269,323 results match your criteria strategies study

Determination of the key ccRCC-related molecules from monolayer network to three-layer network.

Cancer Genet 2021 Apr 19;256-257:40-47. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; Laboratory of Media Design and Software Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), with an increasing incidence rate, is one of the ubiquitous cancers. Its pathogenic factors are complicated and the molecular mechanism is not clear. It is essential to analyze the potential key genes related to ccRCC carcinogenesis. Read More

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Exploring management strategies to improve yield and mitigate nitrate leaching in a typical radish field in northern China.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 19;290:112640. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, 100081, China. Electronic address:

It is currently uncertain whether process-based models are capable of assessing crop yield and nitrogen (N) losses while helping to investigate best management practices from vegetable cropping systems. The objectives of this study were to (1) calibrate and evaluate the Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) model in simulating crop growth and nitrate leaching in a typical field radish system; (2) optimize management practices to improve radish yield and mitigate nitrate leaching under 20-year climate variability. A five-season in-situ field experiment of spring and autumn radish in northern China was established in the autumn of 2017 and measurements of radish yield, N uptake, soil temperature, soil moisture, drainage, and nitrate leaching were obtained under different N usage. Read More

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Simulation of preoperative flexion contracture in a computational model of total knee arthroplasty: Development and evaluation.

J Biomech 2021 Mar 9;120:110367. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Biomechanics, Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA.

Preoperative flexion contracture is a risk factor for patients' dissatisfaction following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Previous studies utilizing surgical navigation technology and cadaveric models attempted to identify operative techniques to correct knees with flexion contracture and minimize undesirable outcomes such as knee instability. However, no consensus has emerged on a surgical strategy to treat this clinical condition. Read More

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The effectiveness of PFAS management options on groundwater quality in contaminated land using numerical modelling.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 9;279:130528. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Engineering, Faculty of Business, Justice and Behavioural Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Institute for Land, Water and Society, Panorama Avenue, Bathurst, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

The concentrations of PFOS and PFHxS in a contaminated site in regional New South Wales, Australia, were above the human health screening values for industrial land use. In this study, the effects of different management options on the quality of groundwater were investigated through numerical modelling. At first, a complete transfer model including the main features of advection, dispersion, adsorption and decay, was developed to simulate the long-term migration of PFOS from topsoil subjected to full climate interaction for 100 years. Read More

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Predictive macroscopic modeling of cell growth, metabolism and monoclonal antibody production: Case study of a CHO fed-batch production.

Metab Eng 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Biochemical Engineering Institute, Saarland University, Campus A1.5, D-66123 Saarbrücken (Germany). Electronic address:

We describe a systematic approach to establish predictive models of CHO cell growth, cell metabolism and monoclonal antibody (mAb) formation during biopharmaceutical production. The prediction is based on a combination of an empirical metabolic model connecting extracellular metabolic fluxes with cellular growth and product formation with mixed Monod-inhibition type kinetics that we generalized to every possible external metabolite. We describe the maximum specific growth rate as a function of the integral viable cell density (IVCD). Read More

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Conductive biomaterials for cardiac repair: A review.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology of Ministry of Education and College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai, 201620, China; Key Laboratory of Textile Industry for Biomedical Textile Materials and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai, 201620, China.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the fatal diseases in humans. Its incidence is constantly increasing annually all over the world. The problem is accompanied by the limited regenerative capacity of cardiomyocytes, yielding fibrous scar tissue formation. Read More

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Considerations for assessing physical function and physical activity in clinical trials during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Apr 19:106407. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the conduct of clinical trials. For studies with physical function and physical activity outcomes that require in-person participation, thoughtful approaches in transitioning to the remote research environment are critical. Here, we share our experiences in transitioning from in-person to remote assessments of physical function and activity during the pandemic and highlight key considerations for success. Read More

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FOSL1 promotes cholangiocarcinoma via transcriptional effectors that could be therapeutically targeted.

