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Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis of Eudocima salaminia (Cramer, 1777) (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea), novel gene rearrangement and phylogenetic relationship within the superfamily Noctuoidea.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Taxonomy and Biodiversity, Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600034, India.

The species Eudocima salaminia (Cramer, 1777) commonly known as the fruit-piercing moth belongs to family Erebidae. Its distribution varies from India and across South-east Asia, pacific islands and parts of Australia. The insect is a devastating pest of citrus, longans and lychees. Read More

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Droplet Microfluidics with Reagent Micromixing for Investigating Intrinsic Platelet Functionality.

Cell Mol Bioeng 2021 Jun 21;14(3):223-230. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ UK.

Introduction: Precision mapping of the functional structure of platelet populations holds great promise for the identification of hyper-reactive subtypes that are likely to be disease drivers, having value in prognostics and as therapeutic targets. However, the ability to measure the intrinsic functional capacity of individual platelets is confounded by potent paracrine cross-talk, resulting in phenotypic remodeling of the entire platelet population, and in doing so obscuring the identity of hyper-reactive platelets.

Methods: To address this we have developed a droplet microfluidics strategy for single platelet confinement to exclude paracrine signaling. Read More

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Confidence interval methods for antimicrobial resistance surveillance data.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2021 Jun 9;10(1):91. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the greatest global health challenges today, but burden assessment is hindered by uncertainty of AMR prevalence estimates. Geographical representation of AMR estimates typically pools data collected from several laboratories; however, these aggregations may introduce bias by not accounting for the heterogeneity of the population that each laboratory represents.

Methods: We used AMR data from up to 381 laboratories in the United States from The Surveillance Network to evaluate methods for estimating uncertainty of AMR prevalence estimates. Read More

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The Tokophobia Severity Scale (TSS): measurement model, power and sample size considerations.

J Reprod Infant Psychol 2021 Jun 9:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Perinatal Mental Health Team, Humber Teaching NHS Foundation Trust, Hull, UK.

: To examine the measurement model of the Tokophobia Severity Scale and consider issues of statistical power and sample size from the original instrument development study.: Fear of childbirth (FoC) and tokophobia represents an area of increasing concern within perinatal mental health research and clinical practice. Existing measures of the FoC have been criticised due to either measurement inconsistencies, difficulties in scoring or practical clinical application. Read More

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[Quality management in a postgraduate refresher course in otolaryngology].

HNO 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Klinik für Allgemein‑, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Deutschland.

Background: Residency training is often characterized by locally influenced training content and focus, which can lead to heterogeneous training outcomes. Refresher courses before the speciality certificate examinations can harmonize the situation.

Objective: The current publication aims to present a quality management system for evaluation of a postgraduate refresher course for otolaryngology residents. Read More

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Data-Driven Ensemble Docking to Map Molecular Interactions of Steroid Analogs with Hepatic Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of Vienna, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

Hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides-OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1-are expressed at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes, being responsible for the uptake of a wide range of natural substrates and structurally unrelated pharmaceuticals. Impaired function of hepatic OATPs has been linked to clinically relevant drug-drug interactions leading to altered pharmacokinetics of administered drugs. Therefore, understanding the commonalities and differences across the three transporters represents useful knowledge to guide the drug discovery process at an early stage. Read More

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Increasing the Power of Intergenerational Programs: Advancing an Evaluation Tool.

J Appl Gerontol 2021 Jun 9:7334648211015459. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.

Intergenerational practitioners responding to a 2018 national survey identified a need for evidence-informed evaluation tools to measure program impact. The Best Practices (BP) Checklist, a 14-item (yes/no) measure assessing the extent to which an intergenerational program session maintained effective intergenerational strategies, may help meet this need. Yet, researchers have not validated the measure. Read More

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Ferumoxytol for the treatment of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia of pregnancy.

Ther Adv Hematol 2021 31;12:20406207211018042. Epub 2021 May 31.

Auerbach Hematology and Oncology, 5233 King Ave Suite 308, Baltimore, MD 21237, USA.

Introduction: A litany of recent evidence supports the morbidity of intra-natal iron-deficiency anemia and its prodrome, iron deficiency. Oral iron administered during second and third trimesters does not get to the developing fetus if the mother is iron deficient. This is especially concerning as the rapidly developing fetal brain is in particular need of iron sufficiency. Read More

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Comparative phytochemistry of flavaglines (= rocaglamides), a group of highly bioactive flavolignans from species (Meliaceae).

