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Individualized Fraction Regimen of SBRT Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Based on Uncomplicated and Cancer-Free Control Probability.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211011967

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) currently adopts non-discriminative prescription regimen. This study attempts to investigate an individualized fraction regimen (IFR) method for SBRT patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) based on Uncomplicated and Cancer-free Control Probability (UCFCP).

Methods: Twenty patients with NSCLC were retrospectively prescribed with 40 regimens, ranging from 8Gy×5f to 12Gy×5f in step of 0. Read More

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Nutrient-Poor Breeding Substrates of Ambrosia Beetles Are Enriched With Biologically Important Elements.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:664542. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Research Group Insect-Fungus Symbiosis, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Fungus-farming within galleries in the xylem of trees has evolved independently in at least twelve lineages of weevils (Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) and one lineage of ship-timber beetles (Lymexylidae). Jointly these are termed ambrosia beetles because they actively cultivate nutritional "ambrosia fungi" as their main source of food. The beetles are obligately dependent on their ambrosia fungi as they provide them a broad range of essential nutrients ensuring their survival in an extremely nutrient-poor environment. Read More

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Detection of synovial sepsis in horses using enzymes as biomarker.

Equine Vet J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Department of Companion Animals and Horses, Equine Surgery Unit, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Synovial sepsis is a commonly occurring, potentially career-ending or even life-threatening orthopaedic emergency. Diagnosis of synovial sepsis is currently primarily based on synovial fluid analysis, which often leaves diagnostic ambiguity due to overlap of clinicopathologic parameters between septic and aseptic inflammatory synovitis.

Objectives: To evaluate the reliability of lysozyme (LYS), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and elastase (ELT) as biomarkers for synovial sepsis in horses using a photometric assay to measure increased enzyme activity. Read More

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Could existing infrastructure for using patient-reported outcomes as quality measures also be used for individual care in patients with colorectal cancer?

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 11;21(1):448. Epub 2021 May 11.

German Cancer Society, Kuno-Fischer-Straße 8, 14057, Berlin, Germany.

Background: There has been increasing interest in integrating patient-reported outcomes (PROs) into routine oncological practice. To date, however, PROs have rarely been implemented in Germany. Currently, PROs are being used as performance measures in colorectal cancer centers in Germany. Read More

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Genetic and Histopathological Alterations in Caco-2 and HuH-7 Cells Treated with Secondary Metabolites of Marine fungi.

J Gastrointest Cancer 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Uniersity, 11847, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

The present work aimed to study the activity of naturally derived fungal secondary metabolites as anticancer agents concerning their cytotoxicity, apoptotic, genetic, and histopathological profile. It was noticed that Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus fumigatus induced variable toxic potential that was cell type, secondary metabolite type, and concentration dependent. Human colonic adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) showed less sensitivity than hepatocyte-derived cellular carcinoma cells (HuH-7), and in turn, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) was variable. Read More

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Printable graphene BioFETs for DNA quantification in Lab-on-PCB microsystems.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9815. Epub 2021 May 10.

Centre for Biosensors, Bioelectronics and Biodevices (C3Bio) and Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.

Lab-on-Chip is a technology that aims to transform the Point-of-Care (PoC) diagnostics field; nonetheless a commercial production compatible technology is yet to be established. Lab-on-Printed Circuit Board (Lab-on-PCB) is currently considered as a promising candidate technology for cost-aware but simultaneously high specification applications, requiring multi-component microsystem implementations, due to its inherent compatibility with electronics and the long-standing industrial manufacturing basis. In this work, we demonstrate the first electrolyte gated field-effect transistor (FET) DNA biosensor implemented on commercially fabricated PCB in a planar layout. Read More

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REP2: A Web Server to Detect Common Tandem Repeats in Protein Sequences.

J Mol Biol 2021 May 24;433(11):166895. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Faculty of Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, 55128 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

Ensembles of tandem repeats (TRs) in protein sequences expand rapidly to form domains well suited for interactions with proteins. For this reason, they are relatively frequent. Some TRs have known structures and therefore it is advantageous to predict their presence in a protein sequence. Read More

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Systematic assessment of health care perception in adults with congenital heart disease in Germany.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):481-491

Department of Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Cardiology, German Heart Center Munich, Technical University Munich, Germany.

