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Early predictive factors of visual loss at 1-year in neovascular age-related macular degeneration under anti-VEGF in the GEFAL study.

Ophthalmol Retina 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Service d'Ophtalmologie, Hôpital Universitaire de la Croix-Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Lyon, France; UMR-CNRS 5510 Matéis, Villeurbane, France.

Purpose: To evaluate early predictive factors of visual loss in patients treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections under as-needed regimen for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Design: Post-hoc analysis from the randomized controlled trial GEFAL, comparing ranibizumab versus bevacizumab for neovascular AMD.

Participants: 393 patients aged ≥50 years with neovascular AMD. Read More

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Inter-regional BOLD signal variability is an organizational feature of functional brain networks.

Neuroimage 2021 May 12:118149. Epub 2021 May 12.

Montréal Neurological Institute, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montréal, QC H3A 2B4; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montréal, QC H4H 1R3; McConnell Brain Imaging Center, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B4; Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 1G1. Electronic address:

Neuronal variability patterns promote the formation and organization of neural circuits. Macroscale similarities in regional variability patterns may therefore be linked to the strength and topography of inter-regional functional connections. To assess this relationship, we used multi-echo resting-state fMRI and investigated macroscale connectivity-variability associations in 154 adult humans (86 women; mean age = 22yrs). Read More

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Hemodynamically significant prosthesis-patient mismatch can be predicted and is associated with early prosthetic valve dysfunction in aortic bioprosthesis.

Echocardiography 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Cardiac Surgery Department, Instituto Cardiovascular de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of predicted prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) regarding actual PPM measured postoperatively. To assess the association between PPM and prosthetic valve dysfunction.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study including adult patients after aortic valve replacement surgery with a biological prosthesis. Read More

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Associations of family income with cognition and brain structure in USA children: prevention implications.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Poverty, as assessed by several socioeconomic (SES) factors, has been linked to worse cognitive performance and reduced cortical brain volumes in children. However, the relative contributions of the various SES factors on brain development and the mediating effects between cognition and brain morphometry have not been investigated. Here we used cross-sectional data from the ABCD Study to evaluate associations among various SES and demographic factors, brain morphometrics, and cognition and their reproducibility in two independent subsamples of 3892 children. Read More

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Kidney Function and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized with Heart Failure.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: Few contemporary data exist evaluating care patterns and outcomes in HF across the spectrum of kidney function.

Objectives: To characterize differences in quality of care and outcomes in patients hospitalized for HF by degree of kidney dysfunction.

Methods: We evaluated quality metrics among patients hospitalized with HF at 418 sites in the GWTG-HF registry from 2014-2019 by discharge CKD-EPI-derived eGFR. Read More

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Community social networks, individual social participation and dietary behavior among older Japanese adults: Examining mediation using nonlinear structural equation models for three-wave longitudinal data.

Prev Med 2021 May 11:106613. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Health Education and Health Sociology, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. Electronic address:

Community social networks positively affect older adults' dietary behavior, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. This study investigated if the relationship between community social networks and dietary behavior is mediated by social participation, and whether the influence of community social networks differs across sociodemographic groups. We conducted a cross-lagged panel mediation analysis employing nonlinear structural equation modeling using panel data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), a longitudinal study of Japanese older adults in 2010, 2013, and 2016, which included 11,347 men and 14,105 women aged over 65. Read More

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Potent Acid Suppression With Vonoprazan vs Proton Pump Inhibitors Does Not Have Higher Association With Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan.

Introduction: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with the onset of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Although a new potassium-competitive acid blocker, vonoprazan, consistently shows a more potent acid inhibitory effect in comparison to PPIs, the risk of CDI in vonoprazan-treated patients relative to those treated with PPIs is unknown. In this retrospective case-control study, using a nationwide hospital-based administrative database in Japan, we investigated the association of the onset of CDI in patients treated with vonoprazan. Read More

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Modeling interspecific competition of the microbial community during anaerobic digestion based on cellular automata and ADM1.

