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Factors that influence quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis in Saudi Arabia.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 May 9:1-9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: To study the factors which may contribute to quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: 175 pwMS and 71 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. QOL was studied by the multiple sclerosis quality of life-54 (MSQOL-54) while depression, disability, and fatigue were measured by the beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II), the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), and the modified fatigue impact scale (MFIS), respectively. Read More

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Incidence, survival and geoepidemiological analysis of Meningiomas and Glioblastomas in the province of Catania during the 2003-2016 period.

Environ Res 2021 May 6:111286. Epub 2021 May 6.

Section of Neurosciences, Department GF Ingrassia, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumors, followed by glioblastomas. Nevertheless, no previous studies have been conducted to evaluate the epidemiology of meningiomas and glioblastomas in the southern region of Italy. Thus, the aim of our study was to evaluate incidence, temporal trend and survival rate of meningiomas and glioblastomas in the province of Catania during the study period. Read More

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Litter decomposition can be reduced by pesticide effects on detritivores and decomposers: Implications for tropical stream functioning.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 28;285:117243. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Leioa, Spain; IKERBASQUE, Bilbao, Spain.

Understanding which factors affect the process of leaf litter decomposition is crucial if we are to predict changes in the functioning of stream ecosystems as a result of human activities. One major activity with known consequences on streams is agriculture, which is of particular concern in tropical regions, where forests are being rapidly replaced by crops. While pesticides are potential drivers of reduced decomposition rates observed in agricultural tropical streams, their specific effects on the performance of decomposers and detritivores are mostly unknown. Read More

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Calcification Prevalence in Different Vascular Zones and Its Association With Demographics, Risk Factors, and Morphometry.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska Omaha, Omaha, NE, United Statesgrid.266815.e.

Vascular calcification is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events, but its prevalence in different vascular zones and the influence of demographics, risk factors, and morphometry remain insufficiently understood. Computerized Tomography Angiography scans from 211 subjects 5-93 years old (mean age 47±24 years, 127M/84F) were used to build 3D vascular reconstructions and measure arterial diameters, tortuosity, and calcification volumes in six vascular zones spanning from the ascending thoracic aorta to the pelvic arteries. A machine learning random forest algorithm was used to determine the associations between calcification in each zone with demographics, risk factors, and vascular morphometry. Read More

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GEO Data Mining Identifies OLR1 as a Potential Biomarker in NSCLC Immunotherapy.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:629333. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute, Beijing, China.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. The tumor immune microenvironment (TME) in NSCLC is closely correlated to tumor initiation, progression, and prognosis. TME failure impedes the generation of an effective antitumor immune response. Read More

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The heterogeneity of reversion to normoglycemia according to prediabetes type is not explained by lifestyle factors.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9667. Epub 2021 May 6.

redGDPS Foundation, Madrid, Spain.

Healthy lifestyle interventions and drug therapies are proven to have a positive preventative influence on normal glucose regulation in prediabetes. However, little is known on the specific role that these factors play on reversion to normal glycemia according to type of prediabetes. We used data from the Observational prospective cohort study, The Cohort study in Primary Health Care on the Evolution of Patients with Prediabetes from 2012 to 2015. Read More

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Spatially explicit boundaries for agricultural nitrogen inputs in the European Union to meet air and water quality targets.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 23:147283. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

(formerly) European Environment Agency, Kongens Nytorv 6, 1050 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Agricultural production in the EU has increased strongly since the 1940s, partly driven by increased nitrogen (N) fertiliser and manure inputs. Increased N inputs and associated losses, however, adversely affect air and water quality, with widespread impacts on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and human health. Managing these impacts requires knowledge on 'safe boundaries' for N inputs, i. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on NO and PM exposure inequalities in London, UK.

Environ Res 2021 May 3:111236. Epub 2021 May 3.

School of Built Environment, University of Reading, Reading, UK. Electronic address:

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, a nationwide lockdown was imposed in the United Kingdom (UK) on 23 March 2020. These sudden control measures led to radical changes in human activities in the Greater London Area (GLA). During this lockdown, transportation use was significantly reduced and non-key workers were required to work from home. Read More

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Ethnicity influences total serum vitamin B concentration: a study of Black, Asian and White patients in a primary care setting.

J Clin Pathol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Aims: A growing body of evidence suggests that ethnicity and race influence vitamin B metabolism and status yet clinical awareness of this is poor, causing doubts regarding diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, deficiency and insufficiency cut-offs are universally applied for this test in most diagnostic settings. The objective of this study was to assess serum vitamin B concentrations in Black, Asian and White primary care patients in London, UK, particularly in patients of Black or Black British ethnic origin and establish if there is a need for specific reference ranges. Read More

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Association between polymorphisms and response to antiepileptic drugs among Jordanian epileptic patients.

Neurol Res 2021 May 5:1-12. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Background: Genetic polymorphisms of drug efflux transporters as ATP-binding cassette subfamily B, member 1 (ABCB1) have been suggested to modulate antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) response. We aimed to explore the association of ABCB1 polymorphisms and AEDs resistance among epileptic patients.

