123 results match your criteria structurally metazoan

Molecular Evolution of DNA Topoisomerase III Beta (TOP3B) in Metazoa.

J Mol Evol 2021 Jul 17;89(6):384-395. Epub 2021 May 17.

IDENTIFICA Genetic Testing, Rua Simão Bolívar 259 3º Dir Tras, 4470-214, Maia, Portugal.

DNA topoisomerase III beta (TOP3B) is unique by operating on both DNA and RNA substrates to regulate gene expression and genomic stability. Mutations in human TOP3B are linked to neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders, highlighting its relevance for human health. Despite the emerging importance of TOP3B, its precise cellular functions and evolutionary history remain poorly understood. Read More

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Identification of Integrator-PP2A complex (INTAC), an RNA polymerase II phosphatase.

Science 2020 11;370(6520)

Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

The 14-subunit metazoan-specific Integrator contains an endonuclease that cleaves nascent RNA transcripts. Here, we identified a complex containing Integrator and protein phosphatase 2A core enzyme (PP2A-AC), termed INTAC. The 3. Read More

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November 2020

Maize metacaspases modulate the defense response mediated by the NLR protein Rp1-D21 likely by affecting its subcellular localization.

Plant J 2021 01 20;105(1):151-166. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

The Key Laboratory of Plant Development and Environmental Adaptation Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266237, PR China.

Plants usually employ resistance (R) genes to defend against the infection of pathogens, and most R genes encode intracellular nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins. The recognition between R proteins and their cognate pathogens often triggers a rapid localized cell death at the pathogen infection sites, termed the hypersensitive response (HR). Metacaspases (MCs) belong to a cysteine protease family, structurally related to metazoan caspases. Read More

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January 2021

An evolutionarily distinct chaperone promotes 20S proteasome α-ring assembly in plants.

J Cell Sci 2020 11 3;133(21). Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA

The core protease (CP) subcomplex of the 26S proteasome houses the proteolytic active sites and assumes a barrel shape comprised of four co-axially stacked heptameric rings formed by structurally related α- and β-subunits. CP biogenesis typically begins with the assembly of the α-ring, which then provides a template for β-subunit integration. In eukaryotes, α-ring assembly is partially mediated by two hetero-dimeric chaperones, termed Pba1-Pba2 (Add66) and Pba3-Pba4 (also known as Irc25-Poc4) in yeast. Read More

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November 2020

Chelicerata sDscam isoforms combine homophilic specificities to define unique cell recognition.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 10 22;117(40):24813-24824. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

MOE Laboratory of Biosystems Homeostasis & Protection, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, ZJ310058 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China;

Thousands of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam1) isoforms and ∼60 clustered protocadhrein (cPcdh) proteins are required for establishing neural circuits in insects and vertebrates, respectively. The strict homophilic specificity exhibited by these proteins has been extensively studied and is thought to be critical for their function in neuronal self-avoidance. In contrast, significantly less is known about the Dscam1-related family of ∼100 shortened (sDscam) proteins in Chelicerata. Read More

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October 2020

Structures of mammalian GLD-2 proteins reveal molecular basis of their functional diversity in mRNA and microRNA processing.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 09;48(15):8782-8795

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060, China.

The stability and processing of cellular RNA transcripts are efficiently controlled via non-templated addition of single or multiple nucleotides, which is catalyzed by various nucleotidyltransferases including poly(A) polymerases (PAPs). Germline development defective 2 (GLD-2) is among the first reported cytoplasmic non-canonical PAPs that promotes the translation of germline-specific mRNAs by extending their short poly(A) tails in metazoan, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Xenopus. On the other hand, the function of mammalian GLD-2 seems more diverse, which includes monoadenylation of certain microRNAs. Read More

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September 2020

Environmental DNA surveys detect distinct metazoan communities across abyssal plains and seamounts in the western Clarion Clipperton Zone.

Mol Ecol 2020 12 14;29(23):4588-4604. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Department of Oceanography, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI, USA.

The deep seafloor serves as a reservoir of biodiversity in the global ocean, with >80% of invertebrates at abyssal depths still undescribed. These diverse and remote deep-sea communities are critically under-sampled and increasingly threatened by anthropogenic impacts, including future polymetallic nodule mining. Using a multigene environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding approach, we characterized metazoan communities sampled from sediments, polymetallic nodules and seawater in the western Clarion Clipperton Zone (CCZ) to test the hypotheses that deep seamounts (a) are species richness hotspots in the abyss, (b) have structurally distinct communities in comparison to other deep-sea habitats, and (c) that seafloor particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and polymetallic nodule density are positively correlated with metazoan diversity. Read More

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December 2020

The Orphan Cytokine Receptor CRLF3 Emerged With the Origin of the Nervous System and Is a Neuroprotective Erythropoietin Receptor in Locusts.