Background: The number of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) is steadily rising due to increased survival rate and improved medical resources. Accordingly, more than 330,000 ACHD are currently living in Germany. Almost all of them require lifelong specialized medical follow-up for their chronic heart disease, often accompanied by residua, sequelae, or comorbidities. Read More

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Automated assessment of glomerulosclerosis and tubular atrophy using deep learning.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2021 May 2;90:101930. Epub 2021 May 2.

Politecnico di Torino, PoliToBIOMed Lab, Biolab, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Turin, 10129, Italy.

In kidney transplantations, pathologists evaluate the architecture of both glomeruli, interstitium and tubules to assess the nephron status. An accurate assessment of glomerulosclerosis and tubular atrophy is crucial for determining kidney acceptance, which is currently based on the pathologists' histological evaluations on renal biopsies in addition to clinical data. In this work, we present an automated algorithm, called RENTAG (Robust EvaluatioN of Tubular Atrophy & Glomerulosclerosis), for the segmentation and classification of glomerular and tubular structures in histopathological images. Read More

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Cryo-EM: a new dawn in thyroid biology.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 May 5:111309. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Vrazov trg 2, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The thyroid gland accumulates the rare dietary element iodine and incorporates it into iodinated thyroid hormones, utilising several tightly regulated reactions and molecular mechanisms. Thyroid hormones are essential in vertebrates and play a central role in many biological processes, such as development, thermogenesis and growth. The control of these functions is exerted through the binding of hormones to nuclear thyroid hormone receptors that rule the transcription of numerous metabolic genes. Read More

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Ubiquitin-mediated DNA damage response is synthetic lethal with G-quadruplex stabilizer CX-5461.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9812. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Molecular Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L3, Canada.

CX-5461 is a G-quadruplex (G4) ligand currently in trials with initial indications of clinical activity in cancers with defects in homologous recombination repair. To identify more genetic defects that could sensitize tumors to CX-5461, we tested synthetic lethality for 480 DNA repair and genome maintenance genes to CX-5461, pyridostatin (PDS), a structurally unrelated G4-specific stabilizer, and BMH-21, which binds GC-rich DNA but not G4 structures. We identified multiple members of HRD, Fanconi Anemia pathways, and POLQ, a polymerase with a helicase domain important for G4 structure resolution. Read More

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Sphingosine 1-phosphate, a potential target in neovascular retinal disease.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

Neovascular ocular diseases (such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion) are characterised by common pathological processes that contribute to disease progression. These include angiogenesis, oedema, inflammation, cell death and fibrosis. Currently available therapies target the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the main mediator of pathological angiogenesis. Read More

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PDMS Curing Inhibition on 3D-Printed Molds: Why? Also, How to Avoid It?

Anal Chem 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Applied Microfluidics for BioEngineering Research, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology & TechMed Centre, University of Twente, 7500AE Enschede, The Netherlands.

Three-dimensional (3D)-printing techniques such as stereolithography (SLA) are currently gaining momentum for the production of miniaturized analytical devices and molds for soft lithography. However, most commercially available SLA resins inhibit polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) curing, impeding reliable replication of the 3D-printed structures in this elastomeric material. Here, we report a systematic study, using 16 commercial resins, to identify a fast and straightforward treatment of 3D-printed structures and to support accurate PDMS replication using UV and/or thermal post-curing. Read More

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Meta-analysis with Robust Variance Estimation: Expanding the Range of Working Models.

Prev Sci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Statistics Department, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA.

In prevention science and related fields, large meta-analyses are common, and these analyses often involve dependent effect size estimates. Robust variance estimation (RVE) methods provide a way to include all dependent effect sizes in a single meta-regression model, even when the exact form of the dependence is unknown. RVE uses a working model of the dependence structure, but the two currently available working models are limited to each describing a single type of dependence. Read More

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Topographic volume-standardization atlas of the human brain.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neuroscience Center, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Frauenklinikstrasse 10, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.

Specific anatomical patterns are seen in various diseases affecting the brain. Clinical studies on the topography of pathologies are often limited by the absence of a normalization of the prevalence of pathologies to the relative volume of the affected anatomical structures. A comprehensive reference on the relative volumes of clinically relevant anatomical structures serving for such a normalization, is currently lacking. Read More

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[Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications of Knee Dislocation: a Retrospective Study].

Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech 2021 ;88(2):107-116

Klinika ortopedie a traumatologie pohybového ústrojí a Lékařské fakulty Univerzity Karlovy a Fakultní nemocnice, Plzeň.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Acute knee dislocation is a less common injury of the knee joint. It is, however, a serious injury with a high rate of nerve and vascular damage and it is considered a limb threatening injury with long-term functional disability, which can ultimately lead to amputation. Knee dislocations constitute less than 0. Read More

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Introducing Bacteria and Synthetic Biomolecules along Engineered DNA Fibers.

Authors:
Jonathan R Burns

Small 2021 May 7:e2100136. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London, London, WC1H 0AJ, UK.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanotechnology enables user-defined structures to be built with unrivalled control. The approach is currently restricted across the nanoscale, yet the ability to generate macroscopic DNA structures has enormous potential with applications spanning material, physical, and biological science. To address this need, I employed DNA nanotechnology and developed a new macromolecular nanoarchitectonic assembly method to produce DNA fibers with customizable properties. Read More

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Electrohydrodynamic Atomisation Driven Design and Engineering of Opportunistic Particulate Systems For Applications in Drug Delivery, Therapeutics and Pharmaceutics.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

The Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK. Electronic address:

Electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) technologies have evolved significantly over the past decade; branching into several established and emerging healthcare remits through timely advances in the engineering sciences and tailored conceptual process designs. More specifically for pharmaceutical and drug delivery spheres, electrospraying (ES) has presented itself as a high value technique enabling a plethora of different particulate structures. However, when coupled with novel formulations (e. Read More

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Improved preservation of ovarian tissue morphology that is compatible with antigen detection using a fixative mixture of formalin and acetic acid.

Hum Reprod 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Nuffield Department of Women's and Reproductive Health, Women's Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Study Question: Can ovarian tissue morphology be better preserved whilst enabling histological molecular analyses following fixation with a novel fixative, neutral buffered formalin (NBF) with 5% acetic acid (referred to hereafter as Form-Acetic)?

Summary Answer: Fixation with Form-Acetic improved ovarian tissue histology compared to NBF in multiple species while still enabling histological molecular analyses.

What Is Known Already: NBF fixation results in tissue shrinkage in various tissue types including the ovary. Components of ovarian tissue, notably follicles, are particularly susceptible to NBF-induced morphological alterations and can lead to data misrepresentation. Read More

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-an open-source platform for the creation of 3D models of arthropods (and other small objects).

PeerJ 2021 12;9:e11155. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.

We present , an open-source platform for the creation of digital 3D models of arthropods and small objects. consists of a scanner and a Graphical User Interface, and enables the automated generation of Extended Depth Of Field images from multiple perspectives. These images are then masked with a novel automatic routine which combines random forest-based edge-detection, adaptive thresholding and connected component labelling. Read More

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Functionally selective and biased agonists of muscarinic receptors.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 2;169:105641. Epub 2021 May 2.

Institute of Physiology Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Disruption of cholinergic signalling via muscarinic receptors is associated with various pathologies, like Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Selective muscarinic agonists possess therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetes, pain or Sjögren's syndrome. The orthosteric binding site of all subtypes of the muscarinic receptor is structurally identical, making the development of affinity-based selective agonists virtually impossible. Read More

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The Protein Data Bank Archive.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2305:3-21

BioMagResBank, Biochemistry Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Protein Data Bank is the single worldwide archive of experimentally determined macromolecular structure data. Established in 1971 as the first open access data resource in biology, the PDB archive is managed by the worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) consortium which has four partners-the RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB; rcsb.org), the Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj; pdbj. Read More

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January 2021

Many Voices in a Choir: Tumor-Induced Neurogenesis and Neuronal Driven Alternative Splicing Sound Like Suspects in Tumor Growth and Dissemination.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

SAMRC Precision Prevention and Novel Drug Targets for HIV-Associated Cancers (PPNDTHAC) Unit, Pan African Cancer Research Institute (PACRI), University of Pretoria, Hatfield 0028, South Africa.

During development, as tissues expand and grow, they require circulatory, lymphatic, and nervous system expansion for proper function and support. Similarly, as tumors arise and develop, they also require the expansion of these systems to support them. While the contribution of blood and lymphatic systems to the development and progression of cancer is well known and is targeted with anticancer drugs, the contribution of the nervous system is less well studied and understood. Read More

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Structure and function of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase.

