26,752 results match your criteria stroke recovery

Ambulatory activity in stroke survivors associated with functional outcome and quality of life: an observational cohort study.

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2021 May 10:101540. Epub 2021 May 10.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Neurology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Physical activity is beneficial in stroke prevention and recovery. Understanding activity dynamics and its effect on outcome after stroke is important to improve recommendations and develop interventions.

Objectives: We examined serial changes in daily ambulatory activity (AA) averaged over 1 week in people with subacute to chronic stroke and its association with functional outcome (modified Rankin scale [mRS]) and quality of life (EQ-5D-3L). Read More

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Quality of Life Worsens After Surgical Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address:

This study aimed to determine how acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) impacts patients' quality of life. The 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) was used to measure quality of life. The eight SF-36 scales were aggregated into a two-factor summary: physical and mental component summary scales (PCS and MCS). Read More

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Combining robotics with enhanced serotonin-driven cortical plasticity improves post-stroke motor recovery.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 May 10:102073. Epub 2021 May 10.

CNR NeuroscienceInstitute, Pisa, Italy; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Italy. Electronic address:

Despite recent progresses in robotic rehabilitation technologies, their efficacy for post-stroke motor recovery is still limited. Such limitations might stem from the insufficient enhancement of plasticity mechanisms, crucial for functional recovery. Here, we designed a clinically relevant strategy that combines robotic rehabilitation with chemogenetic stimulation of serotonin release to boost plasticity. Read More

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Modeling Microglia Activation and Inflammation-Based Neuroprotectant Strategies During Ischemic Stroke.

Bull Math Biol 2021 May 12;83(6):72. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, USA.

Neural inflammation immediately follows the onset of ischemic stroke. During this process, microglial cells can be activated into two different phenotypes: the M1 phenotype, which can worsen brain injury by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines; or the M2 phenotype, which can aid in long term recovery by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we formulate a nonlinear system of differential equations to model the activation of microglia post-ischemic stroke, which includes bidirectional switching between the microglia phenotypes, as well as the interactions between these cells and the cytokines that they produce. Read More

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Body temperature and esthesia in individuals with stroke.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10106. Epub 2021 May 12.

Clinical Research Center, Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Rua Domingo de Soto 100, Vila Mariana, São Paulo, SP, 04116-030, Brazil.

Patients with sequelae of stroke commonly report somatosensory losses. It is believed that body temperature may be associated with tactile sensibility and sensorimotor recovery of these patients. Demonstrate the associations among tactile sensibility, cutaneous temperature, subjective temperature perception, and sensorimotor recovery of patients with stroke sequelae. Read More

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Reversible Edema in the Penumbra Correlates With Severity of Hypoperfusion.

Stroke 2021 May 13:STROKEAHA120033071. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium (L.S., A.W., R. Lemmens).

Background And Purpose: We aimed to investigate fluid-attenuated inversion recovery changes in the penumbra.

Methods: We determined core and perfusion lesions in subjects from the WAKE-UP trial (Efficacy and Safety of MRI-Based Thrombolysis in Wake-Up Stroke) and AXIS 2 trial (Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke) with perfusion- and diffusion-weighted imaging at baseline. Only subjects with a mismatch volume >15 mL and ratio >1. Read More

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Vascular Sema3E-Plexin-D1 Signaling Reactivation Promotes Post-stroke Recovery through VEGF Downregulation in Mice.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Neurovascular Biology Laboratory, Neurovascular Unit Research Group, Korea Brain Research Institute, Daegu, 41062, Republic of Korea.

Post-stroke vascular remodeling, including angiogenesis, facilitates functional recovery. Proper vascular repair is important for efficient post-stroke recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms coordinating the diverse signaling pathways involved in vascular remodeling remain largely unknown. Recently, axon guidance molecules were revealed as key players in injured vessel remodeling. Read More

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A New Definition of Poststroke Spasticity and the Interference of Spasticity With Motor Recovery From Acute to Chronic Stages.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2021 May 12:15459683211011214. Epub 2021 May 12.

