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The Natural History of Insomnia: Predisposing, precipitating, coping and perpetuating factors over the early developmental course of insomnia.

Sleep 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

While there is an extensive literature on predisposing, precipitating, coping and perpetuating factors in those with chronic insomnia, very little work has been undertaken to evaluate these factors over the early developmental course of insomnia. The present aim was to determine whether several hypothesized factors in each domain (predisposing, precipitating, coping and perpetuating), assessed during an episode of acute insomnia, are related to its persistence or remission to normal sleep. Participants comprised n = 140 people with acute insomnia and n = 737 normal sleepers recruited from the general public. Read More

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Nse5/6 is a negative regulator of the ATPase activity of the Smc5/6 complex.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Genome Damage and Stability Centre, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, UK.

The multi-component Smc5/6 complex plays a critical role in the resolution of recombination intermediates formed during mitosis and meiosis, and in the cellular response to replication stress. Using recombinant proteins, we have reconstituted a series of defined Saccharomyces cerevisiae Smc5/6 complexes, visualised them by negative stain electron microscopy, and tested their ability to function as an ATPase. We find that only the six protein 'holo-complex' is capable of turning over ATP and that its activity is significantly increased by the addition of double-stranded DNA to reaction mixes. Read More

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Global RNA profiles show target selectivity and physiological effects of peptide-delivered antisense antibiotics.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Molecular Infection Biology (IMIB), University of Würzburg, D-97080 Würzburg, Germany.

Antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) inhibiting mRNAs of essential genes provide a straight-forward way to repurpose our knowledge of bacterial regulatory RNAs for development of programmable species-specific antibiotics. While there is ample proof of PNA efficacy, their target selectivity and impact on bacterial physiology are poorly understood. Moreover, while antibacterial PNAs are typically designed to block mRNA translation, effects on target mRNA levels are not well-investigated. Read More

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Bimodal regulation of the PRC2 complex by USP7 underlies tumorigenesis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Although overexpression of EZH2, a catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is an eminent feature of various cancers, the regulation of its abundance and function remains insufficiently understood. We report here that the PRC2 complex is physically associated with ubiquitin-specific protease USP7 in cancer cells where USP7 acts to deubiquitinate and stabilize EZH2. Interestingly, we found that USP7-catalyzed H2BK120ub1 deubiquitination is a prerequisite for chromatin loading of PRC2 thus H3K27 trimethylation, and this process is not affected by H2AK119 ubiquitination catalyzed by PRC1. Read More

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The Kidney-Heart Connection in Obesity.

Nephron 2021 Apr 13:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

There is a strong relationship between the kidney and the heart, where if one of these organs fails, so does the other, in the so-called cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Besides, there are also interactions with the rest of the body leading to a metabolic state that establishes a feedback loop that is perpetuated. The CRS is characterized by hemodynamic changes, activation of neuro-humoral systems, natriuretic peptides, and changes in mineral metabolism. Read More

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Trimetazidine Protects from Mercury-Induced Kidney Injury.

Pharmacology 2021 Apr 13:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Pharmacology, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. National University of Rosario, CONICET, Rosario, Argentina.

Introduction: The presence of mercury in the environment is a worldwide concern. Inorganic mercury is present in industrial materials, is employed in medical devices, is widely used in batteries, is a component of fluorescent light bulbs, and it has been associated with human poisoning in gold mining areas. The nephrotoxicity induced by inorganic mercury is a relevant health problem mainly in developing countries. Read More

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Protective Effects of Morus nigra and Its Phytochemicals against Hepatotoxicity: A Review of Preclinical Studies.

Pharmacology 2021 Apr 13:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Our liver has a variety of vital functions including removing poisons, storing energy, immunological roles, and secretory and excretory functions. It may face some kinds of diseases caused by viruses, hepatotoxic chemicals, drugs, alcohol, and inherited disorders. Oxidative stress and inflammation are in the core of mechanisms of liver damages induced by viruses or chemical agents. Read More

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Influence of anthopometric variables on the mechanical properties of human rib cortical bone.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Eduard Maristany, 14, Barcelona, Catalunya, 08034, SPAIN.

Objective: The mechanical properties of ribs from a large number of post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were analyzed to search for variation according to age, sex or BMI in the sample. A large sample of specimens from different donors (N = 64) with a very wide range of ages and anthropometric characteristics was tested.

