7,224 results match your criteria stress hyperinsulinism


Decreased Glucocorticoid Signaling Potentiates Lipid-Induced Inflammation and Contributes to Insulin Resistance in the Skeletal Muscle of Fructose-Fed Male Rats Exposed to Stress.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 4;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković"-National Institute of Re-Public of Serbia, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

The modern lifestyle brings both excessive fructose consumption and daily exposure to stress which could lead to metabolic disturbances and type 2 diabetes. Muscles are important points of glucose and lipid metabolism, with a crucial role in the maintenance of systemic energy homeostasis. We investigated whether 9-week fructose-enriched diet, with and without exposure to 4-week unpredictable stress, disturbs insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle of male rats and evaluated potential contributory roles of muscle lipid metabolism, glucocorticoid signaling and inflammation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association between serum Vitamin E concentrations and the presence of Metabolic Syndrome: A population-based cohort study.

Acta Biomed 2021 07 1;92(3):e2021047. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:92:"c. Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran";}.

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of clinical and metabolic features that include central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance. These features are accompanied by increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defenses. Vitamin E is a major factor in the non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Role of Cellular Stress in Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Postnatal Dysmetabolism.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 29;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada.

Disruption of the in utero environment can have dire consequences on fetal growth and development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathological condition by which the fetus deviates from its expected growth trajectory, resulting in low birth weight and impaired organ function. The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) postulates that IUGR has lifelong consequences on offspring well-being, as human studies have established an inverse relationship between birth weight and long-term metabolic health. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Endothelial Progenitor Cells Dysfunctions and Cardiometabolic Disorders: From Mechanisms to Therapeutic Approaches.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 22;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of several disorders, such as hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Despite health policies based on the promotion of physical exercise, the reduction of calorie intake and the consumption of healthy food, there is still a global rise in the incidence and prevalence of MetS in the world. This phenomenon can partly be explained by the fact that adverse events in the perinatal period can increase the susceptibility to develop cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Serum Corticosterone and Insulin Resistance as Early Biomarkers in the hAPP23 Overexpressing Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 22;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Laboratory of Physiopharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Antwerp, Belgium.

Increasing epidemiological evidence highlights the association between systemic insulin resistance and Alzheimer's disease (AD). As insulin resistance can be caused by high-stress hormone levels and since hypercortisolism appears to be an important risk factor of AD, we aimed to investigate the systemic insulin functionality and circulating stress hormone levels in a mutant humanized amyloid precursor protein (APP) overexpressing (hAPP23+/-) AD mouse model. Memory and spatial learning of male hAPP23+/- and C57BL/6 (wild type, WT) mice were assessed by a Morris Water Maze (MWM) test at the age of 4 and 12 months. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Natural Polyphenols in Metabolic Syndrome: Protective Mechanisms and Clinical Applications.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 6;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 6.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines and School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a chronic disease, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. It should be noted that the occurrence of MetS is closely related to oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, ectopic fat accumulation, and the impairment of the antioxidant system, which in turn further aggravates the intracellular oxidative imbalance and inflammatory response. As enriched anti-inflammatory and antioxidant components in plants, natural polyphenols exhibit beneficial effects, including improving liver fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, reducing blood pressure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Time-of-Day-Dependent Effects of Bromocriptine to Ameliorate Vascular Pathology and Metabolic Syndrome in SHR Rats Held on High Fat Diet.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 7;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

VeroScience LLC, Tiverton, RI 02878, USA.

The treatment of type 2 diabetes patients with bromocriptine-QR, a unique, quick release micronized formulation of bromocriptine, improves glycemic control and reduces adverse cardiovascular events. While the improvement of glycemic control is largely the result of improved postprandial hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin action, the mechanisms underlying the drug's cardioprotective effects are less well defined. Bromocriptine is a sympatholytic dopamine agonist and reduces the elevated sympathetic tone, characteristic of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, which potentiates elevations of vascular oxidative/nitrosative stress, known to precipitate cardiovascular disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Diabetic Effect of Black Soybean Anthocyanins: Data from a Dual Cooperative Cellular System.

