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Rapid population increase of the threatened Australian amphibian Litoria aurea in response to wetlands constructed as a refuge from chytrid-induced disease and introduced fish.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 4;291:112638. Epub 2021 May 4.

Conservation Science Research Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Biology Building, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia.

Amphibians have declined due to multiple impacts including invasive fish and the disease chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Wetland restoration can be used to increase amphibian populations. However the design of created wetlands must account for threats such as Bd and introduced fish. Read More

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a multisystem disease requiring a multidisciplinary and holistic approach.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a public health problem worldwide. This narrative Review provides an overview of the current literature to support the notion that NAFLD is a multisystem disease. Convincing evidence shows a strong association between NAFLD and the risk of developing multiple extrahepatic complications such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (ie, the predominant cause of mortality in people with NAFLD), chronic kidney disease, and some types of extrahepatic malignancies. Read More

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Peer support in early intervention in psychosis: a qualitative research study.

J Ment Health 2021 May 7:1-7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Health Sciences, City, University of London, London, UK.

Background: There is evidence that peer support can be helpful for people suffering from psychosis, but there is a lack of research describing peer support in the context of Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP).

Aims: We aim to investigate the key elements of peer support in EIP and how peer support workers might best be recruited and supported in their work.

Method: We used purposive sampling to recruit seven participants for semi-structured interviews. Read More

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Staff and participant perceptions of optimal recruitment and retention strategies for biomedical cohort studies in the Caribbean.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Health Equities, City of Hope Medical Center, Center of Community Alliance for Research & Education, Duarte, CA, USA.

Purpose: To identify staff and participants perspectives of best practices that facilitate achieving enrollment and retention targets in biomedical cohort studies in Caribbean populations.

Methods: Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with research stakeholders including research (i) nurses/study supervisors, (ii) field staff/data collectors, and (iii) rural and urban participants of the Third Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey (a national NCD risk factor survey with biospecimen collection) to capture qualitative data on experiences with recruitment, training, retention challenges and potential solutions or strategies for strengthening future efforts.

Results: Our findings indicate that trained, experienced study staff with good interpersonal communication skills enhanced the proficiency of field operations and attracted study participants. Read More

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Increased myocellular lipid and IGFBP-3 expression in a pre-clinical model of pancreatic cancer-related skeletal muscle wasting.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

Background: Skeletal muscle wasting (SMW) in cancer patients is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, treatment intolerance and discontinuation, and poor quality of life. This is particularly true for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), as over 85% experience SMW, which is responsible for ~30% of patient deaths. While the established paradigm to explain SMW posits that muscle catabolism from systemic inflammation and nutritional deficiencies, the cause of death, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. Read More

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A novel electrochemiluminescence aptasensor for sensitive detection of kanamycin based on the synergistic enhancement effects between black phosphorus quantum dots and silver-decorated high-luminescence polydopamine nanospheres.

Analyst 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Jiangsu key Laboratory of advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 21364, China. and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, China.

Black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs), as a new type of nanomaterial, have excellent electrical and optical properties. In this work, an efficient monitoring method for kanamycin (KAN) was developed based on a sensitive and selective electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor. The construction of the ECL illuminant was based on BPQDs loaded on silver-nanoparticle modified high-luminescence polydopamine nanospheres (HLPNs@Ag). Read More

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Temporal, Sex-Specific, Social Media-Based Alcohol Influences during the Transition to College.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 May 7:1-8. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychology, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: The transition to college is an important developmental phase, usually met with increased social desirability, access to alcohol, and new peer groups. Recently, research has utilized social media as a predictor of events during college, but few have assessed how social media can influence alcohol use during the transition to college. Participants ( = 320) were recruited prior to entering their first year of college. Read More

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A comparison of coping and safety-seeking behaviors.

Anxiety Stress Coping 2021 May 7:1-13. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background And Objectives: Safety behaviors display some similarities to coping behaviors, raising questions about whether the two sets of behaviors display distinct associations with anxiety symptoms.

