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[Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation in Psychiatric Disorders].

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2022 Jan 26;90(1-02):63-79. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Based on neurophysiological findings, non-invasive brain stimulation methods offer an integrative treatment approach for mental disorders. Some of the stimulation methods have already been extensively studied for specific psychiatric indications and have become established as reasonable treatment option. For example, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for the treatment of refractory depression received approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States in 2008. Read More

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January 2022

Blockade of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid receptor lowers blood pressure and alters vascular function in mice with smooth muscle-specific overexpression of CYP4A12-20-HETE synthase.

J Hypertens 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College School of Medicine, Valhalla, New York Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Objective: 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a vasoactive eicosanoid exhibiting effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) via G-protein coupled receptor 75 (GPR75) and include stimulation of contractility, migration, and growth. We examined whether VSMC-targeted overexpression of CYP4A12, the primary 20-HETE-producing enzyme in mice, is sufficient to promote hypertension.

Methods: Mice with VSM-specific Cyp4a12 overexpression (Myh11-4a12) and their littermate controls (WT) were generated by crossbreeding Cyp4a12-floxed with Myh11-Cre mice. Read More

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January 2022

Effect of BMI on the thermogenic response to cold exposure and associated changes in metabolism and browning markers in adult humans.

Obes Facts 2022 Jan 26. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Introduction: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves to produce heat by non-shivering thermogenesis. Activation of BAT increases energy expenditure and is seen as a putative strategy to treat obesity. There is conflicting data on the capacity for cold induced thermogenesis in individuals with higher BMI. Read More

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January 2022

TMS intensity and focality correlation with coil orientation at three non-motor regions.

Phys Med Biol 2022 Jan 26. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, C. Antonio Maura Montaner, Sevilla, Andalucía, 41013, SPAIN.

Objective: The aim of this study is to define the best coil orientations for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for three clinically relevant brain areas: pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), by means of simulations in 12 realistic head models of the electric field (E-field).

Methods: We computed the E-field generated by TMS in our three volumes of interest (VOI) that were delineated based on published atlases. We then analysed the maximum intensity and spatial focality for the normal and absolute components of the E-field considering different percentile thresholds. Read More

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January 2022

Toxicological effects of atenolol and venlafaxine on zebrafish tissues: Bioaccumulation, DNA hypomethylation, and molecular mechanism.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jan 23:118898. Epub 2022 Jan 23.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China; The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, China; The Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-Remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, China. Electronic address:

The beta-blocker atenolol (ATE), and the selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine (VEN) are frequently detected in municipal wastewater effluents, but little is known about their ecotoxic effect on aquatic animals. Herein, ATE and VEN were selected to explore their accumulation and global DNA methylation (GDM) in zebrafish tissues after a 30-day exposure. Molecular dynamics (MD) stimulation was used to investigate the toxic mechanism of ATE and VEN exposure. Read More

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January 2022

IL-17RA-signaling in Lgr5 intestinal stem cells induces expression of transcription factor ATOH1 to promote secretory cell lineage commitment.

Immunity 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA. Electronic address:

The Th17 cell-lineage-defining cytokine IL-17A contributes to host defense and inflammatory disease by coordinating multicellular immune responses. The IL-17 receptor (IL-17RA) is expressed by diverse intestinal cell types, and therapies targeting IL-17A induce adverse intestinal events, suggesting additional tissue-specific functions. Here, we used multiple conditional deletion models to identify a role for IL-17A in secretory epithelial cell differentiation in the gut. Read More

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January 2022

Regulation of the BCR signalosome by the class II peptide editor, H2-M, affects the development and repertoire of innate-like B cells.

Cell Rep 2022 Jan;38(4):110200

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

The non-classical Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHCII) protein, H2-M, edits peptides bound to conventional MHCII in favor of stable peptide/MHCII (p/MHCII) complexes. Here, we show that H2-M deficiency affects B-1 cell survival, reduces cell renewal capacity, and alters immunoglobulin repertoire, allowing for the selection of cells specific for highly abundant epitopes, but not low-frequency epitopes. H2-M-deficient B-1 cells have shorter CDR3 length, higher content of positively charged amino acids, shorter junctional regions, less mutation frequency, and a skewed clonal distribution. Read More

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January 2022

Topical Clascoterone for Acne Vulgaris.