Water Sci Technol 2021 May;83(9):2087-2099

School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China E-mail:

Interspecific competition for substrate and space gives rise to considerable variation in biomass distribution within the microbial community. To study microbial community in depth, we used several research methods as sampling and analytical measurements, and developed a cellular automata (CA) model that would facilitate a description of the microbial growth process based on Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) of the International Water Association (IWA). Read More

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The association of proBNPage with manifestations of age-related cardiovascular, physical, and psychological impairment in community-dwelling older adults.

Geroscience 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Albertoni, 15 40138, Bologna, Italy.

NT-proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) serum concentration can be transformed by simple formulas into proBNPage, a surrogate of biological age strongly associated with chronological age, all-cause mortality, and disease count. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess whether proBNPage is also associated with other manifestations of the aging process in comparison with other variables. The study included 1117 noninstitutionalized older adults (73. Read More

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A comparison of monoaxial pedicle screw versus polyaxial pedicle screw in short-segment posterior fixation for the treatment of thoracolumbar fractured vertebra.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):669

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Background: Posterior pedicle screw fixation had been applied to maintain spinal stability and avoid further nerve damage in thoracolumbar fracture. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of short-segment posterior fixation with monoaxial pedicle screws versus polyaxial pedicle screws in treating thoracolumbar fracture.

Methods: A total of 75 patients with thoracolumbar fracture who underwent short-segment posterior fixation with monoaxial pedicle screw (group A) or polyaxial pedicle screw (group B) were retrospectively enrolled. Read More

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Dissecting polygenic signals from genome-wide association studies on human behaviour.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Genome-wide association studies on human behavioural traits are producing large amounts of polygenic signals with significant predictive power and potentially useful biological clues. Behavioural traits are more distal and are less directly under biological control compared with physical characteristics, which makes the associated genetic effects harder to interpret. The results of genome-wide association studies for human behaviour are likely made up of a composite of signals from different sources. Read More

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Macroevolutionary stability predicts interaction patterns of species in seed dispersal networks.

Science 2021 May;372(6543):733-737

Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Assessing deep-time mechanisms affecting the assembly of ecological networks is key to understanding biodiversity changes on broader time scales. We combined analyses of diversification rates with interaction network descriptors from 468 bird species belonging to 29 seed dispersal networks to show that bird species that contribute most to the network structure of plant-frugivore interactions belong to lineages that show higher macroevolutionary stability. This association is stronger in warmer, wetter, less seasonal environments. Read More

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Putting the Microenvironment into the Immunotherapy Companion Diagnostic.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine

A post-hoc analysis in advanced gastric cancer showed stronger association of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) with immunotherapy efficacy measured by Combined Positive Score (CPS) compared with Tumor Cells (TC%). This finding suggests expression in immune cells in the tumor microenvironment increases the value of the companion diagnostic test. Read More

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Association of body condition with lameness in dairy cattle: a single-farm longitudinal study.

J Dairy Res 2021 May 14:1-4. Epub 2021 May 14.

Faculty of Life Sciences, Animal Husbandry and Ethology, Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

This research communication describes the relationship between the occurrence of lameness and body condition score (BCS) in a sample of 288 cows from a single farm that were repeatedly scored in the course of 9 months while controlling for confounding variables. The relationship between BCS and lameness was evaluated using generalised linear mixed-effects models. It was found that the proportion of lame cows was higher with decreasing but also with increasing BCS, increased with lactation number and decreased with time since the last claw trimming. Read More

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A prospective cohort study of ambient air pollution exposure and risk of uterine leiomyomata.

Hum Reprod 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Study Question: To what extent are ambient concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 microns (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) associated with risk of self-reported physician-diagnosed uterine leiomyomata (UL)?

Summary Answer: In this large prospective cohort study of Black women, ambient concentrations of O3, but not PM2. Read More

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The effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in light versus heavier smokers.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Toronto, ON.

Purpose: The prevalence of light smoking has increased in North America; however, research on the effectiveness of current treatments in this sub-population of smokers is limited. We compared quit outcomes between light (1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD)) versus heavier smokers (>10 CPD) enrolled in a treatment program at their primary care clinic.