Shirley Ryan Ability Lab, Chicago, IL, USA.

The relationship of poststroke spasticity and motor recovery can be confusing. "True" motor recovery refers to return of motor behaviors to prestroke state with the same end-effectors and temporo-spatial pattern. This requires neural recovery and repair, and presumably occurs mainly in the acute and subacute stages. Read More

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Functional Recovery after Intramyocardial Injection of Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Stem Cells Int 2021 22;2021:5556800. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantology, John Paul II Hospital, Krakow, Poland.

Aims: A major clinical concern is the continuous increase in the number of patients diagnosed with advanced coronary artery disease, ischemic heart failure, and refractory angina, and one of the most promising treatment options for these conditions is stem cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the functional improvement following intramyocardial injection of adipose-derived stromal cells, using cardiac magnetic resonance.

Methods And Results: Thirteen patients with ischemic heart failure, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, refractory angina, and who have been disqualified from any form of direct revascularization were enrolled in the study with transthoracic autologous adipose-derived stromal cell implantation. Read More

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Normalisation of glucose metabolism by Exendin-4 in the chronic phase after stroke promotes functional recovery in male diabetic mice.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

NeuroCardioMetabol Group, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Internal Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 118 83, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background And Purpose: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation decreases stroke risk in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) while animal studies have shown the efficacy of this strategy to counteract stroke-induced acute brain damage. However, whether GLP-1R activation also improves stroke recovery in the chronic phase after stroke is unknown. We investigated whether post-acute, chronic administration of the GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 improves post-stroke recovery and examined possible underlying mechanisms in T2D and non-T2D mice. Read More

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Galectin-1 Contributes to Vascular Remodeling and Blood Flow Recovery After Cerebral Ischemia in Mice.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1095, Jiefang Ave, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Galectin-1 is found in the vasculature and has been confirmed to promote angiogenesis in several cancer models. Furthermore, galectin-1 has been demonstrated to improve the recovery of cerebral ischemia. However, whether vascular remodeling contributes to this improvement is still unknown. Read More

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Effects of a robot-aided somatosensory training on proprioception and motor function in stroke survivors.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 May 10;18(1):77. Epub 2021 May 10.

Human Sensorimotor Control Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.

Background: Proprioceptive deficits after stroke are associated with poor upper limb function, slower motor recovery, and decreased self-care ability. Improving proprioception should enhance motor control in stroke survivors, but current evidence is inconclusive. Thus, this study examined whether a robot-aided somatosensory-based training requiring increasingly accurate active wrist movements improves proprioceptive acuity as well as motor performance in chronic stroke. Read More

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Immersive Virtual Reality to Improve Outcomes in Veterans With Stroke: Protocol for a Single-Arm Pilot Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 10;10(5):e26133. Epub 2021 May 10.

Research and Development Service, James A Haley Veterans' Hospital, Tampa, FL, United States.

Background: Over the last decade, virtual reality (VR) has emerged as a cutting-edge technology in stroke rehabilitation. VR is defined as a type of computer-user interface that implements real-time simulation of an activity or environment allowing user interaction via multiple sensory modalities. In a stroke population, VR interventions have been shown to enhance motor, cognitive, and psychological recovery when utilized as a rehabilitation adjunct. Read More

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Prognostication in post-stroke aphasia: speech pathologists' clinical insights on formulating and delivering information about recovery.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 May 8:1-14. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

Purpose: For people with post-stroke aphasia, "Will I get better?" is a question often asked, but one that is intellectually and emotionally demanding for speech pathologists to answer. Speech pathologists' formulation and delivery of aphasia prognoses is varied and there is limited evidence for optimising practice. We aimed to understand speech pathologists' clinical experiences, reasoning, and support needs in aphasia prognostication. Read More

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Wiring and plumbing: Oligodendrocyte precursors and angiogenesis in the oligovascular niche.

Ken Arai Eng H Lo

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 May 9:271678X211014979. Epub 2021 May 9.

Neuroprotection Research Laboratories, Departments of Radiology and Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA.

