349,508 results match your criteria strength

Effectiveness of Microcurrent Stimulation in Preserving Retinal Function of Blind Leading Retinal Degeneration and Optic Neuropathy: A Systematic Review.

Neuromodulation 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Objectives: To systematically identify and summarize the effectiveness and the parameters of electrical stimulation (ES) for the preservation of visual function in major retinal degeneration and optic neuropathy.

Materials And Methods: A systematic review of clinical studies, using ES therapy in patients with blind leading retinal degenerations, including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, retinal vein occlusion (RVO), retinal artery occlusion (RAO), and optic neuropathy was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for relevant interventional studies including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Read More

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Impact of Body Mass Index and Comorbidities on Outcomes in Upper Extremity Nerve Transfers.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background:  There is a paucity of research investigating the impact of patient comorbidities, such as obesity and smoking, on nerve transfer outcomes. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities on the clinical outcomes of upper extremity nerve transfers.

Methods:  A retrospective cohort study was executed. Read More

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Surface wettability effect on aqueous lubrication: Van der Waals and hydration force competition induced adhesive friction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 19;599:667-675. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Wettability effect has long been a concern in various aqueous lubrication systems including biological and industrial applications. The wettability may affect lubrication performance by changing interfacial viscosity or hydration force. The key point to reveal the mechanism is to design an ideal experimental system to exclude other bulk factors other than surface wettability. Read More

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The dose-dependent effects of polyphenols and malondialdehyde on the emulsifying and gel properties of myofibrillar protein-mulberry polyphenol complex.

Food Chem 2021 May 5;360:130005. Epub 2021 May 5.

Sericultural & Agri-Food Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Functional Foods, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Products Processing, Guangzhou 510610, PR China. Electronic address:

The effects of mulberry polyphenols and malondialdehyde (MDA) on the emulsifying and gel properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) were studied. Emulsibility and gel properties of MP were compared in range of mulberry polyphenol/MDA concentrations by particle size, Zeta potential, antioxidant capacity, gel strength, water-holding capacity (WHC), rheological properties and microstructure. Mulberry polyphenols enhanced the inoxidizability of MP emulsion but decreased its emulsifying property. Read More

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Burosumab treatment for fibrous dysplasia.

Bone 2021 May 10:116004. Epub 2021 May 10.

Metabolic Bone Disorders Unit, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome (FD/MAS) is a rare mosaic disorder of Gα activation. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23)-mediated hypophosphatemia is a feature of FD/MAS that has been associated with poor skeletal outcomes. Standard therapy includes oral phosphorus and vitamin D analogs; however, treatment is limited by potential adverse renal and gastrointestinal effects. Read More

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25-hydroxycholesterol interacts differently with lipids of the inner and outer membrane leaflet - The Langmuir monolayer study complemented with theoretical calculations.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2021 May 10:105909. Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 2, 30-387, Kraków, Poland.

25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH), a molecule with unusual behavior at the air/water interface, being anchored to the water surface alternatively with a hydroxyl group at C(3) or C(25), has been investigated in mixtures with main membrane phospholipids (phosphatidylcholines - PCs, and phosphatidylethanolamines - PEs), characteristic of the outer and inner membrane leaflet, respectively. To achieve this goal, the classical Langmuir monolayer approach based on thermodynamic analysis of interactions was conducted in addition to microscopic imaging of films (in situ with BAM and after transfer onto mica with AFM), surface-sensitive spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), as well as theoretical calculations. Our results show that the strength of interactions is primarily determined by the kind of polar group (strong, attractive interactions leading to surface complexes formation were found to occur with PCs while weak or repulsive ones with PEs). Read More

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Masculinity and misinformation: Social dynamics of liver fluke infection risk in Thailand.

Parasitol Int 2021 May 10:102382. Epub 2021 May 10.

Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

Liver fluke infection through the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish is a major public health problem in the Mekong Region. Despite the extensive efforts of liver fluke health campaigns, Northeast Thailand still reports high human infection prevalence as consumption of raw fish dishes has diminished but not ceased. This study examines the roles of social-cultural factors, particularly the influences of masculinity and misinformation, on liver fluke infection risk. Read More

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Sarcopenia is independently associated with parietal atrophy in older adults.

