4,576 results match your criteria strong preferences

Women's Preferences for Strong Men Under Perceived Harsh Versus Safe Ecological Conditions.

Evol Psychol 2021 Jul-Sep;19(3):14747049211032351

The Oklahoma Center for Evolutionary Analysis, 33086Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

Ecological conditions provide information about available resources for one's environment. In humans, this has been shown to influence reproductive behavior, as individuals may engage in trade-offs between partner quality and investment. For instance, many women may trade-off preferences for men with physical features indicative of social dominance and health over physical features indicative of commitment and investment. Read More

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Female behavioral strategies during consortship in Tibetan macaques ().

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 22;11(14):9665-9675. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

School of Resources and Environmental Engineering Anhui University Hefei China.

Consortship has been defined as a temporary association between an adult male and an estrous/receptive female. It has been considered as male mating strategies to improve male mating success and potential reproductive success. However, the female roles have been more or less neglected, and thus, less is known about female behavioral strategies during the consortship periods. Read More

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Restrictive Reciprocal Obligations: Perceptions of Parental Role in Career Choices of Sub-Saharan African Migrant Youths.

Front Psychol 2021 9;12:576193. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

This study employed interpretivist, grounded theory method and utilized semi-structured interviews to explore how 31 African migrant high school and university students from eight sub-Saharan African representative countries and currently residing in Townsville, Australia, perceived the roles of their parents in their career development. The study findings revealed that the support (financial, social and emotional) and encouragement (sacrificial love, role modeling and guidance) received from parents underpinned the youths' perceptions of their parents as influential in their career trajectories. Though participants acknowledged their indebtedness to parents and the system that nurtured them, they faced a dilemma conforming to parental preference or personal conviction, which presented "a fork in the career decision-making road. Read More

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Positional inference in rhesus macaques.

Anim Cogn 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

Understanding how organisms make transitive inferences is critical to understanding their general ability to learn serial relationships. In this context, transitive inference (TI) can be understood as a specific heuristic that applies broadly to many different serial learning tasks, which have been the focus of hundreds of studies involving dozens of species. In the present study, monkeys learned the order of 7-item lists of photographic stimuli by trial and error, and were then tested on "derived" lists. Read More

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Ethiopian indigenous goats offer insights into past and recent demographic dynamics and local adaptation in sub-Saharan African goats.

Evol Appl 2021 Jul 15;14(7):1716-1731. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Small Ruminant Genomics International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) Addis Ababa Ethiopia.

Knowledge on how adaptive evolution and human socio-cultural and economic interests shaped livestock genomes particularly in sub-Saharan Africa remains limited. Ethiopia is in a geographic region that has been critical in the history of African agriculture with ancient and diverse human ethnicity and bio-climatic conditions. Using 52K genome-wide data analysed in 646 individuals from 13 Ethiopian indigenous goat populations, we observed high levels of genetic variation. Read More

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The articulatory in-out effect: Driven by consonant preferences?

J Pers Soc Psychol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Consumer and Economic Psychology, University of Mannheim.

The articulatory in-out effect describes the preference for stimuli with an inward-wandering consonant order (e.g., BODIKA) as opposed to an outward-wandering consonant order (e. Read More

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eFOCUS 2: A randomised crossover trial of smartphone fundoscopy and direct ophthalmoscopy aiming to improve optic disc interpretation by medical students with e-learning support.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Northern Clinical School., University of Sydney, St Leonards, NSW, Australia.

Background: Ophthalmoscopy and its interpretation are complex. We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of smartphone fundoscopy with traditional direct ophthalmoscopy for optic disc interpretation, with e-learning support.

Methods: We conducted a randomised, cross-over study of 102 medical students. Read More

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Developing a Culturally Responsive Lifestyle Intervention for Overweight/Obese U.S. Mexicans.

J Community Health 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Immigrant Health and Cancer Disparities Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 485 Lexington Ave., 2nd Floor, New York, NY, 10017, USA.

Introduction: Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States, constituting 18 % of the population. Mexicans are the largest Hispanic subgroup and are at disproportionate risk for overweight/obesity. Lifestyle interventions targeting dietary change and physical activity have resulted in significant weight loss in several large randomized clinical trials in the general population, but few studies have tailored interventions to Mexican Americans. Read More

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A Roadmap to the Structure-Related Metabolism Pathways of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Early Life Stages of Zebrafish ().

Environ Health Perspect 2021 Jul 21;129(7):77004. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Thousands of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with diverse structures have been detected in the ambient environment. Apart from a few well-studied PFAS, the structure-related toxicokinetics of a broader set of PFAS remain unclear.

Objectives: To understand the toxicokinetics of PFAS, we attempted to characterize the metabolism pathways of 74 structurally diverse PFAS samples from the U. Read More

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Atomoxetine and circadian gene expression in human dermal fibroblasts from study participants with a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 Jul 17;128(7):1121-1133. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Centre Rostock, Rostock, Gehlsheimer Str. 20, 18147, Rostock, Germany.

Atomoxetine (ATO) is a second line medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We proposed that part of the therapeutic profile of ATO may be through circadian rhythm modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the circadian gene expression in primary human-derived dermal fibroblast cultures (HDF) after ATO exposure. Read More

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Social strategies used by dispersing males to integrate into a new group in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

Am J Primatol 2021 Jul 16:e23306. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

International Collaborative Research Center for Huangshan Biodiversity and Tibetan Macaque Behavioral Ecology, Hefei, China.

In group-living mammals, an individual's fitness depends, in part, on the quality of social relationships it has with others. Among species of nonhuman primates in which one sex is philopatric, individuals of that sex often develop strong social bonds and alliances with closely related kin. Less is known regarding the social processes used by dispersing adults to form stable bonds with nonkin in their new group. Read More

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Residency and movement patterns of adult Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni) at a breeding aggregation site.

J Fish Biol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia.

Examining the movement ecology of mesopredators is fundamental to developing an understanding of their biology, ecology and behaviour, as well as the communities and ecosystems they influence. The limited research on the residency and movements of benthic marine mesopredators has primarily used visual tags, which do not allow for the efficient and accurate monitoring of individual space use. Here, we investigated the residency and movement patterns of Port Jackson sharks Heterodontus portusjacksoni (Meyer 1793) at a breeding aggregation site in Jervis Bay, south-eastern Australia, using passive acoustic telemetry to further our understanding of the movement ecology of these important mesopredators. Read More

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Help-Seeking Preferences to Informal and Formal Source of Care for Depression: A Community-Based Study in Northwest Ethiopia.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2021 6;15:1505-1513. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Mizan-Tapi University, College of Health Science, Department of Nursing, Mizan Aman, Ethiopia.

Background: Globally, 350 million people are suffering from depression. Many people suffering from depression use different sources of help for their problems. People with different mental health problems seek help from formal and/or informal sources. Read More

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U.S. transgender women's preferences for microeconomic interventions to address structural determinants of HIV vulnerability: a qualitative assessment.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jul 14;21(1):1394. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 806 West Franklin Street, Richmond, VA, 23284, USA.

Background: Transgender women in the United States (U.S.) experience a disproportionate burden of HIV infection and challenges to engagement in HIV prevention and care. Read More

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What are the information needs and concerns of individuals with Polycystic Kidney Disease? Results of an online survey using Facebook and social listening analysis.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Jul 14;22(1):263. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, 2522, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

Background: Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is a hereditary disorder that has no cure and can result in end stage kidney failure. Searching for health information online and via social media is a common phenomenon in many medical conditions. However, no recent studies have documented the information needs, online behaviours, and concerns of people with PKD. Read More

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Acceptability of an mHealth App That Provides Harm Reduction Services Among People Who Inject Drugs: Survey Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 14;23(7):e25428. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, United States.

Background: Harm reduction services reduce the negative consequences of drug injection and are often embedded within syringe service programs (SSPs). However, people who inject drugs (PWID) suboptimally engage with such services because of stigma, fear, transportation restrictions, and limited hours of operation. Mobile health (mHealth) apps may provide an opportunity to overcome these barriers and extend the reach of SSPs beyond that of the traditional brick-and-mortar models. Read More

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E-Commerce and Consumer Protection in India: The Emerging Trend.

J Bus Ethics 2021 Jul 9:1-24. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Academic, Research and Legal Consultant, C-202/Satyam Tower, Bomikhal, Bhubaneswar, 751010 India.

Given the rapid growth and emerging trend of e-commerce have changed consumer preferences to buy online, this study analyzes the current Indian legal framework that protects online consumers interests. A thorough analysis of the two newly enacted laws, i.e. Read More

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Functional organization of spatial frequency tuning in macaque V1 revealed with two-photon calcium imaging.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 Jul 9:102120. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

PKU-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China; IDG-McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Peking University, Beijing, China; School of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

V1 neurons are functionally organized in orientation columns in primates. Whether spatial frequency (SF) columns also exist is less clear because mixed results have been reported. A definitive solution would be SF functional maps at single-neuron resolution. Read More

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Attitudes Toward Four Levels of Self-Driving Technology Among Elderly Drivers.

Front Psychol 2021 23;12:682973. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Social Sciences, University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Automatization and autonomous vehicles can drastically improve elderly drivers' safety and mobility, with lower costs to the driver and the environment. While autonomous vehicle technology is developing rapidly, much less attention and resources have been devoted to understanding the acceptance, attitudes, and preferences of vehicle automatization among driver groups, such as the elderly. In this study, 236 elderly drivers (≥65 years) evaluated four vehicles representing SAE levels 2-5 in terms of safety, trustworthiness, enjoyment, reliability, comfort, ease of use, and attractiveness, as well as reporting preferences for vehicles employing each of the four levels of automation. Read More

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Food for everyone: Differential feeding habits of cryptic bat species inferred from DNA metabarcoding.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Mammalogy and Ornithology, Natural History Museum of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Ecological theory postulates that niches of co-occurring species must differ along some ecological dimensions in order to allow their stable coexistence. Yet, many biological systems challenge this competitive exclusion principle. Insectivorous bats from the Northern Hemisphere typically form local assemblages of multiple species sharing highly similar functional traits and pertaining to identical feeding guilds. Read More

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Emerging topics in dementia care and services.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jul;69(7):1763-1773

Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: The National Institute on Aging (NIA), in conjunction with the Department of Health and Human Services as part of the National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA), convened a 2020 Dementia Care, Caregiving, and Services Research Summit Virtual Meeting Series. This review article summarizes three areas of emerging science that are likely to grow in importance given advances in measurement, technologies, and diagnostic tests that were presented at the Summit.

