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Enhancing robustness of activated sludge with Aspergillus tubingensis as a protective backbone structure under high-salinity stress.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 19;297:113302. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China; Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China; Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

High salt seriously destroys the stable interactions among key functional species of activated sludge, which in turn limits the performance of high-salinity wastewater biological treatment. In this study, pelletized Aspergillus tubingensis (AT) was used as a protective backbone structure for activated sludge under high-salinity stress, and a superior salt-tolerant AT-based aerobic granular sludge (AT-AGS) was developed. Results showed that the COD and NH-N removal efficiencies of salt-domesticated AT-AGS were 11. Read More

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Sperm ultrastructure in arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thysanoptera.

Arthropod Struct Dev 2021 Jul 19;64:101084. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Martin-Luther University Halle- Wittenberg, Institute of Biology, Department Zoology, Heinrich-Damerow-Str.4, 06120 Halle, Germany. Electronic address:

Thysanoptera are haplo-diploid insects that reproduce either via arrhenotoky or thelytoky. Beside genetically based thelytoky, this reproduction mode can also be endosymbiont induced. The recovery of these females from their infection again leads to the development of males. Read More

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Structural diversity and tree density drives variation in the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship of woodlands and savannas.

New Phytol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FF, United Kingdom.

Positive biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships (BEFRs) have been widely documented, but it is unclear if BEFRs should be expected in disturbance-driven systems. Disturbance may limit competition and niche differentiation, which are frequently posited to underlie BEFRs. We provide the first exploration of the relationship between tree species diversity and biomass, one measure of ecosystem function, across southern African woodlands and savannas, an ecological system rife with disturbance from fire, herbivores and humans. Read More

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Characterization of Paramagnetic Iron-Sulfur Clusters Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

Authors:
Troy A Stich

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2353:259-280

Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Continuous-wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful ally in characterizing the multitude of redox-active iron-sulfur cluster-containing ([Fe-S]) species present in biological samples. The technique detects only those clusters that are paramagnetic-having a nonzero total electron spin (S > 0)-thus, it can discriminate between clusters in different oxidation states. The low-temperature CW-EPR spectrum of an [Fe-S] yields the three magnetic g-values that serve as a fingerprint of its electronic structure. Read More

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January 2021

Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ant Metacommunity in a Montane Forest Archipelago.

Neotrop Entomol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Uso dos Recursos Naturais, Univ Estadual de Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Naturally fragmented landscapes are adequate systems for evaluating patterns and mechanisms that determine species distribution without confounding effects of anthropogenic fragmentation and habitat loss. We aimed to evaluate an ant metacommunity's spatiotemporal patterns in montane forest islands amid a grassland-dominated matrix. We assessed these patterns by deconstructing the ant metacommunity into forest-dependent and habitat generalist species. Read More

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Prebiotic inulin as a treatment of obesity related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through gut microbiota: a critical review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, People's Republic of China.

The microbial-derived products, including short chain fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and secondary bile acids, have been shown to participate in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that prebiotics, such as oligosaccharide and inulin, have abilities to change the concentration of microbial-derived products through modulating the microbial community structure, thus controlling body weight and alleviating hepatic fat accumulation. However, recent evidence indicates that there are individual differences in host response upon inulin treatment due to the differences in host microbial composition before dietary intervention. Read More

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SaccuFlow: A High-Throughput Analysis Platform to Investigate Bacterial Cell Wall Interactions.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, United States.

Bacterial cell walls are formidable barriers that protect bacterial cells against external insults and oppose internal turgor pressure. While cell wall composition is variable across species, peptidoglycan is the principal component of all cell walls. Peptidoglycan is a mesh-like scaffold composed of cross-linked strands that can be heavily decorated with anchored proteins. Read More

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Proline metabolism and redox; maintaining a balance in health and disease.

Amino Acids 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.

