft (LTEC) literature, with an emphasis on recent trends, evaluation and management, surgical techniques, postoperative care of Type III and IV LTECs, and to propose a revised cleft classification system that more accurately reflects our current understanding of these anomalies.

Recent Findings: There are a number of techniques described to address Type III and IV LTEC, from endoscopic to open approaches with thoracotomy. The surgical approach should be tailored to the length of the cleft and its proximity to important anatomical structures. Read More

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December 2020

Recent advances in microfluidic technologies for circulating tumor cells: enrichment, single-cell analysis, and liquid biopsy for clinical applications.

Lab Chip 2020 11 14;20(21):3854-3875. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Functionalized Probes for Chemical Imaging in Universities of Shandong, Key Laboratory of Molecular and Nano Probes, Ministry of Education, Institute of Molecular and Nano Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, P. R. China.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detach from primary or metastatic lesions and circulate in the peripheral blood, which is considered to be the cause of distant metastases. CTC analysis in the form of liquid biopsy, enumeration and molecular analysis provide significant clinical information for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic strategies. Despite the great clinical value, CTC analysis has not yet entered routine clinical practice due to lack of efficient technologies to perform CTC isolation and single-cell analysis. Read More

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November 2020

Intracardiac paragangliomas: surgical approach and perioperative management.

Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Mar 19;69(3):555-559. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Falk Building, 300 Pasteur Dr., Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Intracardiac paragangliomas most commonly arise from the left atrium and are often infiltrative and densely adherent to surrounding structures. Given their rarity, only scattered reports exist in the literature and standardized perioperative and surgical management is not well established. We describe a case of a 60-year-old woman with a mildly functioning intracardiac paraganglioma in which division of the superior vena cava improved exposure and enabled a complex limited resection. Read More

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Microfluidics for label-free sorting of rare circulating tumor cells.

Analyst 2020 Nov;145(22):7103-7124

School of Mechanical Engineering, and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been widely considered as promising novel biomarkers for molecular research and clinical diagnosis of cancer. However, the sorting of CTCs is very challenging due to the rarity of CTCs in blood and the morphological similarity to blood cells. Although affinity-based CTC sorting methods could capture CTCs using specific biochemical markers, there are limitations such as the loss of cell viability after labeling and a requirement for expensive biochemical marker reagents. Read More

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November 2020

A Comparative Study of Crystallography and Defect Structure of Corneal Nipple Array in Moth and Butterfly Eye.

ACS Omega 2020 Sep 9;5(37):23662-23671. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India 632014.

Moth and butterfly ommatidial nanostructures have been extensively studied for their anti-reflective properties. Especially, from the point of view of sub-wavelength anti-reflection phenomena, the moth eye structures are the archetype example. Here, a comparative analysis of corneal nipples in moth eye (both Male and Female) and butterfly eye (both Male and Female) is given. Read More

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September 2020