Skin Therapy Lett 2022 Jan;27(1):1-3

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

The pathogenesis of acne is multifactorial and involves inflammation, bacterial dysbiosis, and androgen stimulation. Existing systemic therapies target hormonal pathways to mitigate acne lesions; however, their use is limited to the female population and associated with systemic adverse effects. Clascoterone is the first topical therapy to target the hormonal pathogenesis of acne approved to treat acne vulgaris. Read More

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January 2022

Monitoring the impact of Cannabis Use.

Authors:
Bernard Le Foll

Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2022 Jan 26. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Translational Addiction Research Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada. Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, CAMH, Toronto, ON, Canada. Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Departments of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Addiction Division, CAMH, Toronto, ON, Canada.

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January 2022

The potential of brain stimulation techniques for substance use disorder treatment.

Braz J Psychiatry 2022 Jan 19. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Faillace Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, TX, USA.

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January 2022

Prevalence of and Theoretical Explanation for Type 2 Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

J Neurol Phys Ther 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pécs Medical School, Pécs, Hungary (K.H., I.G.); Department of Otolaryngology, Petz Aladár University Teaching Hospital, Györ, Hungary (L.T.T.); Laboratory of Vestibular NeuroAdaptation, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (M.C.S.); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (M.C.S.); Department of Neurology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary (S.K.); and Department of Otolaryngology, Karl Landsteiner University Hospital Krems, Krems an der Donau, Austria (B.B.).

Background And Purpose: A variant of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) involves the subjective report of vertigo without the coinciding nystagmus. This presentation includes truncal retropulsion when sitting up from the ipsilesional provocative test (ie, Dix-Hallpike), which we term type 2 BPPV. The primary objective of this study is to prospectively determine the prevalence and describe the clinical course of type 2 BPPV. Read More

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January 2022

A programmable and skin temperature-activated electromechanical synergistic dressing for effective wound healing.

Sci Adv 2022 Jan 26;8(4):eabl8379. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, Sichuan, China.

Mechanical regulation and electric stimulation hold great promise in skin tissue engineering for manipulating wound healing. However, the complexity of equipment operation and stimulation implementation remains an ongoing challenge in clinical applications. Here, we propose a programmable and skin temperature-activated electromechanical synergistic wound dressing composed of a shape memory alloy-based mechanical metamaterial for wound contraction and an antibacterial electret thin film for electric field generation. Read More

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January 2022

Exploring the Therapeutic Potential of Targeting Purinergic and Orexinergic Receptors in Alcoholic Neuropathy.

Neurotox Res 2022 Jan 26. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Alcoholic neuropathy emerges following the persistent alcohol imbibing, and triggers nerve damage through de-escalating the receptors situated in the central nervous system (CNS), which consecutively evolves into debilitating neuropathic state and further precipitates hyperalgesia, allodynia, dysesthesia, ataxia, numbness, immobility, and decline in certain body functions. Existing pharmacotherapy, such as anticonvulsants (gabapentin and topiramate), and antidepressant drugs (duloxetine, and venlafaxine) render short-lasting benefits; however, their continual use is not favoured nowadays because of their detrimental outcomes and habit-forming behaviour. Consequently, the research is being shifted towards exploring novel propitious targets which entirely assist in the cessation of the disease. Read More

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January 2022

Extracellular Vesicles of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Can be Taken Up by Microglial Cells and Partially Prevent the Stimulation Induced by β-amyloid.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2022 Jan 26. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology (IZI), Perlickstrasse 1, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have great capacity for immune regulation. MSCs provide protective paracrine effects, which are partially exerted by extracellular vesicles (EVs). It has been reported that MSCs-derived EVs (MSC-EVs) contain soluble factors, such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and even microRNAs, which confer them similar anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects to MSCs. Read More

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January 2022

Cancer Pain Management-New Therapies.

Authors:
Haijun Zhang

Curr Oncol Rep 2022 Jan 26. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, 622 W168th Street, PH5, 505C, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Despite the rapid advance in anti-cancer treatment in recent years, the treatment to cancer-related pain remains largely unchanged. One systemic review has shown that approximately 32% of patient with cancer-related pain were undertreated. While in patients responding to strong opioids, long-term use of opioids will lead to many undesired side effects such as constipation, tolerance, and addiction. Read More

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January 2022

Corrigendum Supports Therapeutic Contribution of Acupoint Tapping to EFTs' Observed Effects: Response to Spielmans (2021).

J Nerv Ment Dis 2022 Feb;210(2):143-147

Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia.

Abstract: We published a meta-analysis of studies that examined the various components of an evidence-based therapy called emotional freedom techniques (EFTs). EFT uses elements of conventional therapies such as exposure and cognitive processing but includes the unique ingredient of acupoint stimulation using fingertip tapping. Six studies were identified, and three of these met the quality control criteria of the American Psychological Association's Division 12 Task Force for Empirically Validated Therapies. Read More

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February 2022

Simultaneous brain, brainstem and spinal cord pharmacological-fMRI reveals involvement of an endogenous opioid network in attentional analgesia.

Elife 2022 Jan 26;11. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

School of Psychological Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Pain perception is decreased by shifting attentional focus away from a threatening event. This attentional analgesia engages parallel descending control pathways from anterior cingulate (ACC) to locus coeruleus, and ACC to periaqueductal grey (PAG) - rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), indicating possible roles for noradrenergic or opioidergic neuromodulators. To determine which pathway modulates nociceptive activity in humans we used simultaneous whole brain-spinal cord pharmacological-fMRI (N=39) across three sessions. Read More

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January 2022

Superoxide Initiates the Hyphal Differentiation to Microsclerotia Formation of .

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jan 26:e0208421. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan.

The infection of often results in a grayish appearance with numerous survival structures, microsclerotia, on the plant surface. Past works have studied the development of fungal survival structures, sclerotia and microsclerotia, in the Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes. However, M. Read More

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January 2022

USP17 is required for peripheral trafficking of lysosomes.

EMBO Rep 2022 Jan 26:e51932. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Expression of the deubiquitinase USP17 is induced by multiple stimuli, including cytokines (IL-4/6), chemokines (IL-8, SDF1), and growth factors (EGF), and several studies indicate it is required for cell proliferation and migration. However, the mechanisms via which USP17 impacts upon these cellular functions are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that USP17 depletion prevents peripheral lysosome positioning, as well as trafficking of lysosomes to the cell periphery in response to EGF stimulation. Read More

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January 2022

Foot orthoses for treating paediatric flat feet.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 26;1:CD006311. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, Australia.

Background: Paediatric flat feet are a common presentation in primary care; reported prevalence approximates 15%. A minority of flat feet can hurt and limit gait. There is no optimal strategy, nor consensus, for using foot orthoses (FOs) to treat paediatric flat feet. Read More

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January 2022

In Vitro Fertilization and Early Pregnancy Outcomes After Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccination.

Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Reproductive Medicine Associates of New York, and the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Mount Sinai West, New York, New York.

Objective: To assess whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccination is associated with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation or early pregnancy outcomes.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation or single euploid frozen-thawed embryo transfer at a single academic center. Patients fully vaccinated with a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine were compared with unvaccinated patients who cycled during the same time period. Read More

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January 2022

A Metabolic Reprogramming Amino Acid Polymer as an Immunosurveillance Activator and Leukemia Targeting Drug Carrier for T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 Jan 26:e2104134. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Key Laboratory of Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering (Ministry of Education), Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Compromised immunosurveillance leads to chemotherapy resistance and disease relapse of hematological malignancies. Amino acid metabolism regulates immune responses and cancer; however, a druggable amino acid metabolite to enhance antitumor immunosurveillance and improve leukemia targeting-therapy efficacy remains unexplored. Here, an L-phenylalanine polymer, Metabolic Reprogramming Immunosurveillance Activation Nanomedicine (MRIAN), is invented to effectively target bone marrow (BM) and activate the immune surveillance in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) by inhibiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in T-ALL murine model. Read More

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January 2022

Heart rate variability increases following automated acoustic slow wave sleep enhancement.

J Sleep Res 2022 Jan 25:e13545. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

School of Psychological Sciences, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Acoustic stimulation has been shown to enhance slow wave sleep and in turn, cognition, and now cardiac outcomes in young adults. With the emergence of commercial acoustic devices in the home, we sought to examine the impact of an acoustic, slow wave enhancing device on heart rate variability in healthy, middle-aged males (n = 24, 39.92 ± 4. Read More

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January 2022

[Regaining the Dignity of Eating].

Authors:
Yueh-Juen Hwu

Hu Li Za Zhi 2022 Feb;69(1):4-5

PhD, RN, Professor, Department of Nursing, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC.

Inserting a nasogastric tube is a common clinical management approach to treating patients with chewing and swallowing impairments and those with choking and aspiration issues. Although guidelines recommend that these tubes should not be indwelled for more than 4-6 weeks, they are in practice sometimes indwelled for periods exceeding 36 months (Wong et al., 2019). Read More

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February 2022

[Smell of fish slightly increases the heart rate and only one parameter of variability in adults].

Laryngorhinootologie 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

ORL clinic, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Introduction: Cardiac olfactory stimulus reactions could expand the range of objectifying test methods for testing olfactory function. In a pilot study, it was investigated whether and how pleasant and unpleasant odors change the heart rate (HR) and its variability.

Methodology: 32 healthy people with normal smell function inhaled nasally for seven minutes the smell of four Sniffin's sticks (banana, fish, garlic and rose) alternating with blanks. Read More

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January 2022

Effects of matcha tea extract on cell viability and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression on T47D breast cancer cells.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: In the following work, we investigated the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)-dependent proliferation behavior of breast cancer cells after stimulation with matcha green tea extract (MTE).

Methods: T47D cells were stimulated with MTE at concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 µg/ml. Cell viability was assessed using a WST-1 assay after an incubation time of 72 h. Read More

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January 2022

Radiofrequency Ventro-oral Thalamotomy for Post-stroke Focal Dystonia in a Pediatric Patient.

NMC Case Rep J 2021 6;8(1):445-450. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan.

Dystonia is a movement disorder that has various treatment options. For primary dystonia, stereotactic procedures such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) have demonstrated favorable outcomes. For secondary dystonia, however, the treatment outcomes remain inconclusive, and the heterogeneous etiological background is considered to contribute to the poor outcomes of the disease. Read More

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A Case Report: Hemorrhagic Venous Infarction after Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery Probably Due to Coagulation of Intradural Veins.

NMC Case Rep J 2021 23;8(1):315-318. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Hemorrhagic venous infarction secondary to deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery occurs rarely and can cause delayed intracranial hemorrhage. Venous cerebral infarction after DBS surgery is commonly caused by coagulation of the superficial cerebral veins, which usually produces transient symptoms but leaves no permanent sequelae. We report a case of hemorrhagic venous infarction resulting in severe sequelae, likely due to coagulation of the lateral venous lacuna during DBS surgery. Read More

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Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Refractory Atypical Tremor after Encephalitis of Unknown Etiology: A Case Report.

NMC Case Rep J 2021 12;8(1):247-252. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute and Kitano Hospital, Osaka, Osaka, Japan.

Tremor associated with encephalitis is usually transient and rarely becomes chronic and refractory. Treatment for such tremor using deep brain stimulation (DBS) has not yet been reported. We report an uncommon case of chronic tremor after encephalitis of unknown etiology and its outcome treated with thalamic DBS. Read More

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Effects of Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Sustained Seizure Clusters: A Case Report.

NMC Case Rep J 2021 29;8(1):123-128. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan.

Seizure clusters (SCs) are acute repetitive seizures with acute episodes of deterioration during seizure control. SCs can be defined as a series of grouped seizures with short interictal periods. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a treatment option for drug-resistant epilepsy. Read More

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