Front Mol Neurosci 2019 11;12:251. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Cellular Neurobiology, Institute for Zoology and Anthropology, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

The orphan cytokine receptor-like factor 3 (CRLF3) was identified as a neuroprotective erythropoietin receptor in locust neurons and emerged with the evolution of the eumetazoan nervous system. Human CRLF3 belongs to class I helical cytokine receptors that mediate pleiotropic cellular reactions to injury and diverse physiological challenges. It is expressed in various tissues including the central nervous system but its ligand remains unidentified. Read More

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October 2019

Comparative neuroanatomy of ctenophores: Neural and muscular systems in Euplokamis dunlapae and related species.

J Comp Neurol 2020 02 4;528(3):481-501. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, University of Florida, St. Augustine, Florida.

Ctenophora is an early-branching basal metazoan lineage, which may have evolved neurons and muscles independently from other animals. However, despite the profound diversity among ctenophores, basal neuroanatomical data are limited to representatives of two genera. Here, we describe the organization of neuromuscular systems in eight ctenophore species focusing on Euplokamis dunlapae-the representative of the lineage sister to all other ctenophores. Read More

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February 2020

Diversification of Retinoblastoma Protein Function Associated with Cis and Trans Adaptations.

Mol Biol Evol 2019 12;36(12):2790-2804

Graduate Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

Retinoblastoma proteins are eukaryotic transcriptional corepressors that play central roles in cell cycle control, among other functions. Although most metazoan genomes encode a single retinoblastoma protein, gene duplications have occurred at least twice: in the vertebrate lineage, leading to Rb, p107, and p130, and in Drosophila, an ancestral Rbf1 gene and a derived Rbf2 gene. Structurally, Rbf1 resembles p107 and p130, and mutation of the gene is lethal. Read More

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December 2019

Pluripotency and the origin of animal multicellularity.

Nature 2019 06 12;570(7762):519-522. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

A widely held-but rarely tested-hypothesis for the origin of animals is that they evolved from a unicellular ancestor, with an apical cilium surrounded by a microvillar collar, that structurally resembled modern sponge choanocytes and choanoflagellates. Here we test this view of animal origins by comparing the transcriptomes, fates and behaviours of the three primary sponge cell types-choanocytes, pluripotent mesenchymal archaeocytes and epithelial pinacocytes-with choanoflagellates and other unicellular holozoans. Unexpectedly, we find that the transcriptome of sponge choanocytes is the least similar to the transcriptomes of choanoflagellates and is significantly enriched in genes unique to either animals or sponges alone. Read More

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Evolution and structural diversity of metacaspases.

J Exp Bot 2019 04;70(7):2039-2047

Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Caspases are metazoan proteases, best known for their involvement in programmed cell death in animals. In higher plants genetically controlled mechanisms leading to the selective death of individual cells also involve the regulated interplay of various types of proteases. Some of these enzymes are structurally homologous to caspases and have therefore been termed metacaspases. Read More

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Stereoselective fatty acylation is essential for the release of lipidated WNT proteins from the acyltransferase Porcupine (PORCN).

J Biol Chem 2019 04 8;294(16):6273-6282. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

From the Departments of Cell Biology,

The maintenance of adult animal tissues depends upon highly conserved intercellular signaling molecules that include the secreted WNT proteins. Although it is generally accepted that lipidation of WNTs by the acyltransferase Porcupine (PORCN) and their subsequent recognition by the Wntless (WLS) protein is essential for their cellular secretion, the molecular understanding of this process remains limited. Using structurally diverse fatty acyl donor analogs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts expressing PORCN protein from different metazoan phyla, we demonstrate here that PORCN active-site features, which are conserved across the animal kingdom, enforce -Δ9 fatty acylation of WNTs. Read More

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Condensins and cohesins - one of these things is not like the other!

J Cell Sci 2019 02 7;132(3). Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, 111 Research Drive, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA

Condensins and cohesins are highly conserved complexes that tether together DNA loci within a single DNA molecule to produce DNA loops. Condensin and cohesin structures, however, are different, and the DNA loops produced by each underlie distinct cell processes. Condensin rods compact chromosomes during mitosis, with condensin I and II complexes producing spatially defined and nested looping in metazoan cells. Read More

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February 2019

Cell type-specific structural plasticity of the ciliary transition zone in C. elegans.

Biol Cell 2019 Apr 14;111(4):95-107. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Genetics and Human Genetics Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA.

Background Information: The current consensus on cilia development posits that the ciliary transition zone (TZ) is formed via extension of nine centrosomal microtubules. In this model, TZ structure remains unchanged in microtubule number throughout the cilium life cycle. This model does not however explain structural variations of TZ structure seen in nature and could also lend itself to the misinterpretation that deviations from nine-doublet microtubule ultrastructure represent an abnormal phenotype. Read More

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The Src module: an ancient scaffold in the evolution of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 10 5;53(5):535-563. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

a Department of Molecular and Cell Biology , University of California , Berkeley , CA , USA.