Methods: A total of 86 Jordanian epileptic patients treated with AEDs was included in the study. Read More

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Parental Antisocial and Psychopathic Traits Influence Adolescent Psychopathology.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2021 May 5:306624X211013517. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Cyprus, Nicosia.

The role of parental antisocial behavior in the development of adolescent psychopathology is well established in the literature. However, less is known about the role of parental psychopathic traits in offspring psychopathology. Adolescents (N = 210; boys = 107) and their parents participated in a study measuring parental antisocial behavior, psychopathic traits (i. Read More

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Listener expectations and the perceptual accommodation of talker variability: A pre-registered replication.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269-1020, USA.

Researchers have hypothesized that in order to accommodate variability in how talkers produce their speech sounds, listeners must perform a process of talker normalization. Consistent with this proposal, several studies have shown that spoken word recognition is slowed when speech is produced by multiple talkers compared with when all speech is produced by one talker (a multitalker processing cost). Nusbaum and colleagues have argued that talker normalization is modulated by attention (e. Read More

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Maternal hypertensive disorders and neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring: a population-based cohort in two Nordic countries.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

MOE-Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Environmental Health, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (HDP) have been associated with neuropsychiatric problems in offspring. We aim to investigate the associations between specific types of maternal HDP and offspring neurodevelopmental disorders and further examine whether the timing of onset and severity of HDP would affect these associations. The study population consisted of 4,489,044 live-born singletons in Denmark during 1978-2012 and Sweden during 1987-2010. Read More

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Updated guidance on the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) in pre- and postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer.

J Bone Oncol 2021 Jun 18;28:100355. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Bone Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Adjuvant endocrine therapy induces bone loss and increases fracture risk in women with hormone-receptor positive, early-stage breast cancer (EBC). We aimed to update a previous position statement on the management of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) induced bone loss and now included premenopausal women.

Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of the medical databases from January 2017 to May 2020 and assessed 144 new studies. Read More

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Mealtime and patient factors associated with meal completion in hospitalised older patients: An exploratory observation study.

J Clin Nurs 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

HRB Clinical Research Facility Cork, School of Public Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Aims And Objectives: To examine mealtime and patient factors associated with meal completion among hospitalised older patients. We also considered contextual factors such as staffing levels and ward communication.

Background: Sub-optimum nutrition is a modifiable risk factor for hospital associated decline (HAD) in older patients. Read More

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Investigating Factors of Active Aging among Chinese Older Adults: A Machine Learning Approach.

Gerontologist 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Sociology Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background And Objectives: With the extension of healthy life expectancy, promoting active aging has become a policy response to rapid population aging in China. Yet, it has been inconclusive about the relative importance of the determinants of active aging. By applying a machine learning approach, this study aims to identify the most important determinants of active aging in three domains, i. Read More

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Responses of plant diversity to precipitation change are strongest at local spatial scales and in drylands.

Nat Commun 2021 05 3;12(1):2489. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Community Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Halle (Saale), Germany.

Mitigating and adapting to climate change requires an understanding of the magnitude and nature by which climate change will influence the diversity of plants across the world's ecosystems. Experiments can causally link precipitation change to plant diversity change, however, these experiments vary in their methods and in the diversity metrics reported, making synthesis elusive. Here, we explicitly account for a number of potentially confounding variables, including spatial grain, treatment magnitude and direction and background climatic conditions, to synthesize data across 72 precipitation manipulation experiments. Read More

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Anti-HMGB1 auto-Abs influence fatigue in patients with Crohn's disease.

Innate Immun 2021 May 3:17534259211014252. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway.

Fatigue is common in all chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. A conceptual model for understanding the biological basis of fatigue describes it as being a part of the sickness behaviour response generated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators. We hypothesised that the pro-inflammatory high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a fatigue-inducing molecule and that auto-Abs against HMGB1 reduce fatigue. Read More

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Iron Deposition Characteristics of Deep Gray Matter in Elderly Individuals in the Community Revealed by Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping and Multiple Factor Analysis.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 14;13:611891. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Radiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine which factors influence brain iron concentrations in deep gray matter in elderly individuals and how these factors influence regional brain iron concentrations.

Methods: A total of 105 elderly individuals were enrolled in this study. All participants underwent detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations from October 2018 to August 2019. Read More

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Ankle Power Generation Has a Greater Influence on Walking Speed Reserve Than Balance Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Epworth Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (Ms Gill and Drs Banky and Williams); and The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (Dr Williams).

Objective: Reduced walking speed is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Walking speed reserve (WSR) refers to the ability to increase walking speed on demand and is calculated as the difference between self-selected and fast walking speeds. Walking speed reserve is important for adaptive functional mobility in the community. Read More

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Unusual characteristics of the carbon cycle during the 2015-2016 El Niño.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Biology and Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.

