7,750 results match your criteria strategy obesity

Danuglipron (PF-06882961) in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple ascending-dose phase 1 trial.

Nat Med 2021 Jun 14;27(6):1079-1087. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) results in glycemic lowering and body weight loss and is a therapeutic strategy to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. We developed danuglipron (PF-06882961), an oral small-molecule GLP-1R agonist and found it had comparable efficacy to injectable peptidic GLP-1R agonists in a humanized mouse model. We then completed a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, multiple ascending-dose phase 1 study ( NCT03538743 ), in which we enrolled 98 patients with T2D on background metformin and randomized them to receive multiple ascending doses of danuglipron or placebo for 28 d, across eight cohorts. Read More

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Association between body mass index, dosing strategy, and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jun;9(6)

Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Hematology-Oncology), The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA

Background: Increased body mass index (BMI) has been associated with improved response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in multiple cancer types. We evaluated associations between BMI, ICI dosing strategy, and clinical outcomes.

Methods: We abstracted clinical data on patients with cancer treated with ICI, including age, sex, cancer type, BMI, ICI type, dosing strategy (weight-based or fixed), radiographic response, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Read More

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Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Deficiency Abrogates Diabetic and Obese Phenotypes while Restoring Endothelial Function via Inhibition of NOX1.

Diabetes 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095;

We have previously demonstrated a novel role of bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP4) in inducing NOX1-dependent eNOS uncoupling, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammatory activation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it has remained unclear as to how BMP4 activates NOX1 and whether targeting the new mechanistic pathway revealed is effective in preserving endothelial function in T2DM. Here we observed that BMP4 induced marked, time-dependent increase in physiological binding between TLR2 and NOX1 in aortic endothelial cells, as well as increased binding of TLR2 to NOXO1. Read More

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The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus mimics the dark-driven regulation of appetite markers and melatonin receptors' expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae: Understanding the role of the gut microbiome.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jun 10:110634. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain. Electronic address:

The use of probiotics has been recently considered a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent pathologies such as obesity; however, the specific mechanisms of action by which probiotics exert their beneficial effects on metabolic health remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term effects of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus supplementation (PROB) on appetite regulation, growth-related markers, and microbiota diversity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, compared to a group subjected to a constant darkness photoperiod (DARK), as well as to evaluate the effects of both treatments on melatonin receptors' expression. After a 24 h treatment, both PROB and DARK conditions caused a significant increase in leptin a expression, and DARK showed a similar tendency as PROB increasing the mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin a, supporting a negative regulation of appetite markers by these treatments. Read More

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Anticoagulation in the obese patient with COVID-19-associated venous thromboembolism.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 11;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Internal Medicine, Midland Regional Hospital Portlaoise, Portlaoise, Ireland.

A 61-year-old obese man who had recently tested positive for COVID-19 presented to the emergency department following an unwitnessed collapse, with a brief period of unresponsiveness. CT pulmonary angiography confirmed the presence of extensive bilateral pulmonary embolism despite the patient reporting full compliance with long-term dabigatran. The patient was initially anticoagulated with low-molecular-weight heparin and was treated with non-invasive ventilation and dexamethasone for COVID-19 pneumonia. Read More

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Suprascapular nerve block is a clinically attractive alternative to interscalene nerve block during arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Jun 11;16(1):376. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Orthopedic, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine, Tsinghua University, No. 168 Litang Road, Dongxiaokou Town, Changping District, Beijing, 102218, China.

Background: The interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) is a commonly used nerve block technique for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy surgery; however, it is associated with potentially serious complications. The use of suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) has been described as an alternative strategy with fewer reported side effects for shoulder arthroscopy. This review aimed to compare the impact of SSNB and ISB during shoulder arthroscopy surgery. Read More

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Primary OA early joint degeneration induced by ER-stress is mitigated by resveratrol.

Am J Pathol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics(,) The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), TX. Electronic address:

Given the increasing number of people living with OA, due to population aging and rising rates of obesity, there is an urgent need to identify effective treatment and preventions. Two top risk factors for OA, age and obesity, are associated with ER stress. The I-ERS mouse, an ER stress driven model of primary OA, was developed to study the role of ER stress in primary OA susceptibility. Read More

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Evaluation of a Treatment-Dose Enoxaparin Protocol for Patients With Obesity.

J Pharm Pract 2021 Jun 10:8971900211022300. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Atrium Health's Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Background: Treatment-dose enoxaparin is not well studied in obese patients. Guidelines suggest that obese patients receiving enoxaparin therapy for acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) should receive a standard initial dose, 1 mg/kg, based on actual body weight. It is possible that this dosing strategy in obese patients may be overestimated, leading to a higher bleeding risk compared to non-obese patients. Read More

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Role of the Gut Microbiota in Stroke Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Implications.

Ann Nutr Metab 2021 Jun 9:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Major advances have been made in stroke treatment and prevention in the past decades. However, the burden of stroke remains high. Identification of novel targets and establishment of effective interventions to improve stroke outcomes are, therefore, needed. Read More

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Apple consumption reduces markers of postprandial inflammation following a high fat meal in overweight and obese adults: A randomized, crossover trial.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2 W1, Canada.

High fat meal-induced postprandial inflammation is exacerbated in overweight and obesity and may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study aimed to determine the effects of apples, rich in anti-inflammatory polyphenols, on biomarkers of postprandial inflammation in individuals with overweight and obesity. A randomized, crossover trial was conducted with n = 26 participants (17 female/9 male; mean age 45. Read More

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The gut microbiota as a therapeutic target for obesity: a scoping review.

Nutr Res Rev 2021 Jun 8:1-33. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

There is mounting evidence that microbiome composition is intimately and dynamically connected with host energy balance and metabolism. The gut microbiome is emerging as a novel target for counteracting the chronically positive energy balance in obesity, a disease of pandemic scale which contributes to >70% of premature deaths. This scoping review explores the potential for therapeutic modulation of gut microbiota as a means of prevention and/or treatment of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Read More

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Stakeholder analysis of the deliberation of an increase to the excise tax on sweetened beverages in Mexico.

Salud Publica Mex 2021 May 3;63(3 May-Jun):436-443. Epub 2021 May 3.

Servicios de Salud de Quintana Roo. Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

Objective: To present the results of a stakeholder analysis used to construct a map of the actors involved in the delib-eration of a proposal to increase the tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in Mexico from 10 to 20 percent per liter.

Materials And Methods: A literature review and in-terviews to key actors were implemented. The analysis of the actors' power and position was made using Policymaker. Read More

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Monascus ruber fermented Panax ginseng ameliorates lipid metabolism disorders and modulate gut microbiota in rats fed a high-fat diet.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 15;278:114300. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Yangguang South Street, Fangshan, 102488, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory for Production Process Control and Quality Evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission, Beijing, 100029, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, which shows good effect in the treatment of metabolic diseases. Monascus has lipid-lowering activity and one of its metabolites, lovastatin, is widely used in clinical practice.

Aim Of The Study: The main purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of fermented Panax ginseng by Monascus ruber (PM) on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in rats fed a high-fat diet. Read More

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Health policy and public health implications of obesity in China.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Jul 4;9(7):446-461. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Health Administration and Policy, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.

China has experienced many drastic social and economic changes and shifts in people's lifestyles since the 1990s, in parallel with the fast rising prevalence of obesity. About half of adults and a fifth of children have overweight or obesity according to the Chinese criteria, making China the country with the highest number of people with overweight or obesity in the world. Assuming that observed time trends would continue in the future, we projected the prevalence of and the number of people affected by overweight and obesity by 2030, and the associated medical costs. Read More

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Operative Fixation Versus Cast Immobilization: Tibial Shaft Fractures in Adolescents.

Jeffrey E Martus

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Jul;41(Suppl 1):S33-S38

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital, Nashville, TN.

Introduction: Tibial shaft fractures are common injuries in the adolescent age group. Potential complications from the injury or treatment include infection, implant migration, neurovascular injury, compartment syndrome, malunion, or nonunion.

Methods: Published literature was reviewed to identify studies which describe the management options, complications, and outcome of tibial shaft fractures in adolescents. Read More

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Natriuretic Peptide Clearance Receptor (NPR-C) Pathway as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Obesity-Related Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF).

Front Physiol 2021 21;12:674254. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institut du Savoir Montfort, Hôpital Montfort, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major public health problem with cases projected to double over the next two decades. There are currently no US Food and Drug Administration-approved therapies for the health-related outcomes of HFpEF. However, considering the high prevalence of this heterogeneous syndrome, a directed therapy for HFpEF is one the greatest unmet needs in cardiovascular medicine. Read More

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Integrated metabolomics and proteomics analysis reveals energy metabolism disorders in the livers of sleep-deprived mice.

J Proteomics 2021 Jun 2;245:104290. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Child, Adolescent and Women's Health, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Sleep deprivation (SD) has been linked to impaired mental and physical health, obesity, and various diseases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of SD in the liver is still unclear. To investigate the metabolome and proteome alterations in the liver, an in vivo model of SD was established based on automated random motion platform techniques by applying a strategy of 10 consecutive days of 20 h of sleep deprivation +4 h of resting. Read More

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Cardiovascular risk prediction in type 2 diabetes before and after widespread screening: a derivation and validation study.

Lancet 2021 Jun 2;397(10291):2264-2274. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Until recently, most patients with diabetes worldwide have been diagnosed when symptomatic and have high cardiovascular risk, meaning most should be prescribed cardiovascular preventive medications. However, in New Zealand, a world-first national programme led to approximately 90% of eligible adults being screened for diabetes by 2016, up from 50% in 2012, identifying many asymptomatic patients with recent-onset diabetes. We hypothesised that cardiovascular risk prediction equations derived before widespread screening would now significantly overestimate risk in screen-detected patients. Read More

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An intervention of sustainable weight change: Influence of self-help group and expectations.

Health Expect 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.

Background: Obesity is one of the most challenging public health problems in Western societies. Group activities are a way to empower individuals to make sustainable lifestyle changes. Self-help groups enable individuals to share expectations and experiences on an equal basis. Read More

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Mini-review: Childhood-onset Craniopharyngioma.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University Children´s Hospital, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Klinikum Oldenburg AöR, Rahel-Straus-Strasse, Oldenburg, Germany.

Craniopharyngiomas are rare embryonic malformational tumors of the sellar/parasellar region, classified by the WHO as tumors with low-grade malignancy (WHO I°). The childhood adamantinomatous subtype of craniopharyngioma is usually cystic with calcified areas. At the time of diagnosis, hypothalamic/pituitary deficits, visual disturbances and increased intracranial pressure are major symptoms. Read More

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Differential weight loss with intermittent fasting or daily calorie restriction in low- and high-fitness phenotypes.

Exp Physiol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? How does intrinsic aerobic capacity impact weight loss with 50% daily calorie restriction and alternate day fasting? What is the main finding and its importance? Intermittent fasting is effective for weight loss in low-fitness rats, which highlights the importance of how intermittent fasting interacts with aerobic fitness.

Abstract: Recent interest has focused on the benefits of time-restricted feeding strategies, including intermittent fasting, for weight loss. It is unsettled, however, if intermittent fasting is more effective than daily caloric restriction at stimulating weight loss, and how each is subject to individual differences. Read More

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Decreased Abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila Leads to the Impairment of Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Lean Type 2 Diabetes.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 4:e2100536. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Although obesity occurs in most of the patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a fraction of patients with T2D are underweight or have normal weight. Several studies have linked the gut microbiome to obesity and T2D, but the role of gut microbiota in lean individuals with T2D having unique clinical characteristics remains unclear. A metagenomic and targeted metabolomic analysis is conducted in 182 lean and abdominally obese individuals with and without newly diagnosed T2D. Read More

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Combination of Treadmill Aerobic Exercise with Bifidobacterium longum OLP-01 Supplementation for Treatment of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Murine Model.

Obes Facts 2021 2;14(3):306-319. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Exercise and Health Science, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan.

Introduction: Obesity, which can result from disease, genetics, nutrition, lifestyle, and insufficient physical activity, substantially increases an individual's risk of complications and comorbidities. Exercise can be an effective strategy for achieving an energy balance and physiological fitness as part of obesity management. Additionally, probiotics, which are isolated from food and the environment, are being rapidly developed and have functional benefits for mitigating various metabolic dysfunctions associated with obesity. Read More

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Mechanical Circulatory Support as a Bridge-to-Transplant Candidacy: When Does It Work?

ASAIO J 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

From the Departments of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai, Los Angeles, California.

Durable mechanical circulatory support (dMCS) devices can be offered as a bridge-to-transplant (BTT) or as a bridge-to-candidacy (BTC) strategy for candidates with contraindications to transplant listing, including pulmonary hypertension (BTC-PH), morbid obesity (BTC-Obes), social issues (BTC-Soc), or chronic illness (BTC-Illness). An understanding of the trajectory of BTC patients could guide future triage of advanced heart failure patients who are not candidates for transplantation. We performed a retrospective review all patients who underwent dMCS implantation as either BTT (206 patients) or BTC (114 patients) at our center from January 1, 2010, to March 31, 2020. Read More

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Why a New Research Agenda on Green Spaces and Health Is Needed in Latin America: Results of a Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 29;18(11). Epub 2021 May 29.

Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

(1) Background: Increasing and improving green spaces have been suggested to enhance health and well-being through different mechanisms. Latin America is experiencing fast population and urbanization growth; with rising demand for interventions to improve public health and mitigate climate change. (2) Aim: This study aimed to review the epidemiological evidence on green spaces and health outcomes in Latin America. Read More

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The Function of Gastrointestinal Hormones in Obesity-Implications for the Regulation of Energy Intake.

Nutrients 2021 May 27;13(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

Translational Research in Gastrointestinal Disorders, Gut Peptide Research Lab, University of Leuven, Gasthuisberg, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

The global burden of obesity and the challenges of prevention prompted researchers to investigate the mechanisms that control food intake. Food ingestion triggers several physiological responses in the digestive system, including the release of gastrointestinal hormones from enteroendocrine cells that are involved in appetite signalling. Disturbed regulation of gut hormone release may affect energy homeostasis and contribute to obesity. Read More

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Insulin-Resistant Adolescents with Obesity: The Role of Nutrition Therapy and Food Supplements as a Strategy to Protect Fertility.

Nutrients 2021 May 28;13(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Pediatric Department, "Vittore Buzzi" Children's Hospital, 20154 Milan, Italy.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in young reproductive-aged women. PCOS is often associated with obesity and impairs reproductive health. Even though several theories have been proposed to explain the pathogenic mechanism of PCOS, the role of insulin resistance (IR) as a key etiological component, independently of (but amplified by) obesity, is well recognized. Read More

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Interaction between Metformin, Folate and Vitamin B and the Potential Impact on Fetal Growth and Long-Term Metabolic Health in Diabetic Pregnancies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 28;22(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Discovery and Translational Science Department, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

Metformin is the first-line treatment for many people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to maintain glycaemic control. Recent evidence suggests metformin can cross the placenta during pregnancy, thereby exposing the fetus to high concentrations of metformin and potentially restricting placental and fetal growth. Offspring exposed to metformin during gestation are at increased risk of being born small for gestational age (SGA) and show signs of 'catch up' growth and obesity during childhood which increases their risk of future cardiometabolic diseases. Read More

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Maternal Exercise Mediates Hepatic Metabolic Programming via Activation of AMPK-PGC1α Axis in the Offspring of Obese Mothers.

Cells 2021 May 19;10(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, D-50937 Cologne, Germany.

Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of hepatic metabolic dysfunction for both mother and offspring and targeted interventions to address this growing metabolic disease burden are urgently needed. This study investigates whether maternal exercise (ME) could reverse the detrimental effects of hepatic metabolic dysfunction in obese dams and their offspring while focusing on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), representing a key regulator of hepatic metabolism. In a mouse model of maternal western-style-diet (WSD)-induced obesity, we established an exercise intervention of voluntary wheel-running before and during pregnancy and analyzed its effects on hepatic energy metabolism during developmental organ programming. Read More

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Predicting COVID-19-Comorbidity Pathway Crosstalk-Based Targets and Drugs: Towards Personalized COVID-19 Management.

Biomedicines 2021 May 17;9(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

PanTherapeutics, CH 1095 Lutry, Switzerland.

It is well established that pre-existing comorbid conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), chronic kidney diseases (CKDs), cancers, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with increased severity and fatality of COVID-19. The increased death from COVID-19 is due to the unavailability of a gold standard therapeutic and, more importantly, the lack of understanding of how the comorbid conditions and COVID-19 interact at the molecular level, so that personalized management strategies can be adopted. Here, using multi-omics data sets and bioinformatics strategy, we identified the pathway crosstalk between COVID-19 and diabetes, hypertension, CVDs, CKDs, and cancers. Read More

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