Molecules 2021 Jun 2;26(11). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Food Science & Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea, 43 Jibong-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon 14662, Korea.

Obesity is characterized by elevated infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue, leading to the development of insulin resistance. The black soybean seed coat is a rich source of anthocyanins with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. This study investigated the effects of black soybean anthocyanin extract (BSAn) on obesity-induced oxidative stress, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in a coculture system of hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolic Syndrome in an Aging Society - Role of Oxidant-Antioxidant Imbalance and Inflammation Markers in Disentangling Atherosclerosis.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 9;16:1057-1070. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Bytom, Poland.

Introduction: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the elderly population is growing. The elements of metabolic syndrome in an aging society are currently being researched. Atherosclerosis is a slow process in which the first symptoms may be observed after many years. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antidiabetic potential of dietary polyphenols: A mechanistic review.

Food Res Int 2021 07 5;145:110383. Epub 2021 May 5.

Bioflavors and Bioactive Compounds Laboratory, Department of Food Science, School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-862, Brazil.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that has caused enormous harm to the public health worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the potential of phenolic compounds on diabetes management, addressing their mechanisms of action, in addition to discussing the digestion, absorption, metabolism, bioavailability, and toxic effects of these compounds. The intake of phenolic compounds can play a fundamental role on diabetes management, since they can reduce blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, protein glycation, inhibit the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase - IV and other key enzymes related to carbohydrate metabolism, activate various biochemical pathways to improve pancreatic β-cell functions, increase insulin secretion, and improve insulin resistance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Aquaporins in insulin resistance and diabetes: More than channels!

Redox Biol 2021 08 27;44:102027. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Medical Biology, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-089, Bialystok, Poland. Electronic address:

Aquaporins (AQPs) are part of the family of the integral membrane proteins. Their function is dedicated to the transport of water, glycerol, ammonia, urea, HO, and other small molecules across the biological membranes. Although for many years they were scarcely considered, AQPs have a relevant role in the development of many diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Perilipin 5 links mitochondrial uncoupled respiration in brown fat to healthy white fat remodeling and systemic glucose tolerance.

Nat Commun 2021 06 3;12(1):3320. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Exposure of mice or humans to cold promotes significant changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) with respect to histology, lipid content, gene expression, and mitochondrial mass and function. Herein we report that the lipid droplet coat protein Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) increases markedly in BAT during exposure of mice to cold. To understand the functional significance of cold-induced PLIN5, we created and characterized gain- and loss-of-function mouse models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Impact of High Glucose or Insulin Exposure on S100B Protein Levels, Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and DNA Damage in Neuron-Like Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 24;22(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 211, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is attracting considerable interest due to its increasing number of cases as a consequence of the aging of the global population. The mainstream concept of AD neuropathology based on pathological changes of amyloid metabolism and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles is under criticism due to the failure of A-targeting drug trials. Recent findings have shown that AD is a highly complex disease involving a broad range of clinical manifestations as well as cellular and biochemical disturbances. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of SGLT2 Inhibitors on Heart Failure: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Effects.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 30;22(11). Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, I-80138 Naples, Italy.

Heart failure (HF) affects up to over 20% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), even more in the elderly. Although, in T2DM, both hyperglycemia and the proinflammatory status induced by insulin resistance are crucial in cardiac function impairment, SGLT2i cardioprotective mechanisms against HF are several. In particular, these beneficial effects seem attributable to the significant reduction of intracellular sodium levels, well-known to exert a cardioprotective role in the prevention of oxidative stress and consequent cardiomyocyte death. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Inflammasome NLRP3 Potentially Links Obesity-Associated Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Insulin Resistance with Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 25;22(11). Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Endocrinology, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Cegłowska 80, 01-809 Warsaw, Poland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia. Metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may stimulate amyloid β (Aβ) aggregate formation. AD, obesity, and T2DM share similar features such as chronic inflammation, increased oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and impaired energy metabolism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Role of Fatty Acids in Ceramide Pathways and Their Influence on Hypothalamic Regulation of Energy Balance: A Systematic Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 19;22(10). Epub 2021 May 19.