J Hepatol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

University of Navarra, Centre for Applied Medical Research, Program in Solid Tumours, Pamplona, Spain; IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, Pamplona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC, Instituto de Salud Carlos III), Madrid, Spain; University of Navarra, Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Physiology, Pamplona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a neoplasia of the biliary tract driven by genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we investigated the role of the transcription factor FOSL1, as well as its downstream transcriptional effectors, in the development and progression of CCA.

Methods: FOSL1 was investigated in human CCA clinical samples. Read More

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Guidance for setting easy-to-adopt competence criteria for optical diagnosis of diminutive colorectal polyps: a simulation approach.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location VU Medical Center, VU University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background And Aims: One of the reasons that the optical diagnosis strategy for diminutive colorectal polyps has not yet been implemented is that the current competence criteria [PIVI] are difficult to use in daily practice. To provide guidance for setting alternative easy-to-adopt competence criteria, we determined the lowest proportion of diminutive polyps that should have a correct optical diagnosis to meet the PIVI.

Methods: For this simulation study, we used datasets from 2 prospectively collected cohorts of patients who underwent colonoscopy in either a primary colonoscopy or fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening setting. Read More

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Engagement and return of results preferences among a primarily African American genomic sequencing research cohort.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Genomics researchers are increasingly interested in what constitutes effective engagement of individuals from underrepresented groups. This is critical for longitudinal projects needed to inform the implementation of precision medicine. Return of results is one opportunity for engagement. Read More

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Family Medicine Supervisors' Preferences for Improving Their Teaching Skills in Senior Care.

Fam Med 2021 Apr;53(4):267-274

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Quebec.

Background And Objectives: Many clinical supervisors in family medicine feel ill-equipped to teach senior care to their family medicine residents (trainees). We therefore sought to explore their preferred learning strategies for improving their clinical and teaching skills with regard to senior care.

Methods: In this qualitative study, we conducted focus groups and interviews with supervisors from four family medicine clinics, to explore their preferred educational strategies. Read More

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Psychiatric hospitalizations by the Unified Health System in Brazil between 2000 and 2014.

Rev Saude Publica 2021 16;55:14. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Medicina Preventiva e Social. Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Objective: To characterize the profile of patients hospitalized for mental and behavioral disorders by the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil between 2000 and 2014, and to verify how aspects of the new mental health policy influenced the rate of hospitalized patients in that period.

Methods: Non-concurrent prospective cohort study using secondary data from inpatients with a primary diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders between 01/01/2000 and 12/31/2014. Sociodemographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics variables were selected. Read More

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HIV/AIDS epidemic in a western border municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: evolution, HIV cascade of care and lethality.

Rev Bras Epidemiol 2021 16;24(suppl 1):e210018. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Universidade Federal do Pampa - Uruguaiana (RS), Brazil.

Objective: To analyze the characteristics and trends of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul, between 2005 and 2015 through indicators related to infection and the cascade of care of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).

Methods: Descriptive study performed with data from the Health Information Systems of the Ministry of Health. Historical sets of indicators related to detection of HIV/AIDS cases and deaths were developed, comparing with national and state data from 2005 to 2015. Read More

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Emotional labor of nurses in the front line against the COVID-19 pandemic.

Rev Bras Enferm 2021 14;74Suppl 1(Suppl 1):e20200660. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Lisboa, Unidade de Investigação & Desenvolvimento em Enfermagem. Lisboa, Portugal.

Objective: To analyze nurses' experiences in the front line of the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic regarding the performance of emotional labor (EL), aiming at its characterization and identification of support strategies and development opportunities of nurses and practices.

Methods: Qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study, with content analysis of eleven written narratives and reports from a focus group composed of nurses with experience in caring for patients with COVID-19 from different Hospital Centers in Lisbon, Portugal.