Authors:
Hauke S Hillen

Curr Opin Virol 2021 Apr 6;48:82-90. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Cellular Biochemistry, University Medical Center Göttingen, Humboldtallee 23, D-37073 Göttingen, Germany; Research Group Structure and Function of Molecular Machines, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany; Cluster of Excellence "Multiscale Bioimaging: from Molecular Machines to Networks of Excitable Cells" (MBExC), University of Göttingen, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Coronaviruses use an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) to replicate and express their genome. The RdRp associates with additional non-structural proteins (nsps) to form a replication-transcription complex (RTC) that carries out RNA synthesis, capping and proofreading. However, the structure of the RdRp long remained elusive, thus limiting our understanding of coronavirus genome expression and replication. Read More

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Informing NMR experiments with molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the dominant activated state of the KcsA ion channel.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(16):165102

Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.

As the first potassium channel with an x-ray structure determined, and given its homology to eukaryotic channels, the pH-gated prokaryotic channel KcsA has been extensively studied. Nevertheless, questions related, in particular, to the allosteric coupling between its gates remain open. The many currently available x-ray crystallography structures appear to correspond to various stages of activation and inactivation, offering insights into the molecular basis of these mechanisms. Read More

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Forman persistent Ricci curvature (FPRC)-based machine learning models for protein-ligand binding affinity prediction.

Brief Bioinform 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Mathematical Sciences, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371.

Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have already been gradually applied to the entire drug design process, from target discovery, lead discovery, lead optimization and preclinical development to the final three phases of clinical trials. Currently, one of the central challenges for AI-based drug design is molecular featurization, which is to identify or design appropriate molecular descriptors or fingerprints. Efficient and transferable molecular descriptors are key to the success of all AI-based drug design models. Read More

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Exploring the potential of polysaccharides or plant proteins as structuring agents to design cheeses with sensory properties focused toward consumers in East and Southeast Asia: a review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 3:1-14. Epub 2021 May 3.

Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.

The focus of the global cheese industry on accessing new markets for cheese is currently driving a greater need for innovation in cheese products. Research to date suggests that, for example, East Asian consumers prefer cheeses that have a soft texture, with mild and milky flavors. Strategies for achieving such cheese characteristics are reviewed in this article. Read More

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The State of Radiology AI: Considerations for Purchase Decisions and Current Market Offerings.

Radiol Artif Intell 2020 Nov 11;2(6):e200004. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Radiology, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, 1120 15th St, Augusta, GA 30912 (Y.T.); and Department of Radiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga (B.V., E.K., A.P., J.G., N.S., H.T.).

Purpose: To provide an overview of important factors to consider when purchasing radiology artificial intelligence (AI) software and current software offerings by type, subspecialty, and modality.

Materials And Methods: Important factors for consideration when purchasing AI software, including key decision makers, data ownership and privacy, cost structures, performance indicators, and potential return on investment are described. For the market overview, a list of radiology AI companies was aggregated from the Radiological Society of North America and the Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine conferences (November 2016-June 2019), then narrowed to companies using deep learning for imaging analysis and diagnosis. Read More

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November 2020

The Grip Concept of Incisional Hernia Repair-Dynamic Bench Test, CT Abdomen With Valsalva and 1-Year Clinical Results.

Front Surg 2021 14;8:602181. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery, Klinikum Am Gesundbrunnen, Heilbronn, Germany.

Incisional hernia is a frequent consequence of major surgery. Most repairs augment the abdominal wall with artificial meshes fixed to the tissues with sutures, tacks, or glue. Pain and recurrences plague at least 10-20% of the patients after repair of the abdominal defect. Read More

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Diversity of Fusarium species causing invasive and disseminated infections.

J Mycol Med 2021 Apr 9;31(3):101137. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Medicina: Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Experimental Research Center, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Invasive fusariosis (IF) is considered an emerging fungal disease and an important problem worldwide that increasingly affects immunocompromised individuals. There is currently concern about establishing the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of the species Fusarium causing invasive fusariosis.

Materials And Methods: The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular profile and morphological characteristics of Fusarium species isolated from 21 patients with invasive fusariosis. Read More

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