Authors:
Harald Greger

Phytochem Rev 2021 Jun 4:1-40. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Chemodiversity Research Group, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Wien, Austria.

Flavaglines are formed by cycloaddition of a flavonoid nucleus with a cinnamic acid moiety representing a typical chemical character of the genus of the family Meliaceae. Based on biosynthetic considerations 148 derivatives are grouped together into three skeletal types representing 77 cyclopenta[]benzofurans, 61 cyclopenta[]benzopyrans, and 10 benzo[]oxepines. Apart from different hydroxy, methoxy, and methylenedioxy groups of the aromatic rings, important structural variation is created by different substitutions and stereochemistries of the central cyclopentane ring. Read More

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Developing countries and the use of ISO Standard 11228-3 for risk management of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Limbs (WRMSDs-ULs): The case of Chile.

Appl Ergon 2021 Jun 6;96:103483. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Centro de Estudio del Trabajo y Factores Humanos, Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Limbs (WRMSDs-ULs) are one of the most common occupational diseases worldwide. Repetitive motion is one of the main risk factors associated with these conditions. Several efforts have been made within the scientific community in order to develop specific methods to assess the risk that repetitive work represents. Read More

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A home run for human NaCT/SLC13A5/INDY: cryo-EM structure and homology model to predict transport mechanisms, inhibitor interactions and mutational defects.

Biochem J 2021 Jun;478(11):2051-2057

Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, U.S.A.

NaCT (SLC13A5) is a Na+-coupled transporter for citrate, which is expressed in the liver, brain, testes, and bone. It is the mammalian homolog of Drosophila INDY, a cation-independent transporter for citrate, whose partial loss extends lifespan in the organism. In humans, loss-of-function mutations in NaCT cause a disease with severe neurological dysfunction, characterized by neonatal epilepsy and delayed brain development. Read More

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A new method for the study of biophysical and morphological parameters in 3D cell cultures: Evaluation in LoVo spheroids treated with crizotinib.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(6):e0252907. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Molecular Genetics "Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza", Unit of Bologna, CNR, Bologna, Italy.

Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems like tumor spheroids represent useful in vitro models for drug screening and more broadly for cancer biology research, but the generation of uniform populations of spheroids remains challenging. The possibility to properly characterize spheroid properties would increase the reliability of these models. To address this issue different analysis were combined: i) a new device and relative analytical method for the accurate, simultaneous, and rapid measurement of mass density, weight, and size of spheroids, ii) confocal imaging, and iii) protein quantification, in a clinically relevant 3D model. Read More

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Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry Does Not Represent Bone Structure in Patients with Osteoporosis: A Comparison of Lumbar Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry with Vertebral Biopsies.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Jul;46(13):861-866

Spine Department, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Study Design: Prospective cross-sectional exploratory study.

Objective: To evaluate the correlation between in vivo lumbar dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and parameters of bone architecture in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in patients with osteoporosis.

Summary Of Background Data: DXA is the current diagnostic standard for evaluating osteoporosis. Read More

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Next Generation Cuprous Phenanthroline MLCT Photosensitizer Featuring Cyclohexyl Substituents.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8204, United States.

A new long-lived, visible-light-absorbing homoleptic Cu(I) metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) photosensitizer, [Cu(dchtmp)]PF (dchtmp = 2,9-dicyclohexyl-3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline), has been synthesized, structurally characterized, and evaluated in terms of its molecular photophysics, electrochemistry, and electronic structure. Static and time-resolved transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measured on the title compound in CHCl (τ = 2.6 μs, Φ = 5. Read More

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Precision Cut Lung Slices as an Efficient Tool for Ex vivo Pulmonary Vessel Structure and Contractility Studies.

J Vis Exp 2021 May 24(171). Epub 2021 May 24.

Divisions of Pulmonary Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital;

The visualization of murine lung tissue provides valuable structural and cellular information regarding the underlying airway and vasculature. However, the preservation of pulmonary vessels that truly represents physiological conditions still presents challenges. In addition, the delicate configuration of murine lungs result in technical challenges preparing samples for high-quality images that preserve both cellular composition and architecture. Read More

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Alkylated Salicylaldehydes and Prenylated Indole Alkaloids from the Endolichenic Fungus and Their Bioactivities.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 7;69(23):6524-6534. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products & Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, P. R. China.