Methods: This secondary analysis analyzed 45,087 participants (light smokers (n=9,861); heavier smokers (n=35,226)) enrolled in a smoking cessation program between April 2016 and March 2020. Read More

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Intraindividual dynamics between alliance and symptom severity in long-term psychotherapy: Why time matters.

J Couns Psychol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics.

The association between alliance and therapy outcome is one of the most investigated factors in psychotherapy research. However, even studies using advanced methods estimate effects over a specific time period (interval) between measurement occasions. Thus, it remains unknown how the magnitude and direction of effects depend on the considered time interval, resulting in limited comparability across studies. Read More

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Gut Microbiota Diversity in HIV-Infected Patients on Successful Antiretroviral Treatment is Linked to Sexual Preferences but not CD4 Nadir.

Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2021 May 13;69(1):14. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Medical University of Lodz, Kniaziewicza 1/5, 91-347, Lodz, Poland.

The effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the gut microbiome are poorly understood and the literature data are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the alpha and beta diversity of the fecal microbiota in HIV-infected patients on successful antiretroviral therapy with regard to sexual preferences and CD4 nadir. Thirty-six HIV-infected ART-treated patients with HIV viremia below 20 copies/ml and CD4 > 500 cells/μl were divided into two subgroups based on CD4 nadir. Read More

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Evaluation of the association of heterozygous germline variants in NTHL1 with breast cancer predisposition: an international multi-center study of 47,180 subjects.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 May 12;7(1):52. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Bi-allelic loss-of-function (LoF) variants in the base excision repair (BER) gene NTHL1 cause a high-risk hereditary multi-tumor syndrome that includes breast cancer, but the contribution of heterozygous variants to hereditary breast cancer is unknown. An analysis of 4985 women with breast cancer, enriched for familial features, and 4786 cancer-free women revealed significant enrichment for NTHL1 LoF variants. Immunohistochemistry confirmed reduced NTHL1 expression in tumors from heterozygous carriers but the NTHL1 bi-allelic loss characteristic mutational signature (SBS 30) was not present. Read More

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Dynamic functional connectivity and its anatomical substrate reveal treatment outcome in first-episode drug-naïve schizophrenia.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 12;11(1):282. Epub 2021 May 12.

Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China.

Convergent evidence has suggested a significant effect of antipsychotic exposure on brain structure and function in patients with schizophrenia, yet the characteristics of favorable treatment outcome remains largely unknown. In this work, we aimed to examine how large-scale brain networks are modulated by antipsychotic treatment, and whether the longitudinal changes could track the improvements of psychopathologic scores. Thirty-four patients with first-episode drug-naïve schizophrenia and 28 matched healthy controls were recruited at baseline from Shanghai Mental Health Center. Read More

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BRAF more frequently co-occurs with IDH1/2 mutations in adult patients with gliomas than in patients harboring BRAF but without a survival advantage.

BMC Neurol 2021 May 12;21(1):195. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, No.277 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Background: The effects of BRAF and BRAF on the outcomes and the molecular characteristics of adult glioma patients are unknown and need to be explored, although BRAF has been extensively studied in pediatric glioma.

Methods: Co-occurring mutations and copy number alterations of associated genes in the MAPK and p53 pathways were investigated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) public database retrieved by cBioPortal. The prognosis of available adult glioma cohorts with BRAF and BRAF mutations were also investigated. Read More

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Predictors of adherence to a gluten-free diet in celiac disease: Do knowledge, attitudes, experiences, symptoms, and quality of life play a role?

Nutrition 2021 Mar 26;90:111249. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

King's College London, Department of Nutritional Sciences, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to identify the relationship between adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) and demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding celiac disease (CD) and GFD, experiences of following a GFD, symptoms, and quality of life (QoL).

