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Improved the Efficacy against Crop Foliage Disease by Regulating Fungicide Adhesion on Leaves with Soft Microcapsules.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Key Laboratory of Pesticide Toxicology & Application Technique, College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong, 271018, P. R. China.

Background: Increasing pesticide retention on crop leaves is a key approach for guaranteeing efficacy when products are applied to foliage. Evidently, the formulation plays an important role in this process. Microcapsules (MCs) are a promising formulation, but whether and how their adhesion to the leaf surface affects retention and efficacy is not well understood. Read More

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Calcaneus fracture in a Middle Holocene individual from the eastern Pampa-Patagonian transition (Argentina).

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 May 11;120:104568. Epub 2021 May 11.

INCUAPA-CONICET-UNICEN. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Avda. del Valle 5737, Olavarría, 7400, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Calcaneus fractures are scarcely reported in archaeological assemblages worldwide. The main goal of this paper is to present a study case related to a calcaneus fracture and a set of bone lesions recorded in an adult individual dated in the Middle Holocene (ca. 6000-3000 years BP). Read More

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Crystal structure and mutational analysis of the human TRIM7 B30.2 domain provide insights into the molecular basis of its binding to glycogenin-1.

J Biol Chem 2021 May 11:100772. Epub 2021 May 11.

Centro de Investigaciones en Química Biológica de Córdoba (CIQUIBIC) - CONICET and Departamento de Química Biológica Ranwel Caputto, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, X5000HUA Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:

TRIM7 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that was first identified through its interaction with glycogenin-1, the autoglucosyltransferase that initiates glycogen biosynthesis. A growing body of evidence indicates that TRIM7 plays an important role in cancer development, viral pathogenesis, and atherosclerosis, and thus represents a potential therapeutic target. TRIM family proteins share a multidomain architecture with a conserved N-terminal tripartite motif (TRIM) and a variable C-terminal domain. Read More

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Chirality Memory Stored in Magnetic Domain Walls in the Ferromagnetic State of MnP.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(17):177205

Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Chirality in a helimagnetic structure is determined by the sense of magnetic moment rotation. We found that the chiral information did not disappear even after the phase transition to the high-temperature ferromagnetic phase in a helimagnet MnP. The 2nd harmonic resistivity ρ^{2f}, which reflects the breaking down of mirror symmetry, was found to be almost unchanged after heating the sample above the ferromagnetic transition temperature and cooling it back to the helimagnetic state. Read More

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Hyper-Raman Spectroscopic Investigation of Amide Bands of -Methylacetamide in Liquid/Solution Phase.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 14:4780-4785. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 Japan.

We have demonstrated hyper-Raman (HR) spectroscopy of -methylacetamide (NMA) for the first time. Fundamental knowledge of amide bands in HR spectra has been obtained. HR spectra of NMA exhibit various amide bands with different intensity patterns from Raman and IR spectra. Read More

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Assessment of causality between climate variables and production for whole crop maize using structural equation modeling.

J Anim Sci Technol 2021 Mar 31;63(2):339-353. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Animal Industry Convergence, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

This study aimed to assess the causality of different climate variables on the production of whole crop maize ( L.; WCM) in the central inland region of the Korea. Furthermore, the effect of these climate variables was also determined by looking at direct and indirect pathways during the stages before and after silking. Read More

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Crossover point of the field effect transistor and interconnect applications in turbostratic multilayer graphene nanoribbon channel.

Sci Rep 2021 May 13;11(1):10206. Epub 2021 May 13.

Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

The electrical transport properties of a turbostratic multilayer graphene nanoribbon (GNR) with various number of layers (1-8 layers) were investigated using a field effect transistor with a single GNR channel. In the turbostratic multilayer GNR with 5 layers or less, the carrier mobility and I/I ratio in the FETs were improved by slightly increasing the conductance with increasing the number of layers, meaning that the excellent semiconducting characteristic. The improvement of the carrier transport properties promotes by the turbostratic stacking structure. Read More

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A Mild Molecular Fusion Route for the Synthesis of Polyhedral Carbon Nano-onions with High Graphitization.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Tsinghua University Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing, Beijing, CHINA.