Design And Method: To examine this issue, we conducted two cross-sectional studies in which participants ( = 243 and 157) completed measures of the safety behaviors associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the Brief Ways of Coping Scale (BWOC), and SAD and GAD symptom measures. In Study 1, extant safety-behavior and coping measures were used. Read More

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Patient, caregiver, and health care provider perspectives on barriers and facilitators to heart failure care in Kerala, India: A qualitative study.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 22;5:250. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, India.

Deficits in quality of care for patients with heart failure (HF) contribute to high mortality in this population. This qualitative study aims to understand the barriers and facilitators to high-quality HF care in Kerala, India. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of health care providers (n=13), patients and caregivers (n=14). Read More

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October 2020

Evaluating how lethal management affects poaching of Mexican wolves.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 10;8(3):200330. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Despite illegal killing (poaching) being the major cause of death among large carnivores globally, little is known about the effect of implementing lethal management policies on poaching. Two opposing hypotheses have been proposed in the literature: implementing lethal management may decrease poaching incidence (killing for tolerance) or increase it (facilitated illegal killing). Here, we report a test of the two opposed hypotheses that poaching (reported and unreported) of Mexican grey wolves () in Arizona and New Mexico, USA, responded to changes in policy that reduced protections to allow more wolf-killing. Read More

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CDH17+/CDX2+ Can be Helpful in Providing Support for Small Intestinal Origin Versus Pancreatic or Biliary Origin.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Departments of Pathology Gastrointestinal Surgery, Beilun People's Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China.

Because of the distinct and complex anatomy of the ampullary region, the exact origin of the periampullary tumors was often difficult to ascertain. In this study, we evaluated 78 patient samples, including 26 small intestinal adenocarcinomas, 35 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, and 17 cholangiocarcinomas by immunohistochemical detection of cadherin-17 (CDH17), CDX2, CK20, and CK19 protein expression. The result showed that CDH17 and CDX2 expression was higher in small intestinal adenocarcinoma (73. Read More

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Efficacy of duloxetine in patients with knee osteoarthritis or chronic low back pain with early pain reduction: An exploratory post-hoc analysis of Japanese phase 3, 1-year extension studies.

J Orthop Sci 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikariga-oka Fukushima-shi, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.

Background: Two previous phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials showed that duloxetine 60 mg/day for 14 weeks significantly improved pain and quality of life in Japanese patients with knee osteoarthritis or chronic low back pain. In their open-label extension studies, these improvements were maintained for ≥48 weeks. This post-hoc analysis assessed the relationship between initial response to duloxetine and long-term pain reduction and quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis or chronic low back pain. Read More

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A Framework for Outpatient Infusion of Antispike Monoclonal Antibodies to High-Risk Patients with Mild-to-Moderate Coronavirus Disease-19: The Mayo Clinic Model.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 May 9;96(5):1250-1261. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

The administration of spike monoclonal antibody treatment to patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 is very challenging. This article summarizes essential components and processes in establishing an effective spike monoclonal antibody infusion program. Rapid identification of a dedicated physical infrastructure was essential to circumvent the logistical challenges of caring for infectious patients while maintaining compliance with regulations and ensuring the safety of our personnel and other patients. Read More

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The Royal College of Psychiatrists' Leadership and Management Fellow Scheme.

BJPsych Bull 2021 May 7:1-6. Epub 2021 May 7.

Sheffield Health and Social Care NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

The Royal College of Psychiatrists' Leadership and Management Fellow Scheme aims to develop and support a new cohort of leaders within psychiatry. This article provides an introduction to the scheme, which is accessible to all higher trainees with the support of their host organisation. We explore its development, structure and how it is evolving to provide a strong platform for achieving the College's ambition to benefit patient care by embedding a culture of medical leadership within mental health services. Read More

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Environmental Sustainability in Veterinary Medicine: An Opportunity for Teaching Hospitals.

J Vet Med Educ 2021 May 6:e20200125. Epub 2021 May 6.