Methods: Uniaxial tensile tests were used for a sample of coupons machined from cortical bone tissue in order to isolate the purely mechanical properties from the geometrically influenced properties of the rib. Read More

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Protocol for The Pregnancy During the COVID-19 Pandemic (PdP) study: A longitudinal cohort study of mental health among pregnant Canadians during the COVID-19 pandemic and developmental outcomes in their children.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, NW, Calgary, CA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and countermeasures implemented by governments around the world have led to dramatically increased symptoms of depression and anxiety. Pregnant women may be particularly vulnerable to the negative psychological effects of COVID-19 public health measures, because they represent a demographic that is most affected by disasters and because pregnancy itself entails significant life changes that require major psychosocial and emotional adjustments. The Pregnancy During the COVID-19 Pandemic (PdP) study was designed to investigate the associations between exposure to objective hardship caused by the pandemic, perceived stress and psychological distress in pregnant individuals, and developmental outcomes in their offspring. Read More

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Environmental enrichment improves lifelong persistent behavioral and epigenetic changes induced by early-life stress.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 6;138:107-116. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Translational Psychiatry Laboratory, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNESC), Criciuma, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) in Wistar rats subjected to maternal deprivation (MD). MD was performed in the first post-natal days (PND) ten for 3 h/day. The groups were: control; deprived without EE; and deprived with EE. Read More

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Inhibition of CB1 receptor alleviates electroconvulsive shock-induced memory impairment by regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity in depressive rats.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 3;300:113917. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for depression, but it can cause cognitive deficit. Unfortunately, effective preventive measures are still lacking. The endocannabinoid system is thought to play a key role in regulation of cognitive process. Read More

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Optimism, mindfulness, and resilience as potential protective factors for the mental health consequences of fear of the coronavirus.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 6;300:113927. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, Postal address: Warandelaan 2, Tilburg University, 5037AB Tilburg, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 pandemic has a substantial impact on mental health. Prior reports have shown that depression, anxiety, and stress have increased throughout the pandemic. Nonetheless, not everyone is affected by these negative consequences and some people may be relatively unaffected. Read More

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Single cell spectroscopy of red blood cells in intravenous crystalloid fluids.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Mar 19;257:119726. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Centre of Excellence for Biophotonics, Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India. Electronic address:

Crystalloid fluids, a subset of intravenous (IV) fluid solutions are commonly used in clinical settings. The influence of these fluids on the functions of blood components are least explored. Raman spectroscopy combined with optical trapping has been widely used to evaluate the impact of external stress agents on red blood cells. Read More

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Bortezomib alleviates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via enhancing of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 10;556:207-214. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Bortezomib is a classical proteasome inhibitor and previous researches have reported its roles of anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory functions in various diseases. However, the role of Bortezomib in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is unclear. Thus, our research seeks to reveal the protective effects of Bortezomib pretreatment in the mice model of MIRI. Read More

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Analysis of Populus glycosyl hydrolase family I members and their potential role in the ABA treatment and drought stress response.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 5;163:178-188. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510520, China. Electronic address:

Glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) β-glucosidases (BGLUs) are encoded by a large number of genes and are involved in many developmental processes and stress responses in plants. Due to their importance in plant growth and development, genome-wide analyses have been conducted in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and maize but not in woody plant species, which have important economic and ecological value. In this study, we systematically analyzed Populus BGLUs (PtBGLUs) and demonstrated the involvement of several genes under stress conditions. Read More

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Chronic scrotal hyperthermia induces azoospermia and severe damage to testicular tissue in mice.

Acta Histochem 2021 Apr 10;123(4):151712. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Scrotal hyperthermia leads to altered spermatogenesis due to heat-related oxidative stress. One of the main causes of infertility in men is oxidative stress, which refers to an imbalance in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic scrotal hyperthermia on testicular tissue structure, sperm parameters, and oxidative stress in adult mice. Read More

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Chronic chlorpyrifos exposure induces oxidative stress, apoptosis and immune dysfunction in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 24;282:117010. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China. Electronic address:

This study was undertaken to (a) evaluate the destructive effects of chronic exposure to low-dose of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on antioxidant system and immune function in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and (b) to examine whether dietary supplementation of curcumin can mitigate the adverse effects induced by CPF contamination. The experiment consisted of three groups (with three replicates, 30 fish per replicate) which lasted for 60 days: A control group (without CPF exposure or CU application), CP group (exposed to 0.004 mg/L of CPF), and CU group (exposed to 0. Read More

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The sub-lethal impact of plastic and tire rubber leachates on the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 4;283:117081. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Via Sant'Alberto 163, 48123, Ravenna, Italy. Electronic address:

Ocean contamination by synthetic polymers can represent a risk for the fitness of marine species due to the leaching of chemical additives. This study evaluated the sub-lethal effects of plastic and rubber leachates on the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis through a battery of biomarkers encompassing lysosomal endpoints, oxidative stress/detoxification parameters, and specific responses to metals/neurotoxicants. Mussels were exposed for 7 days to leachates from car tire rubber (CTR), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), containing organic additives and metals in the ng-μg/L range. Read More

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Polyethylene glycol acute and sub-lethal toxicity in neotropical Physalaemus cuvieri tadpoles (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 4;283:117054. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Biological Research Laboratory, Goiano Federal Institute - Urutaí Campus, Urutaí, GO, Brazil; Post-Graduation Program in Biotechnology and Biodiversity, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil; Graduate Program in Conservation of Cerrado Natural Resources, Goiano Federal Institute, Urutaí, GO, Brazil; Post-Graduation Program in Ecology and Natural Resources Conservation, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Although many polymers are known by their toxicity, we know nothing about the impact of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on anurofauna. Its presence in different products and disposal in aquatic environments turn assessments about its impact on amphibians an urgent matter. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that short-time exposure (72 h) of tadpoles belonging to the species Physalaemus cuvieri (Anura, Leptodactylidae) to PEG induces oxidative stress and neurotoxicity on them. Read More

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Involvement of mitochondrial fission in renal tubular pyroptosis in mice exposed to high and environmental levels of glyphosate combined with hard water.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 5;283:117082. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities (CINAC) has reached epidemic proportions. The combination of glyphosate and hard water has been postulated to play a potent aetiological role in CINAC. Therefore, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated aberrant mitochondrial fission and subsequent activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (Nlrp3)/caspase1 pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of nephropathy. Read More

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Spatiotemporal regulation of hydrogen sulfide signaling in the kidney.