Polyhedral carbon nano-onions (CNOs) compared with traditional quasi-spherical CNOs are more stable and have less defects, which will greatly broaden their potential applications. However, there still lacks of a suitable synthetic method and systematic study of it. Here, we developed a simple molecular fusion route and templet growth method by which polyhedral CNOs can be successfully synthesized. Read More

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Micro-opto-electro-mechanical gyroscope based on the Talbot effect of a single-layer near-field diffraction grating.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3724-3731

We demonstrate a novel, to the best of our knowledge, micro-opto-electro-mechanical system (MOEMS) gyroscope based on the Talbot effect of a single-layer near-field diffraction grating. The Talbot effect of an optical grating is studied both theoretically and experimentally. A structure of grating-mirror combination, fabricated by the micro-nano processing method, is used for out-of-plane structure detection. Read More

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Crystal engineering and ferroelectricity at the nanoscale in epitaxial 1D manganese oxide on silicon.

Nanoscale 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institut d'Electronique et des Systemes (IES), CNRS, Université de Montpellier, 860 Rue de Saint Priest 34095, Montpellier, France.

Ferroelectric oxides have attracted much attention due to their wide range of applications, particularly in electronic devices such as nonvolatile memories and tunnel junctions. As a result, the monolithic integration of these materials into silicon technology and their nanostructuration to develop alternative cost-effective processes are among the central points in the current technology. In this work, we used a chemical route to obtain nanowire thin films of a novel Sr1+δMn8O16 (SMO) hollandite-type manganese oxide on silicon. Read More

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Heme Detoxification in the Malaria Parasite: A Target for Antimalarial Drug Development.

Acc Chem Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.

ConspectusOver the last century, malaria deaths have decreased by more than 85%. Nonetheless, there were 405 000 deaths in 2018, mostly resulting from infection. In the 21st century, much of the advance has arisen from the deployment of insecticide-treated bed nets and artemisinin combination therapy. Read More

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INI1/SMARCB1 Rpt1 domain mimics TAR RNA in binding to integrase to facilitate HIV-1 replication.

Nat Commun 2021 May 12;12(1):2743. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City, NY, USA.

INI1/SMARCB1 binds to HIV-1 integrase (IN) through its Rpt1 domain and exhibits multifaceted role in HIV-1 replication. Determining the NMR structure of INI1-Rpt1 and modeling its interaction with the IN-C-terminal domain (IN-CTD) reveal that INI1-Rpt1/IN-CTD interface residues overlap with those required for IN/RNA interaction. Mutational analyses validate our model and indicate that the same IN residues are involved in both INI1 and RNA binding. Read More

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Environmental impact of amino acids on the release of selenate immobilized in hydrotalcite: Integrated interpretation of experimental and density-functional theory study.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 15;274:129927. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395, Japan. Electronic address:

The environmental impact of amino acids on the release of SeO immobilized into hydrotalcite (MgAl-LDH) which belongs to the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) family was investigated by experimental study and the observed layer structure of hydrotalcite was verified through density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. Glycine, l-cysteine, and l-aspartic acid, which have smaller molecular sizes, can release SeO largely due to intercalation, unstabilization of MgAl-LDH and simple dissolution, while l-tryptophan and l-phenylalanine caused limited SeO release due to their larger sizes and aromaticity. XRD patterns for the solid residues after intercalation of amino acids revealed that the layer distance of MgAl-LDH was partially expanded. Read More

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Os(II)-Bridged Polyarginine Conjugates: The Additive Effects of Peptides in Promoting or Preventing Permeation in Cells and Multicellular Tumor Spheroids.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Chemical Sciences, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland.

The preparation of two polyarginine conjugates of the complex Os(II) [bis-(4'-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine)] [Os-(R)] ( = 4 and 8; = 10 and 18) is reported, to explore whether the R8 peptide sequence that promotes cell uptake requires a contiguous amino acid sequence for membrane permeation or if this can be accomplished in a linearly bridged structure with the additive effect of shorter peptide sequences. The conjugates exhibit NIR emission centered at 754 nm and essentially oxygen-insensitive emission with a lifetime of 89 ns in phosphate-buffered saline. The uptake, distribution, and cytotoxicity of the parent complex and peptide derivatives were compared in 2D cell monolayers and a three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) model. Read More

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Interkingdom Gut Microbiome and Resistome of the Cockroach .

mSystems 2021 May 11;6(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute for Integrative Systems Biology (ISysBio), University of Valencia and CSIC, Valencia, Spain

Cockroaches are intriguing animals with two coexisting symbiotic systems, an endosymbiont in the fat body, involved in nitrogen metabolism, and a gut microbiome whose diversity, complexity, role, and developmental dynamics have not been fully elucidated. In this work, we present a metagenomic approach to study populations not treated, treated with kanamycin, and recovered after treatment, both naturally and by adding feces to the diet, with the aim of better understanding the structure and function of its gut microbiome along the development as well as the characterization of its resistome. For the first time, we analyze the interkingdom hindgut microbiome of this species, including bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses. Read More

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[Self-assembly in the transparent droplets formed during the screening of protein self-assembly conditions].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Apr;37(4):1396-1405

Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience & Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, Shaanxi, China.

Protein self-assemblies at the micro- and nano-scale are of great interest because of their morphological diversity and good biocompatibility. High-throughput screening of protein self-assembly at different scales and morphologies using protein crystallization screening conditions is an emerging method. When using this method to screen protein self-assembly conditions, some apparently transparent droplets are often observed, in which it is not clear whether self-assembly occurs. Read More

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Histone acetylation dynamics modulates chromatin conformation and allele-specific interactions at oncogenic loci.

Nat Genet 2021 May 10;53(5):650-662. Epub 2021 May 10.

Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, School of Life Sciences, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.

In cancer cells, enhancer hijacking mediated by chromosomal alterations and/or increased deposition of acetylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac) can support oncogene expression. However, how the chromatin conformation of enhancer-promoter interactions is affected by these events is unclear. In the present study, by comparing chromatin structure and H3K27ac levels in normal and lymphoma B cells, we show that enhancer-promoter-interacting regions assume different conformations according to the local abundance of H3K27ac. Read More

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Shedding light on therapeutics in alopecia and their relevance to COVID-19.

Clin Dermatol 2021 Jan-Feb;39(1):76-83. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

National and International Skin Registry Solutions (NISR), Charles Institute of Dermatology, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; Hair Restoration Blackrock, Dublin, Ireland.

As of July 9, 2020, there were more than 12 million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across the globe, with more than 550,000 deaths. Many European countries, including Belgium, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain, have had the highest numbers of fatalities per capita. This indicates the potential for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus to overwhelm even the most advanced health care systems despite extreme societal interventions. Read More

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December 2020

Medicinal plant compounds as promising inhibitors of coronavirus (COVID-19) main protease: an study.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 May 10:1-12. Epub 2021 May 10.

Clinical Biochemistry Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the globe and has involved more than 215 countries and territories. Due to a lack of effective therapy or vaccine, urgent and concerted efforts are needed to identify therapeutic targets and medications. COVID-19 main protease represents a major target for drug treatment to inhibit viral function. Read More

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Primary cilia: turning points in establishing their ubiquity, sensory role and the pathological consequences of dysfunction.

Authors:
Denys N Wheatley

J Cell Commun Signal 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

BioMedES, Leggat, Keithhall, Inverurie, AB51 0LX, UK.

For over 20 years it has finally become accepted that primary cilia are without doubt important cellular organelles, involved in signalling both intrinsically and extrinsically. The consequences of their agenesis, incorrect assembly and dysfunction only began to be fully appreciated after 2000, although this had been demonstrable over the previous two decades. Before 1980, biologists at large thought the organelle rudimentary or vestigial; how a well-developed cilium could be so slated beggars belief. Read More

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Complete plastome sequence of (Linn. f.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae): a medicinal plant species endemic in East Asia.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Apr 23;6(4):1409-1410. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

College of Tropical Crops, Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, Hainan University, Haikou, China.

is a shrub species in the family of Euphorbiaceae. The study of plastome would be helpful for its phylogenetic study and species identification. The total length of complete plastome for is of 164,912 bp, with typical part-four structure and gene content of angiosperm plastome, including two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 27,829 bp, a large single-copy (LSC) region of 90,319 bp, and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,935 bp. Read More

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Induced Autophagy of Macrophages and the Regulation of Inflammatory Effects by Perovskite Nanomaterial LaNiO.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:676773. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS-HKU Joint Laboratory of Metallomics on Health and Environment, and Beijing Metallomics Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Perovskite nanomaterials (NMs) possess excellent physicochemical properties and have promising applications in light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, photodetectors, and artificial synapse electronics. Potential exposure to these NMs happens in the manufacture and application of the perovskite-based products, however, the biological safety of these NMs is still unknown. Here, we used the LaNiO NM (LNO), a typical kind of perovskite nanostructures to study the interaction with macrophages (J774A. Read More

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Targeting Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 7 (USP7) in Cancer: A New Insight to Overcome Drug Resistance.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:648491. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Chemoresistance is one of the leading causes for the failure of tumor treatment. Hence, it is necessary to study further and understand the potential mechanisms of tumor resistance to design and develop novel anti-tumor drugs. Post-translational modifications are critical for proteins' function under physiological and pathological conditions, among which ubiquitination is the most common one. Read More

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Relationship between expressions of aggression and individual characteristics in correctional settings: A path analysis.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 30;138:467-476. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Personality, Assessment and Psychological Treatment, University of Granada (UGR), Spain; The Brain, Mind and Behavior Research Center at University of Granada (CIMCYC-UGR), Spain.

Background: The reduction of misconduct levels and its prevention are two important objectives in prison settings, for which several strategies and control mechanisms are implemented.

Objetive: We explore the relationship between a set of socio-demographic, judicial, affective, and personality characteristics and various expressions of aggression.

Method: An Ecuadorian sample of 675 sentenced male prisoners was assessed using the Spanish adaptation of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Read More

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Pharmacological SARM1 inhibition protects axon structure and function in paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.

Brain 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Disarm Therapeutics, a wholly owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly & Co., Cambridge MA 02142, USA.

Axonal degeneration is an early and ongoing event that causes disability and disease progression in many neurodegenerative disorders of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major cause of morbidity and the main cause of dose reductions and discontinuations in cancer treatment. Preclinical evidence indicates that activation of the Wallerian-like degeneration pathway driven by SARM1 is responsible for axonopathy in CIPN. Read More

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An application of slow feature analysis to the genetic sequences of coronaviruses and influenza viruses.

Hum Genomics 2021 05 7;15(1):26. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biology and Center for Visual Sciences, Miami University, Oxford, OH, 45056, USA.

Background: Mathematical approaches have been for decades used to probe the structure of DNA sequences. This has led to the development of Bioinformatics. In this exploratory work, a novel mathematical method is applied to probe the DNA structure of two related viral families: those of coronaviruses and those of influenza viruses. Read More

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Early time-point cell morphology classifiers successfully predict human bone marrow stromal cell differentiation modulated by fiber density in nanofiber scaffolds.

Biomaterials 2021 Apr 26;274:120812. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

National Institute of Standards & Technology, Biosystems & Biomaterials Division, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8543, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899, USA. Electronic address:

Nanofiber scaffolds can induce osteogenic differentiation and cell morphology alterations of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) without introduction of chemical cues. In this study, we investigate the predictive power of day 1 cell morphology, quantified by a machine learning based method, as an indicator of osteogenic differentiation modulated by nanofiber density. Nanofiber scaffolds are fabricated via electrospinning. Read More

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Coronary Microvascular Adaptations Distal to Epicardial Artery Stenosis.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Michael E. DeBakey Institute for Comparative Cardiovascular Science and Biomedical Devices, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, United Statesgrid.264756.4.

Until recently, epicardial coronary stenosis has been considered the primary outcome of coronary heart disease and clinical interventions have been dedicated primarily to identification and removal of flow-limiting stenoses. However, a growing body of literature indicates that both epicardial stenosis and microvascular dysfunction contribute to damaging myocardial ischemia. In this review, we discuss the co-existence of macro- and microvascular disease, and how the structure and function of the distal microcirculation is impacted by the hemodynamic consequences of an epicardial, flow-limiting stenosis. Read More

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Revealing the Structure Evolution of Heterogeneous Pd Catalyst in Suzuki Reaction via the Identical Location Transmission Electron Microscopy.

ACS Nano 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China.

The mechanism of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs)-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions has been the subject of intense debate since the recognition of catalytic active sites involving a wide array of dynamic changed Pd species. Here, through the combination of the hot filtration experiment together with the recently developed identical location transmission electron microscopy (IL-TEM) method, the delicate structure evolution of highly dispersed Pd NPs supported on oxygen-functionalized carbon nanotubes (Pd/oCNTs) as well as the kinetics properties of derived dissolved species in liquid phase were systemically investigated in the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. The result indicates that the leached Pd components caused by the strong adsorption of reactants might have a significant contribution to the coupling products, and the degree for different substrates follows the order of iodobenzene > phenylboronic acid > bromobenzene. Read More

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[Current issues of epidemiology, etiology, risk factors and predisposing conditions of acute pyelonephritis (review part I)].

Urologiia 2021 May(2):109-115

Dept. of Urology and Human Reproductive Health Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

A growing body of research indicates an upward trend in the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) around the world. Acute pyelonephritis (AP), which is dangerous by the development of complex, life-threatening conditions, is no exception. Today the demographic portrait, as well as the characteristics of the causative agents and predisposing conditions of this disease are a global issue for the entire scientific community. Read More

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