Proline is a non-essential amino acid with key roles in protein structure/function and maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. It is available from dietary sources, generated de novo within cells, and released from protein structures; a noteworthy source being collagen. Its catabolism within cells can generate ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Read More

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Enantioselective assembly of 3,3-disubstituted succinimides three-component reaction of vinyl diazosuccinimides with alcohols and imines.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Chiral Molecule and Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China.

An enantioselective three-component reaction of vinyl diazosuccinimdes with alcohols and imines has been realized by a cooperative catalysis of Rh2(OAc)4 and a chiral phosphoric acid, leading to chiral 3,3-disubstituted succinimides in good to high yields with high to excellent enantioselectivity. The generated product with an alkenyl species could be converted to the chiral tricyclic structure under mild conditions. Read More

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Knockdown of Dehydrodolichyl Diphosphate Synthase in the Retina Leads to a Unique Pattern of Retinal Degeneration.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 5;14:693967. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Medical Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine and The Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase (DHDDS) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes -prenyl chain elongation to produce the poly-prenyl backbone of dolichol. It appears in all tissues including the nervous system and it is a highly conserved enzyme that can be found in all animal species. Individuals who have biallelic missense mutations in the gene are presented with non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa with unknown underlying mechanism. Read More

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Investigation of Fungal Strains Composition in Fruit Pollens for Artificial Pollination.

Mycobiology 2021 22;49(3):249-257. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea.

Plants pollination are conducted through various pollinators such as wind, animals, and insects. Recently, the necessity for artificial pollination is drawing attention as the proportion of natural pollinators involved is decreasing over the years. Likewise, the trade in pollen for artificial pollination is also increasing worldwide. Read More

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Sympatry and habitat associations of sigmodontine rodents in a neotropical forest-savanna interface.

Mammalia 2020 13;84(3):227-238. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38103, USA.

Small mammal communities in the Neotropics are composed largely of sigmodontine rodents. However, many questions regarding these communities remain unanswered, especially those pertaining to fine-scale sympatry and habitat selection. To address this, we examined sigmodontine community structure and vegetation in the western margin of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest and the southwestern-most extent of the Cerrado (CE) (an extensive South American savanna ecoregion) of Paraguay. Read More

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November 2019

Brown banded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum) shows high genetic diversity and differentiation in Malaysian waters.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14874. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Universiti Malaya , 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The demersal brown banded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum is a major component of sharks landed in Malaysia. However, little is known about their population structure and the effect of high fishing pressure on these weak swimming sharks. Both mitochondrial DNA control region (1072 bp) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (1044 bp) were used to elucidate the genetic structure and connectivity of C. Read More

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Insights into molecular structure, genome evolution and phylogenetic implication through mitochondrial genome sequence of Gleditsia sinensis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14850. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Component-Based Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 300193, China.

Gleditsia sinensis is an endemic species widely distributed in China with high economic and medicinal value. To explore the genomic evolution and phylogenetic relationships of G. sinensis, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of G. Read More

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Phlebotomine sand fly survey in the Republic of Moldova: species composition, distribution and host preferences.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Jul 21;14(1):371. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodiae) in the Republic of Moldova have been understudied for decades. Our study provides a first update on their occurrence, species composition and bloodmeal sources after 50 years.

Methods: During 5 seasons (2013-2017), 58 localities from 20 regions were surveyed for presence of sand flies using CDC light traps and manual aspirators. Read More

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Comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of the neutral microsatellite loci and second exon of the goat MHC-DQB1 gene.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Jul 21:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Forage & Herbivore, Chongqing Engineering Research Centre for Herbivores Resource Protection and Utilization, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

This study compared and analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of exon 2 of the gene and 13 autosomal neutral microsatellite markers from 14 Chinese goat breeds to explore the potential evolutionary mechanism of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). A total of 287 haplotypes were constructed from MHC-DQB1 exon 2 from 14 populations, and 82 nucleotide polymorphic sites (SNPs, 31.78%) and 172 heterozygous individuals (79. Read More

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Physicochemical and functional characterization of trastuzumab-dkst, a trastuzumab biosimilar.