Tyrosine kinases were first discovered as the protein products of viral oncogenes. We now know that this large family of metazoan enzymes includes nearly one hundred structurally diverse members. Tyrosine kinases are broadly classified into two groups: the transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases, which sense extracellular stimuli, and the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, which contain modular ligand-binding domains and propagate intracellular signals. Read More

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October 2018

CBD-1 organizes two independent complexes required for eggshell vitelline layer formation and egg activation in C. elegans.

Dev Biol 2018 10 16;442(2):288-300. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Biology and Program in Molecular Biology, Pomona College, Claremont, CA 91711, USA. Electronic address:

Metazoan eggs have a specialized coat of extracellular matrix that aids in sperm-egg recognition. The coat is rapidly remodeled after fertilization to prevent polyspermy and establish a more permanent barrier to protect the developing embryo. In nematodes, this coat is called the vitelline layer, which is remodeled into the outermost layer of a rigid and impermeable eggshell. Read More

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October 2018

Octopamine signaling in the metazoan pathogen : localization, small-molecule screening and opportunities for drug development.

Dis Model Mech 2018 07 30;11(7). Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, 21, 111 Lakeshore Road, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X-3V9.

Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease caused by a flatworm trematode parasite that infects over 200 million people worldwide. Treatment and control of the disease rely on just one drug, praziquantel. The possibility of drug resistance coupled with praziquantel's variable efficacy encourages the identification of new drugs and drug targets. Read More

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Extracellular Matrix (ECM) and the Sculpting of Embryonic Tissues.

Curr Top Dev Biol 2018 ;130:245-274

Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia, School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, United States. Electronic address:

Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are structurally and compositionally diverse networks of collagenous and noncollagenous glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and associated molecules that together comprise the metazoan matrisome. Proper deposition and assembly of ECM is of profound importance to cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, and the morphogenesis of tissues and organ systems that define sequential steps in the development of all animals. Importantly, it is now clear that the instructive influence of a particular ECM at various points in development reflects more than a simple summing of component parts; cellular responses also reflect the dynamic assembly and changing topology of embryonic ECM, which in turn affect its biomechanical properties. Read More

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The kinetochore proteins CENP-E and CENP-F directly and specifically interact with distinct BUB mitotic checkpoint Ser/Thr kinases.

J Biol Chem 2018 06 10;293(26):10084-10101. Epub 2018 May 10.

From the Department of Mechanistic Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 11, 44227 Dortmund and

The segregation of chromosomes during cell division relies on the function of the kinetochores, protein complexes that physically connect chromosomes with microtubules of the spindle. The metazoan proteins, centromere protein E (CENP-E) and CENP-F, are components of a fibrous layer of mitotic kinetochores named the corona. Several of their features suggest that CENP-E and CENP-F are paralogs: they are very large (comprising ∼2700 and 3200 residues, respectively), contain abundant predicted coiled-coil structures, are C-terminally prenylated, and are endowed with microtubule-binding sites at their termini. Read More

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An ultraprocessive, accurate reverse transcriptase encoded by a metazoan group II intron.

RNA 2018 02 6;24(2):183-195. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

Group II introns and non-LTR retrotransposons encode a phylogenetically related family of highly processive reverse transcriptases (RTs) that are essential for mobility and persistence of these retroelements. Recent crystallographic studies on members of this RT family have revealed that they are structurally distinct from the retroviral RTs that are typically used in biotechnology. However, quantitative, structure-guided analysis of processivity, efficiency, and accuracy of this alternate RT family has been lacking. Read More

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February 2018

Chiral Measurement of Aspartate and Glutamate in Single Neurons by Large-Volume Sample Stacking Capillary Electrophoresis.

Anal Chem 2017 11 8;89(22):12375-12382. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Department of Chemistry and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.

d-Amino acids (d-AAs) are endogenous molecules found throughout the metazoan, the functions of which remain poorly understood. Measurements of low abundance and heterogeneously distributed d-AAs in complex biological samples, such as cells and multicellular structures of the central nervous system (CNS), require the implementation of sensitive and selective analytical approaches. In order to measure the d- and l-forms of aspartate and glutamate, we developed and applied a stacking chiral capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced fluorescence detection method. Read More

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November 2017

Mitochondrial genomes of the key zooplankton copepods Arctic Calanus glacialis and North Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus with the longest crustacean non-coding regions.

Sci Rep 2017 10 20;7(1):13702. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, 81-712, Poland.