Results: Five themes were extracted: 1) Challenges experienced by nurses in the frontline; 2) Emotions experienced by nurses in service care; 3) Emotional responses of nurses and patients: impact on care; 4) EL of nurses in the patient care process; 5) Opportunities for development in the face of the emotional challenge required of nurses in combating COVID-19. Read More

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Health Care to people with disability: the formation of teams and geographical distribution of the rehabilitation specialized component.

Codas 2021 12;33(1):e20190184. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Departamento de Fonoaudiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil.

Purpose: to analyze the composition of teams and the geographical distribution of the services and professionals of the Health Care Network for People with Disabilities (RCPD, initials in Portuguese).

Methods: cross-sectional observational study developed from secondary data on the specialized component in rehabilitation, with a sample of 3,271 professionals.

Results: half of the services was observed in three broad regions; there is a greater representation of Specialized Services in Intellectual Disability Rehabilitation (SERDI, initials in Portuguese), private services and physiotherapists. Read More

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Sixteen Years of Heart Transplant in an Open Cohort in Brazil: Analysis of Graft Survival of Patients using Immunosuppressants.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2021 Apr;116(4):744-753

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Faculdade de Farmácia - Departamento de Farmácia Social, Belo Horizonte, MG - Brasil.

Background: Heart transplant is the main therapeutic alternative for advanced heart failure patients. Several risk factors affect these patients' survival; however, few studies about the topic are available in Brazil.

Objectives: To review the survival rates of heart transplant patients in the Brazilian Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) between 2000 and 2015. Read More

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[Barriers and factors associated with the use of coordination mechanisms between levels of care in Mexico].

Cad Saude Publica 2021 16;37(4):e00045620. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Grup de Recerca en Politiques de Salut i Serveis Sanitaris, Consorci de Salut i Social de Catalunya, Barcelona, España.

The aim was to analyze the level and characterize the use of clinical coordination mechanisms between levels of care, and their associated factors, in two public networks of health services in Mexico. A cross-sectional study was carried out using the COORDENA questionnaire to primary and specialized care physicians in the state of Veracruz. Differences were found between networks and levels of care, according to the mechanism. Read More

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Mental health difficulties, coping mechanisms and support systems among school-going adolescents in Ghana: A mixed-methods study.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250424. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, Heidelberg University Medical Faculty, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: Although adolescents are highly vulnerable to mental health challenges, they receive little attention, especially in developing countries. We investigated the mental health difficulties (MHDs) faced by adolescent students in four senior high schools in Ghana, their coping strategies and support systems.

Methods: In this convergent mixed-methods study, quantitative data was obtained using validated strengths and difficulties questionnaire to assess the mental health of 405 adolescents. Read More

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Over half of clinical practice guidelines use non-systematic methods to inform recommendations: A methods study.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250356. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Cochrane Hypertension Review Group, Therapeutics Initiative, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Introduction: Assessing the process used to synthesize the evidence in clinical practice guidelines enables users to determine the trustworthiness of the recommendations. Clinicians are increasingly dependent on guidelines to keep up with vast quantities of medical literature, and guidelines are followed to avoid malpractice suits. We aimed to assess whether systematic methods were used when synthesizing the evidence for guidelines; and to determine the type of review cited in support of recommendations. Read More

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"Am I representative (of my age)? No, I'm not"-Attitudes to technologies and technology development differ but unite individuals across rather than within generations.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250425. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

While a broad spectrum of technologies is integrated in everyday life and routines, most research on ageing, health and technology has focused on attitudes toward and adoption of digital technologies including e-health, or home based monitoring systems. The aim of this study was to explore differences and similarities in attitudes and experiences with different types of technologies and development within and between three generations. We applied a qualitative, descriptive design and recruited a purposeful sample of participants from three generations (30-39, 50-59, 70-79 year old). Read More

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A biome-wide experiment to assess the effects of propagule size and treatment on the survival of Portulacaria afra (spekboom) truncheons planted to restore degraded subtropical thicket of South Africa.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250256. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Botany Department, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