Results: Dr. Read More

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Quantification and demonstration of the collective constriction-by-ratchet mechanism in the dynamin molecular motor.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(28)

Crystallography, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, 13125 Berlin, Germany;

Dynamin oligomerizes into helical filaments on tubular membrane templates and, through constriction, cleaves them in a GTPase-driven way. Structural observations of GTP-dependent cross-bridges between neighboring filament turns have led to the suggestion that dynamin operates as a molecular ratchet motor. However, the proof of such mechanism remains absent. Read More

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Fruit and vegetable liking and intake among college students: a cross-sectional study.

J Am Coll Health 2021 Jul 9:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Food Science, Nutrition, and Health Promotion, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, USA.

Objective: This study examined the liking of fruits and vegetables among college students and the relationship between skin carotenoid levels and liking of fruits and vegetables. Sixty-six undergraduate students enrolled at a university in the southeastern United States participated in this study beginning August 2019. Skin carotenoid levels were measured using the Veggie Meter® reflection spectroscopy device. Read More

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Personalized Nutrition Advice: Preferred Ways of Receiving Information Related to Psychological Characteristics.

Front Psychol 2021 22;12:575465. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Wageningen Economic Research, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

The primary goal of this study is to be able to discern specific types of consumers in terms of their psychosocial characteristics who may need different ways of receiving dietary advice. Knowing these types will enable a better fit of advice to consumers' psychosocial characteristics, hereby stimulating healthy eating as the probability of compliance to the advice can potentially increase. The study draws upon several psychological theories to distinguish unique underlying factors that can subsequently be used to personalize nutrition information for consumers. Read More

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Review: Management of livestock behavior to improve welfare and production.

A Orihuela

Animal 2021 Jul 6:100290. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001 Col. Chamilpa, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Electronic address:

In animal production, producers face different problems inherent to production systems. Today society is increasingly concerned about more sustainable systems and animal welfare. Applied ethology can be a tool to solve some of these problems through these approaches. Read More

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Unattainable equipoise in randomized controlled trials : staff views of a feasibility study of surgical treatments for segmental tibial fractures.

Bone Jt Open 2021 Jul;2(7):486-492

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Aims: To explore staff experiences of a multicentre pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing intramedullary nails and circular frame external fixation for segmental tibial fractures.

Methods: A purposeful sample of 19 staff (nine surgeons) involved in the study participated in an interview. Interviews explored participants' experience and views of the study and the treatments. Read More

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Effect of COVID-19 on Geographic Distribution of the Integrated Plastic Surgery Match.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Jun 24;9(6):e3676. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Emory University School of Medicine. Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Atlanta, Ga.

Background: COVID-19 had significant impact on the 2021 integrated plastic surgery match, most notably through cancellation of away rotations and virtual interviews. While previous studies have analyzed geographic outcomes of the match in prior years, the effects of COVID-19 have not been determined. This study aims to contribute 2021 match data to determine the effects of COVID-19 on the geographic distribution of the integrated plastic surgery match. Read More

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Contextualised strong reciprocity explains selfless cooperation despite selfish intuitions and weak social heuristics.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 6;11(1):13868. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Economics, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

Humans frequently cooperate for collective benefit, even in one-shot social dilemmas. This provides a challenge for theories of cooperation. Two views focus on intuitions but offer conflicting explanations. Read More

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Evaluating Treatment Preferences and Perceptions of a Prosthetic Versus a Transplanted Hand: A Conjoint Analysis-Based Study.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

From the Division of Plastic, Maxillofacial, and Oral Surgery, Duke University Medical Center Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, Durham, NC.

Introduction: This study used a conjoint analysis-based survey to assess which factors are most influential when considering treatment with a prosthesis or transplant after a unilateral hand amputation.

Methods: Overall, 469 respondents were recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk and asked to assume that they experienced a hand amputation. To determine preferences for a prosthetic, respondents chose among 11 pairs of alternatives with variations in the following attributes: appearance, function, maintenance, and learning time. Read More

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Providing more balanced information on the harms and benefits of cervical cancer screening: A randomized survey among US and Norwegian women.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Sep 23;23:101452. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Health Management and Health Economics, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1039 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway.

We aimed to identify how additional information about benefits and harms of cervical cancer (CC) screening impacted intention to participate in screening, what type of information on harms women preferred receiving, from whom, and whether it differed between two national healthcare settings. We conducted a survey that randomized screen-eligible women in the United States (n = 1084) and Norway (n = 1060) into four groups according to the timing of introducing additional information. We found that additional information did not significantly impact stated intentions-to-participate in screening or follow-up testing in either country; however, the proportion of Norwegian women stating uncertainty about seeking precancer treatment increased from 7. Read More

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September 2021