Methods: Patients with CD were recruited from outpatient clinics. Adherence to GFD was assessed using the CD adherence test (CDAT) and GFD score (GFD-S). Read More

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Chicken C/EBPζ gene: Expression profiles, association analysis, and identification of functional variants for abdominal fat.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 Apr 15;76:106631. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Harbin 150030, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Education Department of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150030, China; College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China. Electronic address:

CCAAT enhancer binding protein ζ (C/EBPζ) plays an important role in adipose proliferation and differentiation in humans. However, very little is known about the effect of C/EBPζ on the growth and development of adipose tissues in domesticated animals. The present study attempted to investigate the mRNA expression profiles of chicken C/EBPζ in a variety of tissues; analyze the association of its variants with abdominal fat; and identify the functional variants for abdominal fat. Read More

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Convalescent plasma therapy and mortality in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU: a prospective observational study.

Ann Intensive Care 2021 May 12;11(1):73. Epub 2021 May 12.

Intensive Care Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Background: This study aimed to quantify the potential survival benefit of convalescent plasma therapy (CVP) in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure related to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: This is a single-center prospective observational cohort study in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure. Immediately after intensive care unit (ICU) admission patients were allocated to CVP treatment following pre-specified criteria to rapidly identify those patients potentially susceptible for this treatment. Read More

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Habit Facilitates Actioning Sun Protective Behavior Intentions.

Behav Med 2021 May 12:1-7. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London.

Skin cancer is highly burdensome, but preventable with regular engagement in sun protective behaviors. Despite modest effectiveness of sun-protective behavior promotional efforts thus far, rates of engagement in sun-protective behaviors remain low. More is needed to understand motivation for using sunscreen, wearing sun-protective clothing, and seeking shade. Read More

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Gender Moderates the Association Between Exposure to Interpersonal Violence and Intermittent Explosive Disorder Diagnosis.

J Interpers Violence 2021 May 12:8862605211013951. Epub 2021 May 12.

McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA.

Exposure to interpersonal violence (EIV) is a prevalent risk-factor for aggressive behavior; however, it is unclear whether the effect of EIV on clinically significant aggressive behavior is similar across gender. We examined whether gender moderates the association between experiencing and witnessing interpersonal violence and the diagnosis of intermittent explosive disorder (IED). We also examined potential pathways that might differentially account for the association between EIV and IED in men and women, including emotion regulation and social information processing (SIP). Read More

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Unequal Returns of Employment on Self-Rated Health: Asian-White Differences.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Health Management & Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Previous research has shown that employment status is one of the most powerful socioeconomic resources utilized to promote health and well-being. However, racial and ethnic minorities often experience diminished returns of socioeconomic resources compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This analysis explores the association between employment status and self-rated health among Asians and non-Hispanic Whites, and whether race or ethnicity moderates this association. Read More

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Risk factors of ocular morbidity among under-five years old children in Khartoum State- Sudan- 2020.

Health Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;4(2):e279. Epub 2021 May 3.

Preventive Medicine & Epidemiology Alneelain University Khartoum Sudan.

Background And Aims: Visual impairment in early childhood can significantly affect the development of visual, motor, and cognitive function and potentially lead to long-term adverse psychosocial consequences. This study aimed to identify the risk factors of ocular morbidity among under 5-year old children in Khartoum State, Sudan.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three tertiary eye care hospitals in Khartoum State, Sudan. Read More

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Effects of Online Social Support and Perceived Social Support on the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Problematic Smartphone Usage Among Chinese Undergraduates.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2021 4;14:529-539. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychology, School of Mental Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Recent research has identified a relationship between perceived stress and problematic smartphone usage. However, little is known about the underlying mediating and moderating mechanisms. The present study aimed to test the relationship between perceived stress and problematic smartphone usage as well as the mediating role of online social support and the moderating role of perceived social support among Chinese undergraduates. Read More

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Challenging the association between health literacy and health: the role of conversion factors.

Health Promot Int 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Previous studies have found substantial correlations between health literacy and various health outcomes. However, the role of social and personal factors in those links remains understudied. Applying a moderation approach, we assume that these factors function as conversion factors on the associations between health literacy and health outcomes. Read More

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