The 2015-2016 El Niño was one of the strongest on record, but its influence on the carbon balance is less clear. Using Northern Hemisphere atmospheric CO observations, we found both detrended atmospheric CO growth rate (CGR) and CO seasonal-cycle amplitude (SCA) of 2015-2016 were much higher than that of other El Niño events. The simultaneous high CGR and SCA were unusual, because our analysis of long-term CO observations at Mauna Loa revealed a significantly negative correlation between CGR and SCA. Read More

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Empowerment among adult patients with type 2 diabetes: age differentials in relation to person-centred primary care, community resources, social support and other life-contextual circumstances.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 1;21(1):844. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku University Hospital, Lemminkäisenkatu 1, Turun yliopisto, 20014, Turku, Finland.

Background: Rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), also among younger adults, constitutes a growing public health challenge. According to the person-centred Chronic Care Model, proactive care and self-management support in combination with community resources enhance quality of healthcare and health outcomes for patients with T2D. However, research is scarce concerning the importance of person-centred care and community resources for such outcomes as empowerment, and the relative impact of various patient support sources for empowerment is not known. Read More

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Design, synthesis of novel celastrol derivatives and study on their antitumor growth through HIF-1α pathway.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Apr 21;220:113474. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines of the Changbai Mountain, Ministry of Education, College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002, China. Electronic address:

Four series of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) functioning derivatives stemming from modifications to the C-29 carboxyl group of celastrol were designed and synthesized, and their anticancer activities were evaluated. To address the structure and activity relationship of each derivative, extensive structural changes were made. HRE luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that 12 modified compounds showed superior HIF-1α inhibitory activity. Read More

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Are third-generation active-targeting nanoformulations definitely the best? In vitro and in vivo comparisons of pixantrone-loaded liposomes modified with different sialic acid derivatives.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China.

Treatment with sialic acid-octadecylamine (SA-ODA)-modified pixantrone (Pix) liposomes results in favorable antitumor effects by targeting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). To explore the influence of different types of SA decorations on antitumor efficiency, we synthesized a PEGylated SA derivative, SA-PEG-DSPE, and combined it with SA-ODA to construct three representative types of SA-modified liposomes (SA-ODA-modified Pix liposomes, SA-ODA-modified Pix liposomes with different PEG densities, and SA-PEG-DSPE-modified Pix liposomes, named Pix-SACL, Pix-SPL-0.2/0. Read More

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Hybrid Nanocomposite Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications: A Review.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

National Institute of Materials Physics, 405A Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele, Romania.

Continuing growth in global energy consumption and the growing concerns regarding climate change and environmental pollution are the strongest drivers of renewable energy deployment. Solar energy is the most abundant and cleanest renewable energy source available. Nowadays, photovoltaic technologies can be regarded as viable pathways to provide sustainable energy generation, the achievement attained in designing nanomaterials with tunable properties and the progress made in the production processes having a major impact in their development. Read More

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Distribution of β-Lactamase Genes in Clinical Isolates from California Central Valley Hospital Deviates from the United States Nationwide Trends.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343, USA.

The evolution and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes throughout the world are clearly affected by the selection and migration of resistant bacteria. However, the relative contributions of selection and migration at a local scale have not been fully explored. We sought to identify which of these factors has the strongest effect through comparisons of antibiotic resistance gene abundance between a distinct location and its surroundings over an extended period of six years. Read More

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Predictors of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 23;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Physical and Social Education, Lithuanian Sports University, Sporto 6, 44221 Kaunas, Lithuania.

The present study expands the existing literature and supplements today's knowledge on the relationship between personal, psychosocial and lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms among adolescents. The study aimed to investigate the variety of depressive symptoms predictors-personal resources, adverse school and family, health, lifestyle-related (sense of coherence, self-esteem, school involvement, negative acts at school, family stress and violence, psychosomatic health complaints, physical activity, smoking, alcohol) as well as gender, employing hierarchical linear regression analysis in a large representative sample of adolescents ( = 2212) in Kaunas, Lithuania. Four blocks of predictors were employed in hierarchical linear regression analysis. Read More

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Association between self-care management practices and glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saud Arabia: A cross -sectional study.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 2;28(4):2460-2465. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

College of Nursing, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the association of self-care management practices and glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A total of 352 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients from two public tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia participated in this study. All T2DM patients were recruited and interviewed by a researcher between January to April 2018 from the outpatient diabetes clinics. Read More

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Parameter variations in personalized electrophysiological models of human heart ventricles.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(4):e0249062. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of personalized numerical simulations of the electrical activity in human ventricles by comparing simulated electrocardiograms (ECGs) with real patients' ECGs and analyzing the sensitivity of the model output to variations in the model parameters. We used standard 12-lead ECGs and up to 224 unipolar body-surface ECGs to record three patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy devices and three patients with focal ventricular tachycardia. Patient-tailored geometrical models of the ventricles, atria, large vessels, liver, and spine were created using computed tomography data. Read More

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Diet-Microbiota-Brain Axis in Alzheimer's Disease.

Ann Nutr Metab 2021 Apr 27:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Internal Medicine-Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, particularly in older adults, with clinical manifestations of progressive cognitive decline and functional impairment. The prevalence of AD and related dementia is mounting worldwide, but its etiology remains unresolved, with no available preventative or ameliorative therapy. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota of patients with AD is different from cognitively normal counterparts. Read More

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