Insights from biome-wide experiments can improve efficacy of landscape-scale ecological restoration projects. Such insights enable implementers to set temporal and geographical benchmarks and to identify key drivers of success during the often decades-long restoration trajectory. Here we report on a biome-wide experiment aimed at informing the ecological restoration of thousands of hectares of degraded subtropical thicket dominated by the succulent shrub, Portulacaria afra (spekboom). Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 testing strategy: A comparison of restricted and extended strategies in a Swiss outpatient cohort from the community and hospital employees.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250021. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Primary Care, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Testing is a key measure to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we empirically compared two SARS-CoV-2 testing strategies.

Methods: We used data from a Swiss single-centre, outpatient cohort study (n = 6,331 test results). Read More

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Disparities in smokeless tobacco use in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2014-2017.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250144. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Background: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is associated with multiple adverse health effects. It is prominent in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, but disparities in use within and across these countries are not well documented or understood. This study assessed the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of SLT use in these three countries. Read More

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Barriers and facilitators to implementation of oral rehydration therapy in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0249638. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

University of Toronto Scarborough Library, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is an effective and cheap treatment for diarrheal disease; globally, one of the leading causes of death in children under five. The World Health Organization launched a global campaign to improve ORT coverage in 1978, with activities such as educational campaigns, training health workers and the creation of designate programming. Despite these efforts, ORT coverage remains relatively low. Read More

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Barriers and enablers to effective interprofessional teamwork in the operating room: A qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0249576. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Effective teamwork is critical for safe, high-quality care in the operating room (OR); however, teamwork interventions have not consistently resulted in the expected gains for patient safety or surgical culture. In order to optimize OR teamwork in a targeted and evidence-based manner, it is first necessary to conduct a comprehensive, theory-informed assessment of barriers and enablers from an interprofessional perspective.

Methods: This qualitative study was informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Read More

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Birth preparedness and complication readiness practice and associated factors among pregnant women in Northwest Ethiopia: 2018.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0249083. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Birth-preparedness and complication readiness is a comprehensive strategy aimed at promoting the timely utilization of skilled maternal and neonatal health care. Pregnancy-related complications both on the mother and the newborn could be largely alleviated if there is a well-consolidated birth preparedness and complication readiness plan developed during pregnancy and implemented at the time of delivery.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of birth preparedness and complication readiness practice (BPCR) and associated factors among pregnant women in North Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018. Read More

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Using genetic variants to evaluate the causal effect of cholesterol lowering on head and neck cancer risk: A Mendelian randomization study.

PLoS Genet 2021 Apr 22;17(4):e1009525. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which includes cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, is a cause of substantial global morbidity and mortality. Strategies to reduce disease burden include discovery of novel therapies and repurposing of existing drugs. Statins are commonly prescribed for lowering circulating cholesterol by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR). Read More

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Characterizing Healthcare Delays and Interruptions in the US During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Data from an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Columbia University, New York, US.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has broader geographic spread and potentially longer lasting effects than previous disasters. Necessary preventive precautions for the transmission of COVID-19 resulted in delays of in-person healthcare services, especially at the outset of the pandemic.

Objective: Among a US sample, we examined the rates of delays (defined as cancellations and postponements) to healthcare at the outset of the pandemic and characterized the reasons for delays. Read More

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Investigations into a trigger-based approach for initiating emergency vaccination to augment stamping-out of foot-and-mouth disease in New Zealand: a simulation study.

N Z Vet J 2021 Apr 22:1-31. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Office of the Chief Departmental Scientist, Ministry for Primary Industries, Wellington, New Zealand.

Aims: : To investigate the benefits of an adaptive management approach to the deployment of emergency vaccination as an additional measure to stamping-out (SO) during simulated outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in New Zealand.

Methods: A simulation modelling (n=6000 simulations) approach was used. The study population comprised all known farms in New Zealand with FMD-susceptible livestock. Read More

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