Exp Gerontol 2021 May 10:111402. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Introduction: As populations age, sarcopenia becomes a major health problem among adults aged 65 years and older. However, little information is available about the relationship between sarcopenia and brain structure abnormalities. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between sarcopenia and brain atrophy in older adults and relationships with regional brain areas. Read More

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Fabrication of dual layered biocompatible herbal biopatch from biological waste for skin - Tissue regenerative applications.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, K.P.R. Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore 641048, India.

A dual layered herbal biopolymeric patch (biopatch) with enhanced wound healing efficiency and skin mimicking functions was fabricated for skin-tissue regenerative applications. In this study, hoof keratin (KE) extracted from biological waste and gelatin (GE) was employed for KE-GE biosheet fabrication using a simple casting method. Further, the top layer of the fabricated KE-GE biosheet was coated with bioactive Matricaria recutita (Chamomile flower) extract (CH) with gelatin through an electrospraying method. Read More

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Application of the SMALP technology to the isolation of GPCRs from low-yielding cell lines.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 May 10:183641. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biopharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, ulica W. Chodźki 4a, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

The ability of styrene-maleic acid (SMAc) co-polymers to spontaneously insert into biological membranes can be exploited to extract G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) embedded in styrene-maleic acid lipid particles (SMALPs), preserving the native environment around the protein and thus enhancing the feasibility of functional studies. So far, the SMALP technology has been primarily employed on non-mammalian cells and protocols are not optimized for adherent human cell lines, which cannot be harvested in large amounts. In this work, a fine investigation of key parameters affecting the formation of SMALPs was undertaken with the purpose of maximizing the yield of extraction of a recombinant form of human β-adrenergic receptor (rhβAR) from HEK293T cells. Read More

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Effects of resistance training at different intensities of load on cross-education of muscle strength.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro , Department of Sport Sciences, Uberaba, Brazil;

The objectives of this study were 1) to compare the extent of cross-transfer of high- versus low-load unilateral resistance training performed with external pacing of the movement (URTEP) and 2) to compare the time course of the two approaches. Fifty subjects were randomized to one of the following three groups: G80 [two sets at 80% and two sets at 40% of one maximum repetition (1RM), 1 concentric second and 3 eccentric seconds controlled by a metronome]; G40 (four sets at 40% of 1 RM, 1s and 3s controlled by a metronome); or CG (control group). At week 1, the G80 increased the elbow flexion 1RM (P<0. Read More

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The efficacy of Schroth exercises combined with the Chêneau brace for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a retrospective controlled study.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 May 13:1-9. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Orthopaedics Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Purpose: We aimed to determine the global effects of the Chêneau brace combined with Schroth exercises on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

Methods: We analyzed 192 patients with AIS who underwent the Chêneau brace treatment alone or combined with Schroth best practice (SBP) from June 2013 to October 2019. There were 138 patients in the Brace group and 54 patients in the Brace + SBP group. Read More

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Functional Outcomes, Goals, and Goal Attainment Amongst Chronically Critically Ill Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Patients.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 14640, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

Rationale: Chronically critically ill patients admitted to a long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) setting are a vulnerable population of intensive care unit survivors. Little is known of the goals and functional outcomes achieved by patients after rehabilitation in the LTACH setting.

Objectives: We sought to examine patient goals and functional outcomes, including swallowing function, amongst ICU survivors admitted to an LTACH with a tracheostomy. Read More

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Microlattice Metamaterials with Simultaneous Superior Acoustic and Mechanical Energy Absorption.

Small 2021 May 13:e2100336. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117575, Singapore.

The advent of 3D printing brought about the possibilities of microlattice metamaterials as advanced materials with the potentials to surpass the functionalities of traditional materials. Sound absorbing materials which are also tough and lightweight are of particular importance as practical engineering materials. There are however a lack of attempts on the study of metamaterials multifunctional for both purposes. Read More

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Improving the diagnostic recognition of thoracic endometriosis: Spotlight on a new histo-morphological indicator.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251385. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Anatomic Pathology and Forensic Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.