For efficient stroke recovery, the entire neurovascular unit must be repaired. A recent study underscores this concept by highlighting the importance of cellular crosstalk for white mater remodeling. In developing brains and in brains injured by hypoxia, interactions between oligodendrocyte precursors and endothelium play an essential role for physiological and compensatory angiogenesis. Read More

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Predictors of motor outcome after childhood arterial ischemic stroke.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Aim: To identify clinical and radiological predictors of long-term motor outcome after childhood-onset arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory.

Method: Medical records of 69 children (36 females, 33 males; median age at index AIS 3y 3mo, range: 1mo-16y) who presented to Great Ormond Street Hospital with first AIS in the MCA territory were reviewed retrospectively. Cases were categorized using the Childhood AIS Standardized Classification and Diagnostic Evaluation (CASCADE). Read More

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Systolic and Diastolic Functions After a Brief Acute Bout of Mild Exercise in Normobaric Hypoxia.

Front Physiol 2021 23;12:650696. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Acute hypoxia (AH) is a challenge to the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system, especially during exercise. Research in this area is scarce. We aimed to ascertain whether echocardiographic, Doppler, and tissue Doppler measures were able to detect changes in systolic and diastolic functions during the recovery after mild exercise in AH. Read More

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Roles of Fibroblast Growth Factors and Their Therapeutic Potential in Treatment of Ischemic Stroke.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:671131. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Stroke is the leading cause of death worldwide, and its treatment remains a challenge. Complex pathological processes are involved in stroke, which causes a reduction in the supply of oxygen and energy to the brain that triggers subsequent cascade events, such as oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and apoptosis, resulting in brain injury. Stroke is a devastating disease for which there are few treatments, but physical rehabilitation can help improve stroke recovery. Read More

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Inflammation-Mediated Angiogenesis in Ischemic Stroke.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 21;15:652647. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Stroke is the leading cause of disability and mortality in the world, but the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS) is not completely clear and treatments are limited. Mounting evidence indicate that neovascularization is a critical defensive reaction to hypoxia that modulates the process of long-term neurologic recovery after IS. Angiogenesis is a complex process in which the original endothelial cells in blood vessels are differentiated, proliferated, migrated, and finally remolded into new blood vessels. Read More

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Functional recoveries of patients with branch atheromatous disease after rehabilitation: Comparison with other types of cerebral infarction and importance of stratification by clinical categories.

Restor Neurol Neurosci 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Neurology, Tane General Hospital, Kujou-minami, Nishi-ku, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Functional recoveries after rehabilitation of patients with branch atheromatous disease (BAD) have not been well investigated, however, clinical category of cerebral infarction including BAD itself could be a potential predictive factor for functional outcome.

Objective: To describe characteristics of functional recoveries of patients with BAD through comparison with other types of cerebral infarction.

Methods: We retrospectively compared outcomes of patients with BAD (N = 222), cardioembolic cerebral infarction (CE: N = 177) and atherothrombotic cerebral infarction (AT: N = 219) by using functional independence measure (FIM) and FIM effectiveness (the proportion of potential for improvement achieved). Read More

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Distance-limited walk tests post-stroke: A systematic review of measurement properties.

NeuroRehabilitation 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Physical Therapy, Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Toronto, Canada; KITE-Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network, Canada.

Background: Improving walking capacity is a key objective of post-stroke rehabilitation. Evidence describing the quality and protocols of standardized tools for assessing walking capacity can facilitate their implementation.

Objective: To synthesize existing literature describing test protocols and measurement properties of distance-limited walk tests in people post-stroke. Read More

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Evaluation of quality of life in individuals with chronic stroke who underwent aquatic exercises: A case series.

NeuroRehabilitation 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Biomechanics and Clinical Epidemiology, PAIFIT Research Group, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR, Brazil.

Background: Aquatic exercises are among the treatments available to improve the quality of life after stroke.

Objectives: To investigate changes in the quality of life after 8-week of aquatic exercises in post-stroke individuals.