Climate change is one of the greatest public health threats of the twenty-first century. Recent surveys of veterinary students and practicing veterinarians have highlighted their concerns about the impacts of climate change on animal health and a strong desire to be knowledgeable about the practice and promotion of environmental sustainability within clinical practice. Most American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)-accredited veterinary schools have a veterinary teaching hospital (VTH) where veterinary students receive their core clinical education. Read More

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Locomotion of an adult female and juvenile male aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in Torotorofotsy, Madagascar.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 6:e23267. Epub 2021 May 6.

Center for Conservation and Research, Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) locate and acquire invertebrates from within woody substrates at all levels of the rainforest; yet how their locomotion helps them accommodate this diet has not been explored in detail. We studied the locomotor behavior of an adult female (N = 1,085) and juvenile male (N = 708) aye-aye in the undisturbed forest of Torotorofotsy, Madagascar from May to December 2017. We used bout sampling to record locomotion during foraging and travel of the two radio-collared individuals. Read More

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Does knowing about the long-term health effects of alcohol matter? Evidence from a university sample in Lebanon.

East Mediterr Health J 2021 Apr 27;27(4):336-343. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, United States of America.

Background: Research linking awareness of health effects of alcohol and harmful alcohol drinking status is limited.

Aims: To investigate the association between awareness of long-term alcohol effects and alcohol use disorders.

Methods: University students aged 18-25 years (n = 1155) completed a self-filled survey. Read More

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Genomic Structure of Hstx2 Modifier of Prdm9-Dependent Hybrid Male Sterility in Mice.

Genetics 2019 Nov;213(3):1047-1063

Laboratory of Mouse Molecular Genetics, Division BIOCEV, Institute of Molecular Genetics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Vestec CZ-25250, Czech Republic.

F1 hybrids between mouse inbred strains PWD and C57BL/6 represent the most thoroughly genetically defined model of hybrid sterility in vertebrates. Hybrid male sterility can be fully reconstituted from three components of this model, the Prdm9 gene, intersubspecific homeology of Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus autosomes, and the X-linked Hstx2 locus. Hstx2 modulates the extent of Prdm9-dependent meiotic arrest and harbors two additional factors responsible for intersubspecific introgression-induced oligospermia (Hstx1) and meiotic recombination rate (Meir1). Read More

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November 2019

Genomic Structure of Hstx2 Modifier of Prdm9-Dependent Hybrid Male Sterility in Mice.

Genetics 2019 Nov;213(3):1047-1063

Laboratory of Mouse Molecular Genetics, Division BIOCEV, Institute of Molecular Genetics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Vestec CZ-25250, Czech Republic.

F1 hybrids between mouse inbred strains PWD and C57BL/6 represent the most thoroughly genetically defined model of hybrid sterility in vertebrates. Hybrid male sterility can be fully reconstituted from three components of this model, the Prdm9 gene, intersubspecific homeology of Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus autosomes, and the X-linked Hstx2 locus. Hstx2 modulates the extent of Prdm9-dependent meiotic arrest and harbors two additional factors responsible for intersubspecific introgression-induced oligospermia (Hstx1) and meiotic recombination rate (Meir1). Read More

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November 2019

Position Effects Influence Transvection in Drosophila melanogaster.

Genetics 2019 Dec;213(4):1289-1299

Biology Department, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine 04011.

Transvection is a form of gene regulation the depends on interactions between regulatory elements on separate chromosomes. In one form of transvection that is prevalent in Drosophila, an enhancer can act.. Read More

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December 2019

Position Effects Influence Transvection in Drosophila melanogaster.

Genetics 2019 Dec;213(4):1289-1299

Biology Department, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine 04011.

Transvection is a form of gene regulation the depends on interactions between regulatory elements on separate chromosomes. In one form of transvection that is prevalent in Drosophila, an enhancer can act.. Read More

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December 2019

Pervasive Strong Selection at the Level of Codon Usage Bias in Drosophila melanogaster.

Genetics 2020 Feb;214(2):511-528

Department of Biology, Stanford University, California 94305-5020.

Codon usage bias (CUB), where certain codons are used more frequently than expected by chance, is a ubiquitous phenomenon and occurs across the tree of life. The dominant paradigm is that the proportion of preferred codons is set by weak selection. While experimental changes in codon usage have at times shown large phenotypic effects in contrast to this paradigm, genome-wide population genetic estimates have supported the weak selection model. Read More

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February 2020

Machine Learning Techniques for Classifying the Mutagenic Origins of Point Mutations.