The diagnosis of thoracic endometriosis (TE) is challenging, hence resulting in under-diagnosis as well as long delays before arriving at a correct definitive diagnosis. Our aim is to review the histopathological findings in TE, summarise the diagnostic features, identify any major histo-morphological indicator(s) hitherto unrecognised as such, suggest diagnostic criteria; all with the aim of improving the diagnostic capacity and reducing observer error even where the clinical suspicion is low. A case-control study in which a search in the pathology archives of a referral hospital over a 10-year period was conducted. Read More

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Surgical treatment for cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas: Protocol of an umbrella review.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251460. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Anorectal Surgery, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: A high prevalence of cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas has been reported worldwide, and several surgical options are available for the management of anal fistula, with varying clinical efficacy. However, currently, the available evidence for the effectiveness of these surgical approaches are lacking and of concern in terms of the credibility and strength. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the credibility of the published systematic reviews and meta-analyses that assess the efficacy and safety of the surgical options for cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas through an umbrella review. Read More

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Risk factors for lactation mastitis in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251182. Epub 2021 May 13.

Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: Lactation mastitis (LM) affects approximately 3% to 33% of postpartum women and the risk factors of LM have been extensively studied. However, some results in the literature reports are still not conclusive due to the complexity of LM etiology and variation in the populations. To provide nationally representative evidence of the well-accepted risk factors for LM in China, this study was aimed to systematically summary the risk factors for LM among Chinese women and to determine the effect size of individual risk factor. Read More

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Enhanced neural tracking of the fundamental frequency of the voice.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 May 13;PP. Epub 2021 May 13.

Objective: 'F0 tracking' is a novel method that investigates neural processing of the fundamental frequency of the voice (f0) in continuous speech. Using linear modelling, a feature that reflects the f0 of a presented speech stimulus is predicted from neural EEG responses. The correlation between the predicted and the 'actual' f0 feature is a measure for neural response strength. Read More

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Membrane Remodeling by DNA Origami Nanorods: Experiments Exploring the Parameter Space for Vesicle Remodeling.

Langmuir 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Hasbrouck Lab, 666 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, Massachusetts 01002, United States.

Inspired by the ability of cell membranes to alter their shape in response to bound particles, we report an experimental study of long, slender nanorods binding to lipid bilayer vesicles and altering the membrane shape. Our work illuminates the role of particle concentration, adhesion strength, and membrane tension in determining the membrane morphology. We combined giant unilamellar vesicles with oppositely charged nanorods, carefully tuning the adhesion strength, membrane tension, and particle concentration. Read More

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Alchemical Transfer Approach to Absolute Binding Free Energy Estimation.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Chemistry, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 11210-2889, United States.

The alchemical transfer method (ATM) for the calculation of standard binding free energies of noncovalent molecular complexes is presented. The method is based on a coordinate displacement perturbation of the ligand between the receptor binding site and the explicit solvent bulk and a thermodynamic cycle connected by a symmetric intermediate in which the ligand interacts with the receptor and solvent environments with equal strength. While the approach is alchemical, the implementation of the ATM is as straightforward as that for physical pathway methods of binding. Read More

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Ex vivo comparison of leak testing of canine jejunal enterotomies: Saline infusion versus air insufflation.

Vet Surg 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Statistics, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Objective: To compare the ability to detect leakage of enterotomy closures by intraluminal injection of saline or air.

Study Design: Ex vivo study.

Animals: Grossly normal jejunal segments (n = 60) from five fresh canine cadavers. Read More

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A two-step, test-guided Mokken scale analysis, for nonclustered and clustered data.

Qual Life Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Research Institute of Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, P. O. Box 15776, 1001 NG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Mokken scale analysis (MSA) is an attractive scaling procedure for ordinal data. MSA is frequently used in health-related quality of life research. Two of MSA's prime features are the scalability coefficients and the automated item selection procedure (AISP). Read More

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The Effect of Process Variables and Binder Concentration on Tabletability of Metformin Hydrochloride and Acetaminophen Granules Produced by Twin Screw Melt Granulation with Different Polymeric Binders.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2021 May 13;22(4):154. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, New York, 11439, USA.