Sixteen metabolites, including seven C-alkylated salicylaldehyde derivatives (-) and nine prenylated indole alkaloids (-), three of which are new, namely, asperglaucins A and B ( and ) and neoechinulin F (), were separated from the endolichenic fungus SQ-8. Asperglaucin A () represents an unusual phthalide-like derivative with a benzo[]thiophen-1(3)-one scaffold. All compounds were assessed for antibacterial, antineuroinflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Read More

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Contrasting population manipulations reveal resource competition between two large marsupials: bare-nosed wombats and eastern grey kangaroos.

Oecologia 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay, TAS, Australia.

Resource competition is an important interaction that can structure ecological communities, but is difficult to demonstrate in nature, and rarely demonstrated for large mammals including marsupials. We analysed 10 years of population survey data to investigate resource competition between bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus) and eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) at two sites to assess whether resource competition is occurring. At one site, wombat abundance was reduced by increased mortality from mange disease, whereas at the other site, kangaroo abundance was reduced primarily by culling. Read More

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Computational Modeling as a Tool to Investigate PPI: From Drug Design to Tissue Engineering.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:681617. Epub 2021 May 20.

The Quantum Theory Project, Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate a large number of important regulatory pathways. Their modulation represents an important strategy for discovering novel therapeutic agents. However, the features of PPI binding surfaces make the use of structure-based drug discovery methods very challenging. Read More

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Cytological and molecular diagnosis of Hürthle cell thyroid tumors: Analysis of three cases.

Mol Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 28;15(1):149. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Surgery, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Novosibirsk 630091, Russia.

The cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell (oncocytic) thyroid tumors by means of fine-needle aspiration biopsy represents a challenge, as Hürthle cell polymorphism and atypia alone are not indications of malignancy. In our recent work, an original diagnostic algorithm was proposed, which identified and typed malignant thyroid tumors by analyzing the molecular markers of cytological preparations. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of this algorithm at detecting Hürthle cell thyroid tumors in clinical samples used for cytological examination. Read More

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Self-Organization and Information Processing: From Basic Enzymatic Activities to Complex Adaptive Cellular Behavior.

Front Genet 2021 21;12:644615. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Leioa, Spain.

One of the main aims of current biology is to understand the origin of the molecular organization that underlies the complex dynamic architecture of cellular life. Here, we present an overview of the main sources of biomolecular order and complexity spanning from the most elementary levels of molecular activity to the emergence of cellular systemic behaviors. First, we have addressed the dissipative self-organization, the principal source of molecular order in the cell. Read More

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Validating Indigenous Versions of the South African Personality Inventory.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:556565. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Personality assessments are frequently used to make decisions and predictions, creating a demand for assessments that are non-discriminatory. South African legislation requires psychological tests to be scientifically proven to be valid, reliable, fair and non-biased. In response to the necessity for a measure sensitive to indigenous differences, South African and Dutch researchers developed the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI). Read More

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Utilizing the Heterogeneity of Clinical Data for Model Refinement and Rule Discovery Through the Application of Genetic Algorithms to Calibrate a High-Dimensional Agent-Based Model of Systemic Inflammation.

Front Physiol 2021 19;12:662845. Epub 2021 May 19.

Departmen of Surgery, Larner College of Medicine, The University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States.

Accounting for biological heterogeneity represents one of the greatest challenges in biomedical research. Dynamic computational and mathematical models can be used to enhance the study and understanding of biological systems, but traditional methods for calibration and validation commonly do not account for the heterogeneity of biological data, which may result in overfitting and brittleness of these models. Herein we propose a machine learning approach that utilizes genetic algorithms (GAs) to calibrate and refine an agent-based model (ABM) of acute systemic inflammation, with a focus on accounting for the heterogeneity seen in a clinical data set, thereby avoiding overfitting and increasing the robustness and potential generalizability of the underlying simulation model. Read More

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Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of whole plant chemical constituents of Rumex abyssinicus.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Jun 5;21(1):164. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Research Unit of Microbiology and Antimicrobial Substances, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon.

Background: Antibiotic resistance has contributed to the burden of infectious diseases both in the hospital and community setting, and represents a great threat to public health. Previous studies have revealed the role of reactive oxygen species as intermediate mediators of tissue damage, following antibiotherapies, indicating the need of associating antioxidants to these treatments. Therefore, the present work was designed to study the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of extracts and compounds from Rumex abyssinicus Jacq. Read More

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A new strategy to fabricate multifunctional luminescent MOFs, extending their application range from pH sensing to amino acid information coding.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 26;601:427-436. Epub 2021 May 26.

