1,172 results match your criteria stimuli preferential

Hand preference for the visual and auditory modalities in humans.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7868. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3), Research Centre Jülich, Wilhelm-Johnen-Str., 52428, Jülich, Germany.

The sensory dominance effect refers to the phenomenon that one sensory modality more frequently receives preferential processing (and eventually dominates consciousness and behavior) over and above other modalities. On the other hand, hand dominance is an innate aspect of the human motor system. To investigate how the sensory dominance effect interacts with hand dominance, we applied the adapted Colavita paradigm and recruited a large cohort of healthy right-handed participants (n = 119). Read More

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Preferential Neuronal Responses to Snakes in the Monkey Medial Prefrontal Cortex Support an Evolutionary Origin for Ophidiophobia.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 24;15:653250. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

System Emotional Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Ophidiophobia (snake phobia) is one of the most common specific phobias. It has been proposed that specific phobia may have an evolutionary origin, and that attentional bias to specific items may promote the onset of phobia. Noninvasive imaging studies of patients with specific phobia reported that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the rostral part of the anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), and amygdala are activated during the presentation of phobogenic stimuli. Read More

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Past and present experiences with maternal touch affect infants' attention toward emotional faces.

Infant Behav Dev 2021 Apr 6;63:101558. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Milan-Bicocca, Piazza Ateneo Nuovo 1 (U6), 20126 Milano, Italy.

Maternal touch is considered crucial in regulating infants' internal states when facing unknown or distressing situations. Here, we explored the effects of maternal touch on 7-month-old infants' preferences towards emotions. Infants' looking times were measured through a two-trial preferential looking paradigm, while infants observed dynamic videos of happy and angry facial expressions. Read More

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Dendrimer-decorated nanogels: Efficient nanocarriers for biodistribution and chemotherapy of ovarian carcinoma.

Bioact Mater 2021 Oct 13;6(10):3244-3253. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

DWI-Leibniz-Institute for Interactive Materials e.V, 52056, Aachen, Germany.

Nanomedicine has revolutionized disease theranostics by the accurate diagnosis and efficient therapy. Here, the PAMAM dendrimer decorated PVCL-GMA nanogels (NGs) were developed for favorable biodistribution and enhanced antitumor efficacy of ovarian carcinoma. By an ingenious design, the NGs with a unique structure that GMA-rich domains were localized on the surface were synthesized precipitation polymerization. Read More

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October 2021

Stimuli-Responsive Templated Polymer as a Target Receptor for a Conformation-based Electrochemical Sensing Platform.

ACS Appl Polym Mater 2021 Jan 9;3(1):329-341. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, United States.

The use of highly crosslinked molecularly imprinted polymers as a synthetic target receptor has the limitations of restricted accessibility to the binding sites resulting in slow response time. Moreover, such artificial receptors often require additional transduction mechanisms to translate target binding events into measurable signals. Here, we propose the development of a single-chain stimuli-responsive templated polymer, without using any covalent interchain crosslinkers, as a target recognition element. Read More

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January 2021

Top-down and bottom-up attentional biases for smoking-related stimuli: Comparing dependent and non-dependent smokers.

Addict Behav 2021 Jul 4;118:106886. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, UK.

Introduction: Substance use causes attentional biases for substance-related stimuli. Both bottom-up (preferential processing) and top-down (inhibitory control) processes are involved in attentional biases. We explored these aspects of attentional bias by using dependent and non-dependent cigarette smokers in order to see whether these two groups would differ in terms of general inhibitory control, bottom-up attentional bias, and top-down attentional biases. Read More

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Adipose Tissue Macrophage Polarization in Healthy and Unhealthy Obesity.

Front Nutr 2021 17;8:625331. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Section on Comparative Medicine, Department of Pathology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, United States.

Over 650 million adults are obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m) worldwide. Obesity is commonly associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. However, compiled estimates suggest that from 5 to 40% of obese individuals do not experience metabolic or cardiovascular complications. Read More

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February 2021

Local vs global processing in Williams syndrome.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 May 28;112:103917. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

CIMeC (Centre for Mind/Brain Sciences), University of Trento, Italy; Dipartimento di Psicologia, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: It has long been debated whether in Williams syndrome (WS) there is a preferential processing of local with respect to global forms, in contrast to the typical 'global advantage' in healthy individuals, which in WS seems to exist only for faces.

Aims: We aimed at verifying it and to assess the role of stimulus familiarity by comparing performances with faces to those with other objects using the same type of task.

Methods And Procedure: A group of children and adolescents with WS and controls with typical development performed a modified version of three tasks: Mooney (with faces and/or guitars), Jane (with faces and houses) and Navon task. Read More

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Nice and slow: Measuring sensitivity and visual preference toward naturalistic stimuli varying in their amplitude spectra in space and time.

Vision Res 2021 Apr 9;181:47-60. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

School of Psychology, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

The 1/f amplitude spectrum is a statistical property of natural scenes characterising a specific distribution of spatial and temporal frequencies and their associated luminance intensities. This property has been studied extensively in the spatial domain whereby sensitivity and visual preference overlap and peak for slopes within the natural range (α ≈ 1), but remains relatively less studied in the temporal domain. Here, we used a 4AFC task to measure sensitivity and a 2AFC task to measure visual preference and across a wide range of spatial (α = 0. Read More

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Preferential Ribosome Loading on the Stress-Upregulated mRNA Pool Shapes the Selective Translation under Stress Conditions.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Editing, Innovative Center of Molecular Genetics and Evolution, School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, 230 Waihuanxi Road, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The reprogramming of gene expression is one of the key responses to environmental stimuli, whereas changes in mRNA do not necessarily bring forth corresponding changes of the protein, which seems partially due to the stress-induced selective translation. To address this issue, we systematically compared the transcriptome and translatome using self-produced and publicly available datasets to decipher how and to what extent the coordination and discordance between transcription and translation came to be in response to wounding (self-produced), dark to light transition, heat, hypoxia, Pi starvation and the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (elf18) in We found that changes in total mRNAs (transcriptome) and ribosome-protected fragments (translatome) are highly correlated upon dark to light transition or heat stress. However, this close correlation was generally lost under other four stresses analyzed in this study, especially during immune response, which suggests that transcription and translation are differentially coordinated under distinct stress conditions. Read More

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February 2021

Mechanisms behind polyphagia in a pest insect: Responses of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) strains to preferential and alternative larval host plants assessed with gene regulatory networks.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2021 Mar 6;1864(3):194687. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética (CBMEG), Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP). Av. Cândido Rondon, 400. CEP 13083-875 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

A dataset of gene expression from Spodoptera frugiperda, a highly generalist pest moth, was used to understand how gene regulation is related to larval host plant preference. Transcriptomic data of corn and rice strains of S. frugiperda larvae, reared on different diets, were analysed with three different approaches of gene network inference, namely co-expression, weighted co-expression and Bayesian networks, since each methodology provides a different visualization of the data. Read More

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Role of crosstalk between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease.

Cell Prolif 2021 Mar 27;54(3):e12980. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Institute of Nephrology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a severe health problem worldwide, and vascular calcification (VC) contributes substantially to the cardiovascular morbidity and high mortality of CKD. CKD is often accompanied by a variety of pathophysiological states, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, hyperglycaemia, hyperparathyroidism and haemodynamic derangement, that can cause injuries to smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) to promote VC. Similar to SMCs, whose role has been widely explored in VC, ECs may contribute to VC via osteochondral transdifferentiation, apoptosis, etc. Read More

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Biological Stimuli-Induced Phase Transition of a Synthesized Block Copolymer: Preferential Interactions between PNIPAM--PNVCL and Heme Proteins.

Langmuir 2021 02 25;37(5):1682-1696. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India.

The beguiling world of functional polymers is dominated by thermoresponsive polymers with unique structural and molecular attributes. Limited work has been reported on the protein-induced conformational transition of block copolymers; furthermore, the literature lacks a clear understanding of the influence of proteins on the phase behavior of thermoresponsive copolymers. Herein, we have synthesized poly(-isopropylacrylamide)--poly(-vinylcaprolactam) (PNIPAM--PNVCL) by RAFT polymerization using -isopropylacrylamide and -vinylcaprolactam. Read More

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February 2021

Current Limitations and Recent Progress in Nanomedicine for Clinically Available Photodynamic Therapy.

Biomedicines 2021 Jan 16;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 16.

College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using oxygen, light, and photosensitizers has been receiving great attention, because it has potential for making up for the weakness of the existing therapies such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. It has been mainly used to treat cancer, and clinical tests for second-generation photosensitizers with improved physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic profiles, or singlet oxygen quantum yield have been conducted. Progress is also being made in cancer theranostics by using fluorescent signals generated by photosensitizers. Read More

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January 2021

Antinociceptive, Muscle Relaxant, Sedative, and Molecular Docking Studies of Peshawaraquinone Isolated from (Wall. ex G. Don) Steenis.

ACS Omega 2021 Jan 4;6(1):996-1002. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71421, Saudia Arabia.

(Wall. ex G. Don) Steenis is traditionally used to cure various diseases and can be included as an ingredient in massage oils, which are supposed to comfort muscular tension and pain. Read More

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January 2021

Preferential snake detection in a simulated ecological experiment.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Psychology, California State University San Marcos, San Marcos, California, USA.

Objectives: According to Isbell's snake detection theory (SDT), the need to rapidly detect and thus avoid snakes had a major impact on the evolution of the primate visual system, and thus the origin and evolution of the primate lineage, as expansion of the visual sense is a key characteristic of primates. The SDT rests on the assumption that there are both cortical (conscious) and subcortical (unconscious) brain structures and pathways that are responsible for rapid visual detection of and quick avoidance reactions to snakes. Behavioral evidence for the SDT primarily comes from visual search tasks and presentations of images on a computer screen; our aim was to evaluate the SDT under more ecologically valid circumstances. Read More

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January 2021

The self-face captures attention without consciousness: Evidence from the N2pc ERP component analysis.

Psychophysiology 2021 Apr 23;58(4):e13759. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Laboratory of Language Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology of Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

It is well established that stimuli representing or associated with ourselves, like our own name or an image of our own face, benefit from preferential processing. However, two key questions concerning the self-prioritization mechanism remain to be addressed. First, does it operate in an automatic manner during the early processing, or rather in a more controlled fashion at later processing stages? Second, is it specific to the self-related stimuli, or can it be activated also by other stimuli that are familiar or salient? We conducted a dot-probe experiment to investigate the mechanism behind the attentional prioritization of the self-face image and to tackle both questions. Read More

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Emotional Bias Modification for Individuals With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Protocol for a Co-Design Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 Dec 23;9(12):e24078. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Developmental Psychiatry, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a worldwide prevalence rate of 5%. Individuals with ADHD often tend to have difficulties with emotional regulation. The advances in experimental psychology have led to the discovery of emotional biases. Read More

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December 2020

zoospores: From perception of environmental signals to inoculum formation on the host-root surface.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2020 21;18:3766-3773. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Université Côte d'Azur, INRAE, CNRS, ISA, Sophia Antipolis 06903, France.

To explore moist soils and to target host plants, phytopathogenic species utilize the sensory and propulsion capabilities of the biflagellate unicellular zoospores they produce. Zoospore motion and interactions with the microenvironment are of primary importance for physiology. These are also of critical significance for plant pathology in early infection sequential events and their regulation: the directed zoospore migration toward the host, the local aggregation and adhesion at the host penetration site. Read More

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November 2020

Membrane Estrogen Receptor (GPER) and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Heteromeric Complexes Promote Human Ovarian Follicle Survival.

iScience 2020 Dec 18;23(12):101812. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Ospedale Civile Sant'Agostino-Estense, Via P. Giardini 1355, 41126 Modena, Italy.

Classically, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR)-driven cAMP-mediated signaling boosts human ovarian follicle growth and oocyte maturation. However, contradicting data suggest a different view on physiological significance of FSHR-mediated cAMP signaling. We found that the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) heteromerizes with FSHR, reprogramming cAMP/death signals into proliferative stimuli fundamental for sustaining oocyte survival. Read More

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December 2020

Crossmodal negativity bias in semantic processing.

Emotion 2020 Nov 19. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Psychology, Institute for Mind and Brain, University of South Carolina.

Negative events have greater influence on cognitive processing compared with positive events, a phenomenon referred to as the negativity bias. Previous studies have shown that reaction times (RTs) to negatively valenced items are slower in semantic tasks. According to the automatic vigilance hypothesis, these effects are caused by preferential attention to negative stimuli or features diverting cognitive resources away from semantic processing. Read More

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November 2020

No preference for direct versus averted gaze in autistic adults: a reinforced preferential looking paradigm.

Mol Autism 2020 11 18;11(1):91. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

ACTE at LaDisco and ULB Neuroscience Institute, Université libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F. D. Roosevelt, 50/175, 1050, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: With the overarching objective to gain better insights into social attention in autistic adults, the present study addresses three outstanding issues about face processing in autism. First, do autistic adults display a preference for mouths over eyes; second, do they avoid direct gaze; third, is atypical visual exploration of faces in autism mediated by gender, social anxiety or alexithymia?

Methods: We used a novel reinforced preferential looking paradigm with a group of autistic adults (n = 43, 23 women) pairwise matched on age with neurotypical participants (n = 43, 21 women). Participants watched 28 different pairs of 5 s video recordings of a speaking person: the two videos, simultaneously displayed on the screen, were identical except that gaze was directed at the camera in one video and averted in the other. Read More

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November 2020

Multivariate analysis of EEG activity indexes contingent attentional capture.

Neuroimage 2021 02 12;226:117562. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, USA; Institute for Mind and Biology, University of Chicago, USA.

An extensive body of work has shown that attentional capture is contingent on the goals of the observer: Capture is strongly reduced or even eliminated when an irrelevant singleton stimulus does not match the target-defining properties (Folk et al., 1992). There has been a long-standing debate on whether attentional capture can be explained by goal-driven and/or stimulus-driven accounts. Read More

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February 2021

Automated visual acuity evaluation based on preferential looking technique and controlled with remote eye tracking.

Ophthalmic Res 2020 Oct 20. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Objective: To establish an automated visual acuity test (AVAT) for infants, based on preferential looking technique and controlled with remote eye tracking. To validate the AVAT in a group of healthy children. To compare AVAT visual acuity (VA) values with corresponding VA values, acquired with standard tests (ST). Read More

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October 2020

Respiration and brain neural dynamics associated with interval timing during odor fear learning in rats.

Sci Rep 2020 10 19;10(1):17643. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, INSERM U1028, CNRS UMR 5292, Université Lyon 1, 69366, Lyon, France.

In fear conditioning, where a conditioned stimulus predicts the arrival of an aversive stimulus, the animal encodes the time interval between the two stimuli. Here we monitored respiration to visualize anticipatory behavioral responses in an odor fear conditioning in rats, while recording theta (5-15 Hz) and gamma (40-80 Hz) brain oscillatory activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and olfactory piriform cortex (PIR). We investigated the temporal patterns of respiration frequency and of theta and gamma activity power during the odor-shock interval, comparing two interval durations. Read More

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October 2020

Fingers hold spatial information that toes do not.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Jan 4;74(1):95-105. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK.

Fingers have preferential associations with relative spatial locations. Tactile localisation is faster when the fingers are in these locations, such as when the index finger is in a relatively higher spatial position, and the thumb in a relatively lower position. However, it is unclear whether these associations are related to hands specifically, or are a more general characteristic of limbs. Read More

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January 2021

Identification of determinants of differential chromatin accessibility through a massively parallel genome-integrated reporter assay.

Genome Res 2020 10 24;30(10):1468-1480. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

A key mechanism in cellular regulation is the ability of the transcriptional machinery to physically access DNA. Transcription factors interact with DNA to alter the accessibility of chromatin, which enables changes to gene expression during development or disease or as a response to environmental stimuli. However, the regulation of DNA accessibility via the recruitment of transcription factors is difficult to study in the context of the native genome because every genomic site is distinct in multiple ways. Read More

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October 2020

Self-Propelled Janus Colloids in Shear Flow.

Langmuir 2020 Oct 29;36(40):11888-11898. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, India.

To fully harness the potential of artificial active colloids, investigation of their response to various external stimuli including external flow is of great interest. Therefore, in this study, we perform experiments on SiO-Pt Janus particles suspended in an aqueous medium in a capillary subjected to different shear flow rates. Particles were propelled using varied HO (fuel) concentrations. Read More

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October 2020

A New Contrast Sensitivity Test for Pediatric Patients: Feasibility and Inter-Examiner Reliability in Ocular Disorders and Cerebral Visual Impairment.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2020 08 20;9(9):30. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

New England College of Optometry, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: Assess feasibility and interexaminer reliability of a new test of contrast sensitivity (CS) for pediatric populations.

Methods: The Double Happy (DH) measures CS using a method similar to the Teller Acuity Cards. The schematic DH face is 16 degrees in diameter with features of 0. Read More

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Understanding Attentional Biases in Severe Alcohol Use Disorder: A Combined Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Perspective.

Alcohol Alcohol 2021 Jan;56(1):1-7

Louvain Experimental Psychopathology Research Group (LEP), Psychological Science Research Institute, UCLouvain, 1348, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Rationale: Severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) is a psychiatric condition linked to cerebral and cognitive consequences. SAUD is notably characterized by an overactivation of the reflexive/reward system when confronted with alcohol-related cues. Such overreactivity generates a preferential allocation of attentional resources toward these cues, labeled as attentional biases (AB). Read More

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January 2021