Faculty of Applied Science, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas 13484-350, Brazil.

Obesity is a global health issue for which no major effective treatments have been well established. High-fat diet consumption is closely related to the development of obesity because it negatively modulates the hypothalamic control of food intake due to metaflammation and lipotoxicity. The use of animal models, such as rodents, in conjunction with in vitro models of hypothalamic cells, can enhance the understanding of hypothalamic functions related to the control of energy balance, thereby providing knowledge about the impact of diet on the hypothalamus, in addition to targets for the development of new drugs that can be used in humans to decrease body weight. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association between the Use of Health Services, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Mexican Adults.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 17;18(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of the Balearic Islands-IUNICS & IDISBA, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

: The use of health services is a complex behavioral phenomenon affected by multiple factors (availability, distance, cost, quality, attitudes, cultural beliefs, socioeconomic characteristics, and individuals' self-perception of health). Mexico has a segmented health system, and the access to it depends on the labor insertion and the population's ability to pay. : To assess association between use of health services and cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk factors among Mexican adults. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response by Chronic Cannabidiol Administration Is Associated with Improved n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio in the White and Red Skeletal Muscle in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

Nutrients 2021 May 11;13(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physiology, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicz Str. 2C, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland.

The consumption of fatty acids has increased drastically, exceeding the nutritional requirements of an individual and leading to numerous metabolic disorders. Recent data indicate a growing interest in using cannabidiol (CBD) as an agent with beneficial effects in the treatment of obesity. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the influence of chronic CBD administration on the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratio in different lipid fractions, inflammatory pathway and oxidative stress parameters in the white and red gastrocnemius muscle. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Animal Fat Intake Is Associated with Albuminuria in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome.

Nutrients 2021 May 4;13(5). Epub 2021 May 4.

Research Group in Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of the Balearic Islands-IUNICS, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diet could play a predisposing role in the development of increased albuminuria in patients with NAFLD and MetS; however, published evidence is still limited. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to assess whether dietary fats are associated with changes in urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in 146 patients aged 40-60-years with NAFLD and MetS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reactive oxygen species in exercise and insulin resistance: Working towards personalized antioxidant treatment.

Redox Biol 2021 08 18;44:102005. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. Electronic address:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well known for their role in insulin resistance and the development of cardiometabolic disease including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Conversely, evidence supports the notion that ROS are a necessary component for glucose cell transport and adaptation to physiological stress including exercise and muscle contraction. Although genetic rodent models and cell culture studies indicate antioxidant treatment to be an effective strategy for targeting ROS to promote health, human findings are largely inconsistent. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The role of pioglitazone in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and insulin sensitivity in a high fat-carbohydrate diet-induced rat model of insulin resistance.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2021 24;54(8):e10782. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

We explored the cascade effects of a high fat-carbohydrate diet (HFCD) and pioglitazone (an anti-diabetic therapy used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)) on lipid profiles, oxidative stress/antioxidant, insulin, and inflammatory biomarkers in a rat model of insulin resistance. Sixty albino rats (80-90 g) were randomly divided into three dietary groups; 1) standard diet; 2) HFCD diet for 12 weeks to induce an in vivo model of insulin resistance; and 3) HFCD diet plus pioglitazone. Blood and tissue samples were taken to assess hepatic function, lipid profiles, oxidative biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant defense biomarkers, including reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrotic factor (TNF-α). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Circulating ceramides as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: Evidence from phenotypic and genomic studies.

Atherosclerosis 2021 06 7;327:18-30. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory for Lipidomics and Lipid Research, Division of Pharmacy and Optometry, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, UK; Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

There is a need for new biomarkers of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), the main cause of death globally. Ceramides, a class of potent bioactive lipid mediators, have signalling roles in apoptosis, cellular stress and inflammation. Recent studies have highlighted circulating ceramides as novel biomarkers of coronary artery disease, type-2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chrysin Improves Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Disorders by Regulating the AMPK/PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway in Insulin-Resistant HepG2 Cells and HFD/STZ-Induced C57BL/6J Mice.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 12;69(20):5618-5627. Epub 2021 May 12.

