1,971 results match your criteria stimuli requiring

Time-of-day effects on objective and subjective short-term memory task performance.

Chronobiol Int 2021 Jun 14:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroergonomics, Institute of Applied Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

The time-of-day along with the synchrony effect (better performance at optimal times of the day according to the chronotype) on the cognitive performance has been well established in previous research. This influence is mediated by both circadian and homeostatic processes consistent with the Borbély two-process model. This experiment focused on the objective and subjective performance of the visual short-term memory task requiring holistic processing. Read More

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Neural underpinnings of valence-action interactions triggered by cues and targets in a rewarded approach/avoidance task.

Cortex 2021 May 10;141:240-261. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Belgium.

Incentive-valence signals have a large impact on our actions in everyday life. While it is intuitive (and most often beneficial) to approach positive and avoid negative stimuli, these prepotent response tendencies can also be maladaptive, as exemplified by clinical conditions such as overeating or pathological gambling. We have recently shown that targets associated with monetary incentives can trigger such valence-action biases (target condition), and that these are absent when valence and action information are provided by advance cues (cue condition). Read More

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Novel function of in expression of innate immunity genes and its probable roles in maintenance of pluripotency state.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Apr;24(4):531-536

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: Cell-based therapeutic approaches have witnessed significant developments during the last decade especially after approval of MSCs based treatment of graft versus host disease. Several cell-based approaches have shown immunomodulatory behavior during regeneration following the unknown cascade of events but the exact mechanisms are yet to be defined. Clinical applications of cell-based drugs are hampered all over the world because of incomplete understanding of molecular mechanisms requiring the application of mechanistic approaches to solving the mystery. Read More

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Task-order representations in dual tasks: Separate or integrated with component task sets?

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 May 24:17470218211018416. Epub 2021 May 24.

MSH Medical School Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

In situations requiring the execution of two tasks at around the same time, we need to decide which of the tasks should be executed first. Previous research has revealed several factors that affect the outcome of such response order control processes, including bottom-up factors (e.g. Read More

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Vigilance: discussion of related concepts and proposal for a definition.

Sleep Med 2021 Jul 4;83:175-181. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.

We reviewed current definitions of vigilance to propose a definition, applicable in sleep medicine. As previous definitions contained terms such as attention, alertness, and arousal, we addressed these concepts too. We defined alertness as a quantitative measure of the mind state governing sensitivity to stimuli. Read More

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Compressive recovery of smartphone RGB spectral sensitivity functions.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(8):11947-11961

Spectral response (or sensitivity) functions of a three-color image sensor (or trichromatic camera) allow a mapping from spectral stimuli to RGB color values. Like biological photosensors, digital RGB spectral responses are device dependent and significantly vary from model to model. Thus, the information on the RGB spectral response functions of a specific device is vital in a variety of computer vision as well as mobile health (mHealth) applications. Read More

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Visual response of ventrolateral prefrontal neurons and their behavior-related modulation.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10118. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, via Volturno 39, 43125, Parma, Italy.

The ventral part of lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPF) of the monkey receives strong visual input, mainly from inferotemporal cortex. It has been shown that VLPF neurons can show visual responses during paradigms requiring to associate arbitrary visual cues to behavioral reactions. Further studies showed that there are also VLPF neurons responding to the presentation of specific visual stimuli, such as objects and faces. Read More

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From Bench to Keyboard and Back Again: A Brief History of Lambda Phage Modeling.

Annu Rev Biophys 2021 05;50:117-134

The Louis and Beatrice Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA; email:

Cellular decision making is the process whereby cells choose one developmental pathway from multiple possible ones, either spontaneously or due to environmental stimuli. Examples in various cell types suggest an almost inexhaustible plethora of underlying molecular mechanisms. In general, cellular decisions rely on the gene regulatory network, which integrates external signals to drive cell fate choice. Read More

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Portable Diagnostic System for Age-Related Macular Degeneration Screening Using Visual Evoked Potentials.

Eye Brain 2021 29;13:111-127. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

NeuroFieldz Inc, Newton, MA, USA.

Background: Delayed Dark-Adapted vision Recovery (DAR) is a biomarker for Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), however its measurement is burdensome for patients and examiners.

Methods: In this study, we developed a portable, wireless and user-friendly system that employs a headset with a smartphone to deliver controlled photo-bleach and monocular pattern reversal stimuli, while using custom electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes and electronics in order to measure Dark-Adapted Visual Evoked Potentials (DAVEP) objectively and separately at the peripheral and central visual field. This is achieved in one comfortable 20-minute session, without requiring subject reporting. Read More

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Glycerol-3-phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 regulation.

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2021 07;30(4):397-403

Nephrology Division.

Purpose Of Review: Both classical and nonclassical factors regulate fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), with impacts on gene expression and proteolytic cleavage. Here, we review recent publications that extend current knowledge on these factors.

Recent Findings: Emerging nonclassical FGF23 regulators such as erythropoietin cause a balanced increase in FGF23 expression and cleavage, with minimal or no increase in biologically active intact FGF23 (iFGF23) in blood. Read More

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Spatial and Motor Aspects in the "Action-Sentence Compatibility Effect".