We determined the nearly complete mitochondrial genomes of the Arctic Calanus glacialis and its North Atlantic sibling Calanus finmarchicus, which are key zooplankton components in marine ecosystems. The sequenced part of C. glacialis mitogenome is 27,342 bp long and consists of two contigs, while for C. Read More

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October 2017

A cytoskeletal clutch mediates cellular force transmission in a soft, three-dimensional extracellular matrix.

Mol Biol Cell 2017 Jul 7;28(14):1959-1974. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305

The ability of cells to impart forces and deformations on their surroundings underlies cell migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and is thus an essential aspect of complex, metazoan life. Previous work has resulted in a refined understanding, commonly termed the molecular clutch model, of how cells adhering to flat surfaces such as a microscope coverslip transmit cytoskeletally generated forces to their surroundings. Comparatively less is known about how cells adhere to and exert forces in soft, three-dimensional (3D), and structurally heterogeneous ECM environments such as occur in vivo. Read More

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Intermediate Filaments Supporting Cell Shape and Growth in Bacteria.

Subcell Biochem 2017;84:161-211

School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK.

For years intermediate filaments (IF), belonging to the third class of filamentous cytoskeletal proteins alongside microtubules and actin filaments, were thought to be exclusive to metazoan cells. Structurally these eukaryote IFs are very well defined, consisting of globular head and tail domains, which flank the central rod-domain. This central domain is dominated by an α-helical secondary structure predisposed to form the characteristic coiled-coil, parallel homo-dimer. Read More

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Human MFAP1 is a cryptic ortholog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spp381 splicing factor.

BMC Evol Biol 2017 03 24;17(1):91. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Laboratory of Structural Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 6, D-14195, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Pre-mRNA splicing involves the stepwise assembly of a pre-catalytic spliceosome, followed by its catalytic activation, splicing catalysis and disassembly. Formation of the pre-catalytic spliceosomal B complex involves the incorporation of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP and of a group of non-snRNP B-specific proteins. Read More

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Structure of the RZZ complex and molecular basis of its interaction with Spindly.

J Cell Biol 2017 04 20;216(4):961-981. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

Department of Mechanistic Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, 44227 Dortmund, Germany

Kinetochores are macromolecular assemblies that connect chromosomes to spindle microtubules (MTs) during mitosis. The metazoan-specific ≈800-kD ROD-Zwilch-ZW10 (RZZ) complex builds a fibrous corona that assembles on mitotic kinetochores before MT attachment to promote chromosome alignment and robust spindle assembly checkpoint signaling. In this study, we combine biochemical reconstitutions, single-particle electron cryomicroscopy, cross-linking mass spectrometry, and structural modeling to build a complete model of human RZZ. Read More

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Back to the Basics: Cnidarians Start to Fire.

Trends Neurosci 2017 02 30;40(2):92-105. Epub 2016 Dec 30.

Neurotechnology Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

The nervous systems of cnidarians, pre-bilaterian animals that diverged close to the base of the metazoan radiation, are structurally simple and thus have great potential to reveal fundamental principles of neural circuits. Unfortunately, cnidarians have thus far been relatively intractable to electrophysiological and genetic techniques and consequently have been largely passed over by neurobiologists. However, recent advances in molecular and imaging methods are fueling a renaissance of interest in and research into cnidarians nervous systems. Read More

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February 2017

On the evolutionary trajectories of signal-transducing amyloids in fungi and beyond.

Asen Daskalov

Prion 2016 09;10(5):362-368

a Department of Plant and Microbial Biology , University of California , Berkeley , CA , USA .

In the last decade, multiple reports have established that amyloids can bear important functional roles in a variety of biological processes and in distant taxonomic clades. In filamentous fungi, amyloids are involved in a signal transducing mechanism in which a group of NOD-like receptors (NLRs) controls downstream effector proteins to induce a programmed cell death reaction. A structurally characterized example of fungal signal-transducing amyloid is the prion-forming domain (PFD) of the HET-S toxin from Podospora anserina. Read More

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September 2016

The Chemistry of the Noncanonical Cyclic Dinucleotide 2'3'-cGAMP and Its Analogs.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2017 ;238:359-384

BIOLOG Life Science Institute, Forschungslabor und Biochemica-Vertrieb GmbH, Flughafendamm 9a, 28199, Bremen, Germany.

The cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-diGMP) and cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-diAMP) with two canonical 3'→5' internucleotide linkages are ubiquitous second messenger molecules in bacteria, regulating a multitude of physiological processes. Recently the noncanonical CDN cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (2'3'-cGAMP) featuring a mixed linkage, which consists of a 2'→5' and a 3'→5' internucleotide bond, has been identified as a signaling molecule in metazoan species in late 2012. 2'3'-cGAMP formation is biocatalyzed by cGAMP synthase (cGAS) upon sensing of cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and functions as an endogenous inducer of innate immunity by directly binding to and activating the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Read More

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October 2017