Future Med Chem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Viatris Inc, Plot No 564/A/22, Road No 92, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, 500034, India.

Preclinical comparative similarity studies of trastuzumab-dkst, a Herceptin biosimilar, are reported. Primary sequence and higher-order structure and pharmacological mechanisms of action were compared using multiple techniques. Pharmacokinetics and repeat-dose toxicity were assessed in cynomolgus monkeys. Read More

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FISH-Based Karyotype Analyses of Four Dracaena Species.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2021 Jul 21:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Yunnan Branch, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Jinghong, China.

The genus Dracaena is the main source of dragon's blood, which is a plant resin and has been used as traditional medicine since ancient times in different civilizations. However, the chromosome numbers and karyotypes present in this genus remain poorly understood. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using oligonucleotide probes for ribosomal DNAs (5S and 45S rDNA) and telomeric repeats (TTTAGGG)3 was applied to analyze 4 related species: Dracaena terniflora Roxb. Read More

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Ecological consequences of Australia's 'Black Summer' bushfires.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Fire has long been a part of the Australian environment and remains a potent force in shaping the adaptations of species, the dynamics of populations, and the structure of ecological communities. However, the fire regime is changing. Fire seasons are longer, wet vegetation types that do not usually burn are now at risk, and fire intensity and severity are greater than in the recent past. Read More

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Population structure associated with Bioregion and seasonal prey distribution for Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in South Africa.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biosciences, University of Durham, Durham, UK.

Many marine species exhibit fine-scale population structure despite high mobility and a lack of physical barriers to dispersal, but the evolutionary drivers of differentiation in these systems are generally poorly understood. Here we investigate the potential role of habitat transitions and seasonal prey distributions on the evolution of population structure in the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus, off South Africa's coast, using double-digest Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq). Population structure was identified between the eastern and southern coasts and correlated with the habitat transition between the temperate Agulhas (southern) and subtropical Natal (eastern) Bioregions, suggesting differentiation driven by resource specialisations. Read More

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The spatial synchrony of species richness and its relationship to ecosystem stability.

Ecology 2021 Jul 21:e03486. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Environmental Studies Program and Department of Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA.

Synchrony is broadly important to population and community dynamics due to its ubiquity and implications for extinction dynamics, system stability, and species diversity. Investigations of synchrony in community ecology have tended to focus on covariance in the abundances of multiple species in a single location. Yet, the importance of regional environmental variation and spatial processes in community dynamics suggests that community properties, such as species richness, could uctuate synchronously across patches in a metacommunity, in an analog of population spatial synchrony. Read More

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Automated Adsorption Workflow for Semiconductor Surfaces and the Application to Zinc Telluride.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Surface adsorption is a crucial step in numerous processes, including heterogeneous catalysis, where the adsorption of key species is often used as a descriptor of efficiency. We present here an automated adsorption workflow for semiconductors which employs density functional theory calculations to generate adsorption data in a high-throughput manner. Starting from a bulk structure, the workflow performs an exhaustive surface search, followed by an adsorption structure construction step, which generates a minimal energy landscape to determine the optimal adsorbate-surface distance. Read More

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How phenological tracking shapes species and communities in non-stationary environments.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Kān'eohe, HI, 96744, U.S.A.

Climate change alters the environments of all species. Predicting species responses requires understanding how species track environmental change, and how such tracking shapes communities. Growing empirical evidence suggests that how species track phenologically - how an organism shifts the timing of major biological events in response to the environment - is linked to species performance and community structure. Read More

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Antifungal weapons of Lysobacter, a mighty biocontrol agent.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

College of Plant Protection, Laboratory of Plant Immunity, Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Nanjing Agricultural University, No. 1 Weigang, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.

Bacteria interact with fungi in a variety of ways to inhibit fungal growth, while the underlying mechanisms remain only partially characterized. The plant-beneficial Bacillus and Pseudomonas species are well-known antifungal biocontrol agents, whereas Lysobacter are far less studied. Members of Lysobacter are easy to grow in fermenters and are safe to humans, animals and plants. Read More

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On the sensitivity of food webs to multiple stressors.