The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, College of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, No.130 Meilong Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200237, People's Republic of China.

Natural products with minor side effects have been reported to be an effective adjuvant therapy for glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. Chrysin, a flavone, has a wide range of physiological effects, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, anti-hyperlipidemia, and hepatoprotective. This study was designed to explore the effects and mechanism of chrysin on metabolic syndrome using insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and HFD/STZ-induced C57BL/6J mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Ca -binding protein sorcin stimulates transcriptional activity of the unfolded protein response mediator ATF6.

FEBS Lett 2021 07 24;595(13):1782-1796. Epub 2021 May 24.

Section of Cell Biology and Functional Genomics, Department of Metabolism, Digestion & Reproduction, Imperial College London, UK.

Sorcin is a calcium-binding protein involved in maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca stores. We have previously shown that overexpressing sorcin under the rat insulin promoter was protective against high-fat diet-induced pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in vivo. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is a key mediator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) that provides cellular protection during the progression of ER stress. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics reveal the anti-aging effect of melanin from ink (MSMI) on D-galactose-induced aging mice.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 04 21;13(8):11889-11906. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

ink, a flavoring and coloring agent in food, has attracted considerable attention due to its various pharmacological activities. Our previous study showed that the melanin of ink (MSMI) can alleviate oxidative damage and delay aging in D-galactose(D-gal)-induced aging mice. This study aimed to reveal the possible mechanisms of the anti-aging effect of MSMI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

What's in a name? That which we call perinatal stress hyperinsulinism by any other name would smell so bitter.

J Perinatol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division Chief and Director Congenital Hyperinsulinism Center, Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Skeletal Muscle Proteomic Profile Revealed Gender-Related Metabolic Responses in a Diet-Induced Obesity Animal Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, 20090 Segrate, Italy.

Obesity is a chronic, complex pathology associated with a risk of developing secondary pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and musculoskeletal disorders. Since skeletal muscle accounts for more than 70% of total glucose disposal, metabolic alterations are strictly associated with the onset of insulin resistance and T2DM. The present study relies on the proteomic analysis of gastrocnemius muscle from 15 male and 15 female C56BL/J mice fed for 14 weeks with standard, 45% or 60% high-fat diets (HFD) adopting a label-free LC-MS/MS approach followed by bioinformatic pathway analysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Maternal Immune Dysregulation: What We Know So Far.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 20;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Western Gateway Building, University College Cork, T12 XF62 Cork, Ireland.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an obstetric complication that affects approximately 5-10% of all pregnancies worldwide. GDM is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, and is characterized by exaggerated insulin resistance, a condition which is already pronounced in healthy pregnancies. Maternal hyperglycaemia ensues, instigating a 'glucose stress' response and concurrent systemic inflammation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of Insulin Resistance in MAFLD.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 16;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo 105-8470, Japan.

Many studies have reported that metabolic dysfunction is closely involved in the complex mechanism underlying the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which has prompted a movement to consider renaming NAFLD as metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Metabolic dysfunction in this context encompasses obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, with insulin resistance as the common underlying pathophysiology. Imbalance between energy intake and expenditure results in insulin resistance in various tissues and alteration of the gut microbiota, resulting in fat accumulation in the liver. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Role of Fructose in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis: Old Relationship and New Insights.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 16;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Internal Medicine and Hepatology Division, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Odontostomatology, "Scuola Medica Salernitana", University of Salerno, 84084 Salerno, Italy.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the result of hepatic fat overload not due to alcohol consumption and potentially evolving to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Fructose is a naturally occurring simple sugar widely used in food industry linked to glucose to form sucrose, largely contained in hypercaloric food and beverages. An increasing amount of evidence in scientific literature highlighted a detrimental effect of dietary fructose consumption on metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, hepatic steatosis, and NAFLD-related fibrosis as well. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF