8,794 results match your criteria stimulation protocols


Noninvasive brain stimulation to augment language therapy for primary progressive aphasia.

Handb Clin Neurol 2022 ;185:251-260

Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, Chapman University, Irvine, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a debilitating disorder characterized by the gradual loss of language functioning resulting from neurodegenerative diseases including frontotemporal lobar degeneration or Alzheimer's disease pathology. There is a dearth of research investigating language therapy in PPA. Unlike individuals with poststroke aphasia, language skills are expected to decline over time, so the goal of treatment is often to preserve existing language functioning. Read More

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January 2022

Gamma Loop Dysfunction as a Possible Neurophysiological Mechanism of Arthrogenic Muscle Inhibition: A Narrative Review of the Literature.

J Sport Rehabil 2022 Jan 25:1-6. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Context: Quadriceps activation failure has been observed following various pathological conditions in a knee joint such as knee surgery, pain, effusion in knee, and osteoarthritis also could be aging matter. Those patients are unable to attain maximal quadriceps strength for a long period of time although their quadriceps itself is not damaged. This impairment is termed arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). Read More

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January 2022

Is the vertex a good control stimulation site? Theta burst stimulation in healthy controls.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Brain and Mind Research Program, Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC MU, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

The vertex has been used as a suitable control stimulation site in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation studies. The objectives of this study are (1) to assess cognitive performance (CP) after theta burst stimulation (TBS); (2) to evaluate whether clinically relevant cortical areas might be reached by vertex stimulation and how that might influence CP. Twenty young healthy subjects performed a cognitive task prior to and immediately after intermittent TBS (iTBS) and continuous TBS (cTBS) of two active cortical stimulation sites and the vertex. Read More

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January 2022

Action potential responses to changes in stimulation frequency and isoproterenol in rat ventricular myocytes.

Physiol Rep 2022 Jan;10(2):e15166

Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Purpose: Current understanding of ventricular action potential adaptation to physiological stress is generally based on protocols using non-physiological rates and conditions isolating rate effects from escalating adrenergic stimulation. To permit refined understanding, ventricular action potentials were assessed across physiological pacing frequencies in the presence and absence of adrenergic stimuli. Isolated and combined effects were analyzed to assess their ability to replicate in-vivo responses. Read More

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January 2022

Comparison of clinical outcomes with left unilateral and sequential bilateral Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) treatment of major depressive disorder in a large patient registry.

Brain Stimul 2022 Jan 21. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, NY, USA; Department of Radiology, Columbia University, NY, USA.

Background: It has been suggested that sequential bilateral (SBL) TMS, combining high frequency, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation and low frequency, right DLPFC stimulation, is more effective than unilateral TMS.

Objective: To contrast treatment outcomes of left unilateral (LUL) and SBL protocols.

Methods: Registry data were collected at 111 practice sites. Read More

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January 2022

The value of LH supplementation in young women with diminished ovarian reserve treated with GnRH Antagonist Protocol for ovarian hyperstimulation in ICSI-cycles.

Ginekol Pol 2022 Jan 24. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

IVF Clinic of the University of Health Sciences School of Medicine, Etlik Zubeyde Hanım Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, Turkey.

Objectives: To compare the success of two controlled ovarian hyperstimulation protocols; rFSH + hp-hMG with only rFSH in the GnRH antagonist protocol in diminished ovarian reserve under 35 years of age.

Material And Methods: Data from January 2015 to June 2019 were abstracted from the hospital records of IVF Clinic. The women younger than 35 years of age who were diagnosed as diminished ovarian reserve and underwent standard GnRH antagonist protocol were included. Read More

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January 2022

Use of transcranial magnetic stimulation for studying the neural basis of numerical cognition: a systematic review.

J Neurosci Methods 2022 Jan 20:109485. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Cognitive Neurolab, Faculty of Health Sciences. Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), Rambla del Poblenou 156, Barcelona (Spain).

Complex numerical cognition is a crucial ability in the human brain. Conventional neuroimaging techniques do not differentiate between epiphenomena and neuronal groups critical to numerical cognition. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows defining causal models of the relationships between specific activated or inhibited neural regions and functional changes in cognition. Read More

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January 2022

Individualized luteal phase support after fresh embryo transfer: unanswered questions, a review.

Reprod Health 2022 Jan 22;19(1):19. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha City, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Luteal phase support (LPS) is an important part of assisted reproductive technology (ART), and adequate LPS is crucial for embryo implantation. At present, a great number of studies have put emphasis on an individualized approach to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and endometrium preparation of frozen- thawed embryo transfer (FET); However, not much attention has been devoted to the luteal phase and almost all ART cycles used similar LPS protocol bases on experience.

Main Body: This review aims to concisely summarize individualized LPS protocols in fresh embryo transfer cycles with hCG trigger or GnRH-a trigger. Read More

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January 2022

CD33 Delineates Two Functionally Distinct NK Cell Populations Divergent in Cytokine Production and Antibody-Mediated Cellular Cytotoxicity.

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:798087. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Institute for Transplantation Diagnostics and Cell Therapeutics, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

The generation and expansion of functionally competent NK cells is of great interest for their application in immunotherapy of cancer. Since CD33 constitutes a promising target for immunotherapy of myeloid malignancies, NK cells expressing a CD33-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) were generated. Unexpectedly, we noted that CD33-CAR NK cells could not be efficiently expanded due to a fratricide-like process in which CD33-CAR NK cells killed other CD33-CAR NK cells that had upregulated CD33 in culture. Read More

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January 2022

A New Framework to Interpret Individual Inter-Hemispheric Compensatory Communication after Stroke.

J Pers Med 2022 Jan 6;12(1). Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Center for Mind/Brain Sciences-CIMeC, University of Trento, I-38123 Trento, Italy.

Stroke constitutes the main cause of adult disability worldwide. Even after application of standard rehabilitation protocols, the majority of patients still show relevant motor impairment. Outcomes of standard rehabilitation protocols have led to mixed results, suggesting that relevant factors for brain re-organization after stroke have not been considered in explanatory models. Read More

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January 2022

Non-Invasive Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Study Protocol.

Brain Sci 2022 Jan 12;12(1). Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Psychology Center, Faculty of Administrative Sciences, Autonomous University of Baja California, Ensenada 22890, Mexico.

Stimulation of the vagus nerve, a parasympathetic nerve that controls the neuro-digestive, vascular, and immune systems, induces pain relief, particularly in clinical conditions such as headache and rheumatoid arthritis. Transmission through vagal afferents towards the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), the central relay nucleus of the vagus nerve, has been proposed as the main physiological mechanism that reduces pain intensity after vagal stimulation. Chronic pain symptoms of fibromyalgia patients might benefit from stimulation of the vagus nerve via normalization of altered autonomic and immune systems causing their respective symptoms. Read More

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January 2022

Motor Cortical Plasticity Induced by Volitional Muscle Activity-Triggered Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Median Nerve Stimulation.

Brain Sci 2021 Dec 31;12(1). Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Department of Physical Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Tobetsu-cho, Ishikari-gun, Hokkaido 061-0293, Japan.

Bilateral motor training is a useful method for modifying corticospinal excitability. The effects of bilateral movement that are caused by artificial stimulation on corticospinal excitability have not been reported. We compared motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the primary motor cortex (M1) after conventional bilateral motor training and artificial bilateral movements generated by electromyogram activity of abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle-triggered peripheral nerve stimulation (c-MNS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the ipsilateral M1 (i-TMS). Read More

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December 2021

Maladaptive Pulmonary Vascular Responses to Chronic Sustained and Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia in Rat.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Dec 27;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 27.

Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular y Fisiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid, Spain.

Chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH), as found in individuals living at a high altitude or in patients suffering respiratory disorders, initiates physiological adaptations such as carotid body stimulation to maintain oxygen levels, but has deleterious effects such as pulmonary hypertension (PH). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a respiratory disorder of increasing prevalence, is characterized by a situation of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). OSA is associated with the development of systemic hypertension and cardiovascular pathologies, due to carotid body and sympathetic overactivation. Read More

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December 2021

Modulating intrinsic functional connectivity with visual cortex using low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Brain Behav 2022 Jan 20:e2491. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Psychology and Centre for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, Canada.

Introduction: Intrinsic network connectivity becomes altered in pathophysiology. Noninvasive brain stimulation can modulate pathological functional networks in an attempt to restore the inherent response. To determine its usefulness for visual-related disorders, we developed procedures investigating repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocols targeting the visual cortex on modulating connectivity associated with the visual network and default mode network (DMN). Read More

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January 2022

Dynamic causal modeling of sensorimotor networks elicited by saltatory pneumotactile velocity in the glabrous hand.

J Neuroimaging 2022 Jan 19. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.

Background And Purpose: The effective connectivity of neuronal networks during passive saltatory pneumotactile velocity stimulation to the glabrous hand with different velocities is still unknown. The present study investigated the effectivity connectivity elicited by saltatory pneumotactile velocity arrays placed on the glabrous hand at three velocities (5, 25, and 65 cm/second).

Methods: Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) was used on functional MRI data sampled from 20 neurotypical adults. Read More

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January 2022

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review and pairwise/network meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam Neuroscience, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and ranked the relative efficacy of different stimulation protocols.

Methods: We performed a search for randomised, sham-controlled trials of rTMS for OCD. The primary analysis included both a pairwise meta-analysis and a series of frequentist network meta-analyses (NMA) of OCD symptom severity. Read More

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January 2022

TMS with fast and accurate electronic control: Measuring the orientation sensitivity of corticomotor pathways.

Brain Stimul 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland; BioMag Laboratory, HUS Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils allow only a slow, mechanical adjustment of the stimulating electric field (E-field) orientation in the cerebral tissue. Fast E-field control is needed to synchronize the stimulation with the ongoing brain activity. Also, empirical models that fully describe the relationship between evoked responses and the stimulus orientation and intensity are still missing. Read More

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January 2022

Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a tool to induce and explore plasticity in humans.

Handb Clin Neurol 2022 ;184:73-89

IRCCS Neuromed Institute, Pozzilli (IS), Italy.

Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is the main theoretical framework to explain mechanisms of learning and memory. Synaptic plasticity can be explored experimentally in animals through various standardized protocols for eliciting long-term potentiation and long-term depression in hippocampal and cortical slices. In humans, several non-invasive protocols of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation have been designed and applied to probe synaptic plasticity in the primary motor cortex, as reflected by long-term changes in motor evoked potential amplitudes. Read More

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January 2022

New tools for shaping plasticity to enhance recovery after stroke.

Handb Clin Neurol 2022 ;184:299-315

Neurology, Neurophysiology and Neurobiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide and its prevalence is projected to increase in the coming years in parallel with the increase of life expectancy. Despite the great improvements in the management of the acute phase of stroke, some residual disability persists in most patients thus requiring rehabilitation. One third of patients do not reach the maximal recovery potential and different approaches have been explored with the aim to boost up recovery. Read More

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January 2022

Parkinson's disease: Alterations of motor plasticity and motor learning.

Handb Clin Neurol 2022 ;184:135-151

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Division of Brain, Imaging and Behavior, The Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Krembil Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

This chapter reviews the alterations in motor learning and motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common movement disorder. Impairments in motor learning, which is a hallmark of basal ganglia disorders, influence the performance of motor learning-related behavioral tasks and have clinical implications for the management of disturbance in gait and posture, and for rehabilitative management of PD. Although plasticity is classically induced and assessed in sliced preparation in animal models, in this review we have concentrated on the results from non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with PD, in addition to a few animal electrophysiologic studies. Read More

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January 2022

Peripheral magnetic theta burst stimulation to muscles can effectively reduce spasticity: a randomized controlled trial.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2022 Jan 16;19(1). Epub 2022 Jan 16.

Ain Shams Neuromodulation Research Lab, Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, P. O. Box 1159, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Spasticity is a common complication of many neurological diseases and despite contributing much disability; the available therapeutic options are limited. Peripheral magnetic stimulation is one promising option. In this study, we investigated whether peripheral intermittent theta burst stimulation (piTBS) will reduce spasticity when applied directly on spastic muscles. Read More

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January 2022

An experimental paradigm to investigate stimulation dependent activity in topologically constrained neuronal networks.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Dec 29;201:113896. Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

We present a stimulate and record paradigm to examine the behavior of multiple neuronal networks with controlled topology in vitro. Our approach enabled us to electrically induce and record neuronal activity from 60 independent networks in parallel over multiple weeks. We investigated the network performance of neuronal networks of primary hippocampal neurons until 29 days in vitro. Read More

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December 2021

Continuous and intermittent theta burst stimulation to the visual cortex do not alter GABA and glutamate concentrations measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Brain Behav 2022 Jan 14:e2478. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Centre for Vision Research and Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Theta burst stimulation (TBS), a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), uses repeated high-frequency bursts to non-invasively modulate neural processes in the brain. An intermittent TBS (iTBS) protocol is generally considered "excitatory," while continuous TBS (cTBS) is considered "inhibitory." However, the majority of work that has led to these effects being associated with the respective protocols has been done in the motor cortex, and it is well established that TMS can have variable effects across the brain. Read More

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January 2022

Optimal individualization of patient-oriented ovarian stimulation in Japanese assisted reproductive technology clinics, a review for unique setting with advanced-age patients.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan.

Ovarian stimulation is a key issue in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. ART practice in Japan is unique with various types of ovarian stimulation protocols, which may contribute to lower pregnancy rates compared to other countries. This review aims to clarify optimal individualized ovarian stimulation for improving the pregnancy rate per one oocyte retrieval cycle in Japan. Read More

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January 2022

Intrinsic Neuromuscular Fatigability in Humans: The Critical Role of Stimulus Frequency.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Centre for Heart, Lung and Vascular Health, School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, Canada.

Abstract: Electrically evoked contractions provide insight into intrinsic neuromuscular fatigability and also represent a valuable technique to maintain muscle mass in a clinical setting. To appropriately investigate intrinsic fatigability and design optimal stimulation protocols, it would appear to be crucial to stimulate the muscle at a frequency equivalent to the mean motor unit discharge rate expected at the target force level. Read More

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January 2022

Clinical grade production of IL-15 stimulated NK cells for early infusion in adult AML patients undergoing haploidentical stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide.

Transfusion 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Hematology department, Gregorio Marañón General University Hospital, Gregorio Marañón Health Research Institute (IiSGM), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Unmanipulated haploidentical transplantation (Haplo-HSCT) is commonly used for those AML patients who need a timely transplant and do not have a suitable matched donor, but relapse rates are still high, and improvements are needed. Adoptive immunotherapy using natural killer cells (NK cells) could be a promising tool to improved Haplo-HSCT but, to date, no optimal infusion and manufacturing protocols have been developed. Read More

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January 2022

Neural Circuit Repair by Low-Intensity rTMS.

Cerebellum 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Sorbonne Université and CNRS, IBPS-B2A UMR8256 Biological Adaptation and Ageing, Boite 256, 9 Quai St Bernard, 75005, Paris, France.

Electromagnetic brain stimulation is a promising treatment in neurology and psychiatry. However, clinical outcomes are variable and underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined, impeding the development of new effective stimulation protocols. There is increasing application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the cerebellum to induce forebrain plasticity through its long-distance cerebello-cerebral circuits. Read More

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January 2022

Spectral dependency of the human pupillary light reflex. Influences of pre-adaptation and chronotype.

PLoS One 2022 12;17(1):e0253030. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Institute of Medical Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany.

Non-visual photoreceptors (ipRGCs) and rods both exert a strong influence on the human pupil, yet pupil models regularly use cone-derived sensitivity as their basis. This inconsistency is further exacerbated by the fact that circadian effects can modulate the wavelength sensitivity. We assessed the pupillary reaction to narrowband light stimuli in the mesopic range. Read More

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January 2022

Pulsed Electric Fields Alter Expression of NF-κB Promoter-Controlled Gene.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 31;23(1). Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Laboratory of Bioelectrics, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Sauletekio Ave. 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania.

The possibility to artificially adjust and fine-tune gene expression is one of the key milestones in bioengineering, synthetic biology, and advanced medicine. Since the effects of proteins or other transgene products depend on the dosage, controlled gene expression is required for any applications, where even slight fluctuations of the transgene product impact its function or other critical cell parameters. In this context, physical techniques demonstrate optimistic perspectives, and pulsed electric field technology is a potential candidate for a noninvasive, biophysical gene regulator, exploiting an easily adjustable pulse generating device. Read More

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December 2021

Development of a method for the isolation and culture of astrocytes from the canine cerebral cortex.

J Neurosci Methods 2022 Jan 7:109476. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Division of Zoonosis of Natural Foci, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 678 Haping Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150069, China. Electronic address:

Background: Astrocytes are considered key players in neuroimmunopathological processes, and they play a certain role in neuroinflammation. Rodent primary astrocyte cultures are commonly used in the study of human neuroinflammation. However, gene sequence homologies are closer between humans and dogs than between humans and rodents. Read More

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January 2022