Alberto Greco

Front Psychol 2021 9;12:647899. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Educational Sciences, Cognilab, Laboratory of Psychology and Cognitive Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

The Action-sentence Compatibility Effect (ACE) is often taken as supporting the fundamental role of the motor system in understanding sentences that describe actions. This effect would be related to an internal "simulation," i.e. Read More

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Stochastic reaction-diffusion modeling of calcium dynamics in 3D dendritic spines of Purkinje cells.

Biophys J 2021 Jun 20;120(11):2112-2123. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Mathematics, Computation, and Cognition, Federal University of ABC, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brasil. Electronic address:

Calcium (Ca) is a second messenger assumed to control changes in synaptic strength in the form of both long-term depression and long-term potentiation at Purkinje cell dendritic spine synapses via inositol trisphosphate (IP)-induced Ca release. These Ca transients happen in response to stimuli from parallel fibers (PFs) from granule cells and climbing fibers (CFs) from the inferior olivary nucleus. These events occur at low numbers of free Ca, requiring stochastic single-particle methods when modeling them. Read More

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One's Interoception Affects the Representation of Seeing Others' Pain: A Randomized Controlled qEEG Study.

Pain Res Manag 2021 3;2021:5585060. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

International Research Center for Cognitive Applied Neuroscience (IrcCAN), Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy.

Objective: This research demonstrates that interoceptive attentiveness (IA) can modulate cortical oscillations related to the emotional and cognitive representations of observing pain in others.

Methods: Twenty participants were required to observe painful/nonpainful stimuli in an individual versus the interactive condition during the recording of the electroencephalogram. The sample was divided into experimental (EXP) and control (CTR) groups, and the EXP group was explicitly required to direct the attention on its interoceptive correlates while observing the stimuli. Read More

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A Reproducible Protocol to Assess Arrhythmia Vulnerability : Pacing at the End of the Effective Refractory Period.

Front Physiol 2021 1;12:656411. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.

In both clinical and computational studies, different pacing protocols are used to induce arrhythmia and non-inducibility is often considered as the endpoint of treatment. The need for a standardized methodology is urgent since the choice of the protocol used to induce arrhythmia could lead to contrasting results, e.g. Read More

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Vascularisation of pluripotent stem cell-derived myocardium: biomechanical insights for physiological relevance in cardiac tissue engineering.

Pflugers Arch 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, ICTEM 4th floor, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, UK.

The myocardium is a diverse environment, requiring coordination between a variety of specialised cell types. Biochemical crosstalk between cardiomyocytes (CM) and microvascular endothelial cells (MVEC) is essential to maintain contractility and healthy tissue homeostasis. Yet, as myocytes beat, heterocellular communication occurs also through constantly fluctuating biomechanical stimuli, namely (1) compressive and tensile forces generated directly by the beating myocardium, and (2) pulsatile shear stress caused by intra-microvascular flow. Read More

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What Does Social Support Sound Like? Challenges and Opportunities for Using Passive Episodic Audio Collection to Assess the Social Environment.

Front Public Health 2021 29;9:633606. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Global Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, United States.

The social environment, comprised of social support, social burden, and quality of interactions, influences a range of health outcomes, including mental health. Passive audio data collection on mobile phones (e.g. Read More

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EEG measures for clinical research in major vascular cognitive impairment: recommendations by an expert panel.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jul 10;103:78-97. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CHeBA), School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales; Neuropsychiatric Institute, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Vascular contribution to cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia is related to etiologies that may affect the neurophysiological mechanisms regulating brain arousal and generating electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. A multidisciplinary expert panel reviewed the clinical literature and reached consensus about the EEG measures consistently found as abnormal in VCI patients with dementia. As compared to cognitively unimpaired individuals, those VCI patients showed (1) smaller amplitude of resting state alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms dominant in posterior regions; (2) widespread increases in amplitude of delta (< 4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms; and (3) delayed N200/P300 peak latencies in averaged event-related potentials, especially during the detection of auditory rare target stimuli requiring participants' responses in "oddball" paradigms. Read More

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Tunable Sponge-Like Hierarchically Porous Hydrogels with Simultaneously Enhanced Diffusivity and Mechanical Properties.

Adv Mater 2021 May 8;33(20):e2008235. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90 095, USA.