School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Herein, we propose a new strategy for designing new types of wide range pH-sensitive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with double luminescent centers on UiO-66-2OH. The UiO-66-2OH has a ligands-based emission at 530 nm. To introduce another luminescent center, PMA (1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid), as the functional site, is used to substitute the initial ligand, BDC-2OH (2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid), of UiO-66-2OH. Read More

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Virtual Multidisciplinary Tumor Boards: A Narrative Review Focused on Lung Cancer.

Pulm Ther 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Risk Management Unit, Policlinico, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

To date, the virtual multidisciplinary tumor boards (vMTBs) are increasingly used to achieve high-quality treatment recommendations across health-care regions, which expands and develops the local MTB team to a regional or national expert network. This review describes the process of lung cancer-specific MTBs and the transition process from face-to-face tumor boards to virtual ones. The review also focuses on the project organization's description, advantages, and disadvantages. Read More

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Supercapacitive brophene-graphene aerogel as elastic-electrochemical dielectric layer for sensitive pressure sensors.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 25;601:355-364. Epub 2021 May 25.

Science and Technology Institute, Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials & Application, Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

A sensitive pressure sensor based on ultralight and superelastic supercapacitive borophene-graphene aerogel as dielectric layer is reported. The borophene-graphene aerogel not only combines large specific surface area of reduced graphene oxide and high conductivity of borophene, but also exhibits rich porous structure. The strong synergy and intercalation between two different two-dimensional materials benefit electron transfer and electrolyte ion diffusion. Read More

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Using connectomics for predictive assessment of brain parcellations.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 1;238:118170. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Richard Petersens Plads, Building 324, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark; Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Richard Petersens Plads, Building 324, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address:

The organization of the human brain remains elusive, yet is of great importance to the mechanisms of integrative brain function. At the macroscale, its structural and functional interpretation is conventionally assessed at the level of cortical units. However, the definition and validation of such cortical parcellations are problematic due to the absence of a true gold standard. Read More

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Scalable, Divergent Synthesis of a High Aspect Ratio Carbon Nanobelt.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 4;143(23):8619-8624. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Carbon nanobelts are molecules of high fundamental and technological interest due to their structural similarity to carbon nanotubes, of which they are molecular cutouts. Despite this attention, synthetic accessibility is a major obstacle, such that the few known strategies offer limited structural diversity, functionality, and scalability. To address this bottleneck, we have developed a new strategy that utilizes highly fused monomer units constructed via a site-selective [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition and a high-yielding zirconocene-mediated macrocyclization to achieve the synthesis of a new carbon nanobelt on large scale with the introduction of functional handles in the penultimate step. Read More

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Spectroscopic characterization of neptunium(VI), plutonium(VI), americium(VI) and neptunium(V) encapsulated in uranyl nitrate hexahydrate.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jun;23(23):13228-13241

Nuclear Engineering and Science Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

The coordination of crystalline products resulting from the co-crystallization of Np(vi), Pu(vi), Am(vi), and Np(v) with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) has been revealed through solid-state spectroscopic characterization via diffuse reflectance UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDS, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Density functional and multireference wavefunction calculations were performed to analyze the An(vi/v)O2(NO3)2·2H2O electronic structures and to help assign the observed transitions in the absorption spectra. EXAFS show a similar coordination between the U(VI) in UNH and Np(vi) and Pu(vi); while Am resulted in a similar coordination to Am(iii), as reduction of Am(vi) occurred prior to EXAFS data being obtained. Read More

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Estimation of Granger causality through Artificial Neural Networks: applications to physiological systems and chaotic electronic oscillators.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 18;7:e429. Epub 2021 May 18.

Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy.

One of the most challenging problems in the study of complex dynamical systems is to find the statistical interdependencies among the system components. Granger causality (GC) represents one of the most employed approaches, based on modeling the system dynamics with a linear vector autoregressive (VAR) model and on evaluating the information flow between two processes in terms of prediction error variances. In its most advanced setting, GC analysis is performed through a state-space (SS) representation of the VAR model that allows to compute both conditional and unconditional forms of GC by solving only one regression problem. Read More

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