In twin screw melt granulation, granules are produced by passing mixtures of drug substances and polymeric binders through twin screw extruder such that temperatures are maintained below melting point of drugs but above glass transition of polymers used, whereby the polymers coat surfaces of drug particles and cause their agglomeration into granules. Since various formulation factors, such as binder type and concentration, and processing variables like extrusion temperature, screw configuration, and screw speed, can influence the granulation process, the present investigation was undertaken to study their effects on tabletability of granules produced. Three different types of polymeric binders, Klucel® EXF (hydroxypropyl cellulose), Eudragit® EPO (polyacrylate binder), and Soluplus® (polyvinyl caprolactam-co-vinyl acetate-ethylene glycol graft polymer), were used at 2, 5, and 10% concentrations. Read More

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Parametric-based feature selection via spherical harmonic coefficients for the left ventricle myocardial infarction screening.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of heart diseases using machine learning techniques has recently received much attention. In this study, we present a novel parametric-based feature selection method using the three-dimensional spherical harmonic (SHs) shape descriptors of the left ventricle (LV) for intelligent myocardial infarction (MI) classification. The main hypothesis is that the SH coefficients of the parameterized endocardial shapes in MI patients are recognizable and distinguishable from healthy subjects. Read More

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A seven week observational analysis of clinical activities in a North Italian orthopaedic hospital during the second wave of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: far from usual volumes, but different from the first wave.

Int Orthop 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: We previously described the radical changes occurred in an orthopaedic hospital in Milan (Italy) during the first SARS-CoV-2 pandemic outbreak. Currently, during the second wave, the situation is still far from normality. Here we describe the changes that took place, and are still ongoing, in the clinical practice. Read More

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Novel two-dimensional tetrahexagonal boron nitride with a sizable band gap and a sign-tunable Poisson's ratio.

Nanoscale 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Computational Science Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791, Republic of Korea.

By performing first-principles calculations, a new two-dimensional (2D) boron nitride (th-BN) with perfectly ordered arrangements of tetragonal and hexagonal rings is predicted to be energetically, dynamically, thermally, and mechanically stable. The unique structure endows th-BN with anisotropic mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. Remarkably, th-BN exhibits exceptional mechanical properties such as high in-plane stiffness and sign-tunable Poisson's ratio (PR). Read More

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Underwater localization system based on visible-light communications using neural networks.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3977-3988

Underwater localization using visible-light communications is proposed based on neural networks (NNs) estimation of received signal strength (RSS). Our proposed work compromises two steps: data collection and NN training. First, data are collected with the aid of Zemax OpticStudio Monte Carlo ray tracing software, where we configure 40,000 receivers in a $100\;{\rm m} \times 100\;{\rm m}$ area in order to measure the channel gain for each detector in seawater. Read More

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Process monitoring based on plasma emission for power-modulated glass welding with bursts of subpicosecond laser pulses.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(12):3526-3534

Defects and process irregularities influence the bonding strength and thus the stability and lifetime of welded glass components. The present paper proposes to monitor the laser-based glass welding process by means of a single photodetector that records the radiation emitted from the laser-induced plasma. It is shown that the plasma emission provides information about irregularities of the welded seam height, gap bridging, process interruptions, and the position of the seam. Read More

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A National Comparative Investigation of Twins With Congenital Heart Defects for Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Quality of Life (Same Same, but Different?): Protocol for a Prospective Observational Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 13;10(5):e26404. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Congenital Heart Defects and Pediatric Cardiology, German Heart Center of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Due to the increased survival rates of patients with congenital heart defects (CHD), associated disorders are an increasing focus of research. Existing studies figured out an association between CHD and its treatment, and neurodevelopmental outcomes including motor competence impairments. All these studies, however, compared their test results with reference values or results of healthy control groups. Read More

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Smartphone and Tablet Software Apps to Collect Data in Sport and Exercise Settings: Cross-sectional International Survey.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 May 13;9(5):e21763. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom.

Background: Advances in smartphone technology have facilitated an increase in the number of commercially available smartphone and tablet apps that enable the collection of physiological and biomechanical variables typically monitored in sport and exercise settings. Currently, it is not fully understood whether individuals collect data using mobile devices and tablets, independent of additional hardware, in their practice.

Objective: This study aims to explore the use of smartphone and tablet software apps to collect data by individuals working in various sport and exercise settings, such as sports coaching, strength and conditioning, and personal training. Read More

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