Methods: A case series study was designed, including four male participants. Read More

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Prediction of Cognitive Recovery After Stroke: The Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging-Based Measures of Brain Connectivity.

Stroke 2021 May 10:STROKEAHA120032033. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg, the Netherlands. (H.P.A., P.L.M.D.K.).

Background And Purpose: Prediction of long-term recovery of a poststroke cognitive disorder (PSCD) is currently inaccurate. We assessed whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-based measures of brain connectivity predict cognitive recovery 1 year after stroke in patients with PSCD in addition to conventional clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging variables.

Methods: This prospective monocenter cohort study included 217 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of ischemic stroke, aged ≥50 years, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score below 26 during hospitalization. Read More

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Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Asymmetry Due to Standing Load in Stroke Patients Measured by NIRS.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1269:223-227

Universal Sport Health Science Laboratory, Department of Human and Engineered Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.

Autonomic disorders such as orthostatic hypotension often become a problem during the early mobilization of poststroke patients. We reported that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxyhemoglobin changes at rest are often on the right, and a positive correlation was observed between the left and right activity balance and the change in oxy-Hb. In this study, we focused on the asymmetrical changes associated with the standing load from rest. Read More

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Effect of 3-Day and 21-Day Hypoxic Preconditioning on Recovery Following Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1269:317-322

Departments of Physiology & Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

We have previously reported that in a rat model of chronic hypoxia, HIF-1α and its target genes have significantly accumulated by 3 days of exposure, whereas no significant increase in capillary density has occurred; there is a significant increase in capillary density at 21 days of chronic hypoxic exposure. In this study we hypothesize that by utilizing 3 days and 21 days of hypoxic preconditioning, we would distinguish between the relative neuroprotective contributions of the accumulation of HIF-1α and its target genes and angiogenic adaptation in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Rats were randomly assigned to either hypoxic precondition groups (3-day and 21-day hypoxia) or normoxic control group. Read More

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Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation and Outcomes Related to Human Papillomavirus Disease in GATA2 Deficiency.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 3;27(5):435.e1-435.e11. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Immune Deficiency-Cellular Therapy Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

GATA2 deficiency is a bone marrow failure syndrome effectively treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), which also addresses the predisposition to many infections (prominently mycobacterial). However, many GATA2-deficient persons who come to HCT also have prevalent and refractory human papilloma virus disease (HPVD), which can be a precursor to cancer. We analyzed 75 HCT recipients for the presence of HPVD to identify patient characteristics and transplantation results that influence HPVD outcomes. Read More

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Delayed egress of CD8 T cells contributes to long-term pathology after ischemic stroke in male mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology & Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States; Department of Neurology, Center for Advanced Translational Stroke Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Stroke is a debilitating disorder with significant annual mortality and morbidity rates worldwide. Immune cells are recruited to the injured brain within hours after stroke onset and can exhibit either protective or detrimental effects on recovery. However, immune cells, including CD8 T cells, persist in the injured brain for weeks, suggesting a longer-term role for the adaptive immune system during functional recovery. Read More

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Association with clinic risk factors of Percheron artery infarction and magnetic resonance imaging involvement patterns.

Acta Neurol Belg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

Radiological imaging is important in the diagnosis of the artery of Percheron (AOP) infarction. This study aimed to discuss the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of this abnormal variant of arterial supply. Patients who presented to our hospital with stroke symptoms between 2010 and 2019 and underwent brain MRI were evaluated retrospectively. Read More

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Carbonyl Reductase 1 Attenuates Ischemic Brain Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital; Key Laboratory of Cerebral Microcirculation in Universities of Shandong; Brain Science Institute, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, 271000, Shandong, China.

Oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory response after the ischemic injury are important pathophysiologic mechanisms that cause brain tissue loss and neurological deficit. This study aims to observe the expression and role of carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), an NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase with specificity for carbonyl compounds such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), in the brain after ischemic injury and to investigate the influence of CBR1 on ischemia-induced neuroinflammation. CBR1 expresses in the neurons, astrocyte, and microglia in the normal brain. Read More

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