Redox Biol 2021 Apr 2;43:101961. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Hydrogen sulfide (HS) has long been recognized as a putrid, toxic gas. However, as a result of intensive biochemical research in the past two decades, HS is now considered to be the third gasotransmitter alongside nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) in mammalian systems. HS-producing enzymes are expressed in all organs, playing an important role in their physiology. Read More

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Combined effect of microplastics and global warming factors on early growth and development of the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 1;782:146888. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, IEO, Subida a Radio Faro, 50, 36390 Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain.

The aim of this work was to estimate the potential risk of the combined effect of global change factors (acidification, temperature increase) and microplastic (MP) pollution on the growth and development of the sea urchin P. lividus. Embryo-larval bioassays were conducted to determine growth and morphology after 48 h of incubation with MP (1000 and 3000 particles/mL); with filtered sea water at pH = 7. Read More

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Taurine reduction associated with heart dysfunction after real-world PM exposure in aged mice.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 5;782:146866. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Contaminants Exposure and Health, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Ambient PM has been proved to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; however, little information is available on the age-dependent effects of PM on the cardiovascular system and the underlying mechanisms following chronic exposure. In this study, multi-aged mice were exposed to PM via the newly developed real-ambient PM exposure system to investigate age-related effects on the heart after long-term exposure. First, the chemical and physical properties of PM used in the exposure system were analyzed. Read More

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Two-sided effects of prolonged hypoxia and sulfide exposure on juvenile ark shells (Anadara broughtonii).

Mar Environ Res 2021 Apr 7;169:105326. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Fishery College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Oxygen deficit and sulfide have been restrictive factors in mariculture zones. However, the adaptive mechanism in aquatic lives is still unclear. The commercial ark shells Anadara broughtonii were selected to test the tolerance and adaptive responses to prolonged and intermittent hypoxia with or without exogenous sulfide (mild, moderate, high) by evaluating their behavior, mortality, oxidative level, antioxidant responses, and the MAPK-mediated apoptosis in gills. Read More

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A brief cognitive-behavioural treatment approach for PTSD and Dissociative Identity Disorder, a case report.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2021 Apr 2;72:101655. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

HSK Groep B.V., Centre of Expertise Functional Movement Disorders, Woerden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: We described a new treatment model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), based on cognitive-behavioural principles. In this model, dissociation is seen as a maladaptive avoidant coping strategy. In addition, we stress that patients have dysfunctional beliefs about dissociation. Read More

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Dietary intake of B vitamins and their association with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms: A cross-sectional, population-based survey.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 26;288:92-98. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: B vitamins have vital roles in the development, maintenance, and functioning of the brain, while severe deficiencies have been linked to increased psychological disorders. However, no published studies have examined the association between dietary intake of vitamin B and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in a general population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 7387 Iranian adults aged 20-70 years within the population-based cohort study framework. Read More

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Difenoconazole induces cardiovascular toxicity through oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 10;216:112227. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Women's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Nanjing 210004, PR China; Institute of Pediatrics, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, PR China. Electronic address:

Difenoconazole (DIF), a common broad-spectrum triazole fungicide, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to the mechanisms underlying this association. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to DIF (0, 0. Read More

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Immune response and susceptibility of Nile tilapia fish to Aeromonas hydrophila infection following the exposure to Bifenthrin and/or supplementation with Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 10;216:112205. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, 32897, Egypt.

Bifenthrin (BF) is a widely used 3rd generation type I pyrethroid with a potential toxic effect in fish. Nevertheless, its effect on the immune system remains unclear. In the present study, Oreochromis niloticus was exposed to BF at 0. Read More

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Vasovagal reactions following venepuncture result in aberrant stress-induced cortisol levels.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Apr 3;128:105220. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Translational Research in GastroIntestinal Disorders (TARGID), Department of chronic diseases, metabolism, and ageing, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Belgium; Leuven Brain Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Lab, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA.

Venepuncture is recognized as a potent stressor and, by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, can interfere with measuring subsequent HPA axis indices such as cortisol. A resting period of 110 min is recommended between venepuncture and the commencement of psychosocial stress induction or cortisol measurement to allow cortisol levels to return to baseline first. In experiment 1 (n = 65), in which stress induction occurred 120 min after venepuncture, we observed three cortisol stress response patterns: conventional response ("responders", 77%), conventional non-response ("non-responders", 6. Read More

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