Ecol Lett 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Département de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

Evaluating the effects of multiple stressors on ecosystems is becoming increasingly vital with global changes. The role of species interactions in propagating the effects of stressors, although widely acknowledged, has yet to be formally explored. Here, we conceptualise how stressors propagate through food webs and explore how they affect simulated three-species motifs and food webs of the Canadian St. Read More

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Widespread agrochemicals differentially affect zooplankton biomass and community structure.

Ecol Appl 2021 Jul 21:e02423. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biology, McGill University, Montréal, Canada.

Anthropogenic environmental change is causing habitat deterioration at unprecedented rates in freshwater ecosystems. Despite increasing more rapidly than other agents of global change, synthetic chemical pollution -including agrochemicals such as pesticides- has received relatively little attention in freshwater community and ecosystem ecology. Determining the combined effects of multiple agrochemicals on complex biological properties remains a major challenge, requiring a cross-field integration of ecology and ecotoxicology. Read More

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Influence of the chlorophyll-a gradient on the community structure of plankton microcrustaceans (Cladocera and Copepoda) in a Neotropical reservoir.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 19;93(2):e20190379. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais (PEA), Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia Ictiologia e Aquicultura (Nupélia), Av. Colombo, 5790, Campus Universitário, 87020-900 Maringá, PR, Brazil.

Fish farming in net cages is considered as an alternative to food production in response to elevated population growth, and zooplankton is an important resource to the development of this economic activity. We (i) compared microcrustacean composition in eutrophic and oligotrophic habitats under net tank influence, (ii) investigated changes in species distributions in these habitats, and (iii) indicated which chlorophyll-a concentrations presented thresholds that alter community structure. We expected different responses of species to changes in chlorophyll-a concentration due to net cage management, as chlorophyll-a represents an estimate of food availability. Read More

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A systematic assessment of structural heterogeneity and IgG/IgE-binding of ovalbumin.

Food Funct 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Ovalbumin (OVA), one of the major allergens in hen egg, exhibits extensive structural heterogeneity due to a range of post-translational modifications (PTMs). However, analyzing the structural heterogeneity of native OVA is challenging, and the relationship between heterogeneity and IgG/IgE-binding of OVA remains unclear. In this work, ion exchange chromatography (IXC) with salt gradient elution and on-line detection by native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) was used to assess the structural heterogeneity of OVA, while inhibition-ELISA was used to assess the IgG/IgE binding characteristics of OVA. Read More

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Commuting to Work: Nucleolar Long Non-Coding RNA Control Ribosome Biogenesis from Near and Far.

Noncoding RNA 2021 Jul 14;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Mildred Scheel Early Career Center for Cancer Research (Mildred-Scheel-Nachwuchszentrum, MSNZ), University Hospital Würzburg, Josef-Schneider Str. 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany.

Gene expression is an essential process for cellular growth, proliferation, and differentiation. The transcription of protein-coding genes and non-coding loci depends on RNA polymerases. Interestingly, numerous loci encode long non-coding (lnc)RNA transcripts that are transcribed by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and fine-tune the RNA metabolism. Read More

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Thermoreversible Gelation with Two-Component Mixed Cross-Link Junctions of Variable Multiplicity in Ternary Polymer Solutions.

Authors:
Fumihiko Tanaka

Gels 2021 Jul 11;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan.

Theoretical scheme is developed to study thermoreversible gelation interfering with liquid-liquid phase separation in mixtures of reactive -functional molecules R{Af} and -functional ones R{Bg} dissolved in a common solvent. Formed polymer networks are assumed to include multiple cross-link junctions containing arbitrary numbers k1 and k2 of functional groups A and B of each species. Sol-gel transition lines and spinodal lines are drawn on the ternary phase plane for some important models of multiple cross-link junctions with specified microscopic structure. Read More

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