Crosslinked polymers and gels are important in soft robotics, solar vapor generation, energy storage, drug delivery, catalysis, and biosensing. However, their attractive mass transport and volume-changing abilities are diffusion-limited, requiring miniaturization to avoid slow response. Typical approaches to improving diffusion in hydrogels sacrifice mechanical properties by increasing porosity or limit the total volumetric flux by directionally confining the pores. Read More

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Antibacterial, hemostasis, adhesive, self-healing polysaccharides-based composite hydrogel wound dressing for the prevention and treatment of postoperative adhesion.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Apr 19;123:111978. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001, PR China. Electronic address:

Herein, we fabricated novel self-healing, in situ injectable, biodegradable, and non-toxic hydrogels anti-adhesion barrier materials composed of N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan (N,O-CS) and oxidized dextran (ODA) without requiring any chemical cross-linking agent or external stimuli triggers for the prevention and treatment of post-operative peritoneal adhesions. The N,O-CS/ODA hydrogels have a good suitable gelation time, good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility, good antibacterial activity, excellent biodegradable and biocompatible, and can effectively inhibit the adhesion of fibroblasts to the wound, thereby suggesting that N,O-CS/ODA hydrogels are suitable for preventing post-operative adhesion. Meanwhile, a rat injury sidewall-cecum abrasion model is developed to investigate the efficacy of these hydrogels in achieving post-operative anti-adhesion. Read More

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The effects of direct current stimulation and random noise stimulation on attention networks.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 18;11(1):6201. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

I2P-Portucalense Institute for Psychology, Portucalense University, Porto, Portugal.

Attention is a complex cognitive process that selects specific stimuli for further processing. Previous research suggested the existence of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting and executive. However, one important topic is how to enhance the efficiency of attentional networks. Read More

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Coordinated signaling of activating transcription factor 6α and inositol-requiring enzyme 1α regulates hepatic stellate cell-mediated fibrogenesis in mice.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 May 17;320(5):G864-G879. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Liver injury and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are tightly linked, but their relationship differs with cell type and injurious stimuli. UPR initiation promotes hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and fibrogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Despite the complexity and overlap downstream of UPR transducers inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α), and protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), previous research in HSCs primarily focused on IRE1α. Read More

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The role of orthographic cues to stress in Italian visual word recognition.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Mar 27:17470218211006062. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.

In this study, stress diacritics were used to investigate the processing of stress information in lexical decision. We ran two experiments in Italian, a language in which stress position is not predictable by rule and only final stress-that is, the less common pattern-is orthographically marked with a diacritic. In Experiment 1, a lexical decision task, two factors were manipulated: the stress pattern of words-antepenultimate (nondominant) and penultimate (dominant)-and the presence/absence of the diacritics, signalling the stress position. Read More

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Attention effects in working memory that are asymmetric across sensory modalities.

Yu Li Nelson Cowan

Mem Cognit 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, McAlester Hall, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.

A key unanswered question about working memory is the nature of interference between items. At one extreme of existing theories, interference occurs between any two items because of a general capacity limit. At another extreme, interference depends on the similarity between particular features of different items. Read More

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Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activity and Sympathetic Allostasis During Value-Based Ambivalence.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 22;15:615796. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, United States.

Anxiety is characterized by low confidence in daily decisions, coupled with high levels of phenomenological stress. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays an integral role in maladaptive anxious behaviors via decreased sensitivity to threatening vs. non-threatening stimuli (fear generalization). Read More

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February 2021

Signal Integration in Plant Abiotic Stress Responses via Multistep Phosphorelay Signaling.

Front Plant Sci 2021 17;12:644823. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology and National Centre for Biomolecular Research, Masaryk University, Brno, Czechia.

Plants growing in any particular geographical location are exposed to variable and diverse environmental conditions throughout their lifespan. The multifactorial environmental pressure resulted into evolution of plant adaptation and survival strategies requiring ability to integrate multiple signals that combine to yield specific responses. These adaptive responses enable plants to maintain their growth and development while acquiring tolerance to a variety of environmental conditions. Read More

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February 2021

Variability of Practice, Information Processing, and Decision Making-How Much Do We Know?

Front Psychol 2021 19;12:639131. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University School of Physical Education in Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland.

Decision-making is a complex action requiring efficient information processing. Specifically, in movement in which performance efficiency depends on reaction time, e.g. Read More

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February 2021

[Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress response in regulation of adipose tissue metabolism].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2021 Feb;73(1):115-125

Hubei Key Laboratory of Cell Homeostasis, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

In eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the key quality control organelle for cellular protein synthesis and processing. It also serves as an important site for Ca storage and lipid biosynthesis. In response to a variety of external stimuli, a cellular unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to handle ER stress caused by increased accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins at the ER. Read More

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February 2021

Limited evidence for executive function load impairing selective copying in a win-stay lose-shift task.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(3):e0247183. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Psychology Division, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.

The use of 'explicitly metacognitive' learning strategies has been proposed as an explanation for uniquely human capacities for cumulative culture. Such strategies are proposed to rely on explicit, system-2 cognitive processes, to enable advantageous selective copying. To investigate the plausibility of this theory, we investigated participants' ability to make flexible learning decisions, and their metacognitive monitoring efficiency, under executive function (EF) load. Read More

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Whole-Mount Staining, Visualization, and Analysis of Fungiform, Circumvallate, and Palate Taste Buds.

J Vis Exp 2021 02 11(168). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville.

Taste buds are collections of taste-transducing cells specialized to detect subsets of chemical stimuli in the oral cavity. These transducing cells communicate with nerve fibers that carry this information to the brain. Because taste-transducing cells continuously die and are replaced throughout adulthood, the taste-bud environment is both complex and dynamic, requiring detailed analyses of its cell types, their locations, and any physical relationships between them. Read More

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February 2021