Genetics 2020 May;215(1):25-40

Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia.

Mutations contribute significantly to developing diversity in biological capabilities. Mutagenesis is an adaptive feature of normal development, e.g. Read More

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Fast Algorithms for Conducting Large-Scale GWAS of Age-at-Onset Traits Using Cox Mixed-Effects Models.

Genetics 2020 May;215(1):41-58

Biodemography of Aging Research Unit, Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Age-at-onset traits are of paramount importance in studies of age-related diseases and behavioral genetics. Cox mixed-effects models (CMEMs) are widely used when sample dependence is taken into account. However, the application of CMEMs in genome-wide association. Read More

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Explorations of avoidance and approach coping and perceived stress with a computer-based avatar task: detrimental effects of resignation and withdrawal.

Authors:
M Todd Allen

PeerJ 2021 15;9:e11265. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Psychological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, United States of America.

Background: Individuals differ in how they react to stress or trauma through different coping styles in which they may deal directly with a stressor by adopting approach coping styles or disengage with a stressor by utilizing avoidant coping styles. Avoidant coping styles have been linked to adverse outcomes including psychological distress, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recently, avoidance coping styles as measured by a subset of items on the Brief COPE were found to have a weak positive relationship with performance on a computer-based avatar task which is related to avoidant personality temperaments. Read More

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Role of Microalbuminuria and Hypoalbuminemia as Outcome Predictors in Critically Ill Patients.

Crit Care Res Pract 2021 12;2021:6670642. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Critical Care Medicine Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Background: Assessment of microalbuminuria and hypoalbuminemia can be used as a good tool for the prediction of the ICU outcome in critically ill patients.

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the prognostic significance of microalbuminuria (albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) and serum albumin level done on admission and after twenty-four hours for the critically ill patients. . Read More

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A bicentric approach evaluating the combination of a hemispheric cup with a novel ceramic head in total hip arthroplasty.

Orthop Rev (Pavia) 2021 Mar 31;13(1):8794. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Marienhospital Mülheim an der Ruhr, University of Duisburg-Essen.

Medical ceramics are frequently used biomaterials as a liner in total hip arthroplasty. Strong efforts have been made to improve material properties over the last decades. Alumina toughened zirconia ceramics seem to be promising alternatives to further reduce fracture rates and squeaking phenomena. Read More

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Role of ILC2 in Viral-Induced Lung Pathogenesis.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:675169. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Innate lymphoid type-2 cells (ILC2) are a population of innate cells of lymphoid origin that are known to drive strong Type 2 immunity. ILC2 play a key role in lung homeostasis, repair/remodeling of lung structures following injury, and initiation of inflammation as well as more complex roles during the immune response, including the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Remarkably, dysregulation of this single population has been linked with chronic lung pathologies, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrotic diseases (IPF). Read More

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Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Chinese Patients with Glioma by Extensive Next-Generation Sequencing Panel Analysis.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 29;13:3573-3588. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Peking University International Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Tremendous efforts have been made to explore biomarkers for classifying and grading glioma. However, the majority of the current understanding is based on public databases that might not accurately reflect the Asian population. Here, we investigated the genetic landscape of Chinese glioma patients using a validated multigene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel to provide a strong rationale for the future classification and prognosis of glioma in this population. Read More

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Highly Efficient Second Harmonic Generation of Thin Film Lithium Niobate Nanograting near Bound States in the Continuum.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Fiber Sensing and Communications, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, CHINA.

Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are ubiquitous physical phenomena where such states occur due to a strong coupling between leaky modes supported in side lossy sys-tems. BICs in meta-optics and nanophotonic will provide a novel opportunity for optical mode confinement to strengthen local field enhancement in nonlinear optics. Here, we study second harmonic generation (SHG) in the vicinity of BICs with a photonic structure consisting of one dimensional nanograting and slab waveguide made of lithium niobite (LiNbO3, LN) numerically. Read More

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