30,710 results match your criteria stimulated glucose


ALKBH5 Promotes the Proliferation of Glioma Cells via Enhancing the mRNA Stability of G6PD.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Emergency, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, China.

This study aims to investigate the biological role of 6-methyladenine (m6A) methylation in inducing the carcinogenesis of glioma and its proliferation. Relative levels of ALKBH5 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in glioma tissues and cell lines were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were used to investigate the role of ALKBH5 in mediating proliferation and energy metabolism of glioma cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

On the causal relationships between hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, obesity and dysglycaemia in type 2 diabetes.

Authors:
James D Johnson

Diabetologia 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Diabetes Research Group, Life Sciences Institute, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Hundreds of millions of people are affected by hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, obesity and the dysglycaemia that mark a common progression from metabolic health to type 2 diabetes. Although the relative contribution of these features and the order in which they appear may differ between individuals, the common clustering and seemingly progressive nature of type 2 diabetes aetiology has guided research and clinical practice in this area for decades. At the same time, lively debate around the causal relationships between these features has continued, as new data from human trials and highly controlled animal studies are presented. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

ZBED6 counteracts high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance by maintaining beta cell area and reducing excess mitochondrial activation.

Diabetologia 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Aims/hypothesis: ZBED6 (zinc finger, BED-type containing 6) is known to regulate muscle mass by suppression of Igf2 gene transcription. In insulin-producing cell lines, ZBED6 maintains proliferative capacity at the expense of differentiation and beta cell function. The aim was to study the impact of Zbed6 knockout on beta cell function and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6 mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rutin alleviates cardiomyocyte injury induced by high glucose through inhibiting apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Sep 1;22(3):944. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Union Medical Center, Tianjin 300121, P.R. China.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a common complication of diabetes, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) serves an important role. Rutin can treat the myocardial dysfunction of diabetic rats. However, to the best of our knowledge, studies on the effects of Rutin on myocardial injury caused by diabetes from the perspective of ERS have not previously been reported. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Artemether confers neuroprotection on cerebral ischemic injury through stimulation of the Erk1/2-P90rsk-CREB signaling pathway.

Redox Biol 2021 Jul 13;46:102069. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Center of Reproduction, Development & Aging, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau SAR, China and Institute of Translation Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau SAR, China; Zhuhai UM Science & Technology Research Institute, Zhuhai, China. Electronic address:

Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability among adults. Despite the economic burden of the disease, available treatment options are still very limited. With the exception of anti-thrombolytics and hypothermia, current therapies fail to reduce neuronal injury, neurological deficits and mortality rates, suggesting that the development of novel and more effective therapies against ischemic stroke is urgent. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Defective insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in brown adipocytes induces systemic glucose homeostasis dysregulation independent of thermogenesis in female mice.

Mol Metab 2021 Jul 21:101305. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, 10065, USA; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Recent studies indicate that brown adipose tissue, in addition to its role in thermogenesis, has a role in the regulation of whole-body metabolism. Here we characterize the metabolic effects of deleting Rab10, a protein key for insulin stimulation of glucose uptake into white adipocytes, solely from brown adipocytes.

Methods: We used a murine brown adipocyte cell line and stromal vascular fraction-derived in vitro differentiated brown adipocytes to study the role of Rab10 in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antimycin A-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is consistent with impaired insulin signalling in cultured skeletal muscle cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Jul 21:105224. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa; Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa; Division of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa.

Insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial dysfunction are characteristic features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, a causal relationship between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction has not been fully established in the skeletal muscle. Accordingly, we have evaluated the effect of Antimycin A (AA), a mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III inhibitor, on mitochondrial bioenergetics and insulin signalling by exposing C2C12 skeletal muscle cells to its concentrations of 3. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil Upregulates the Rhamnosyltransferases and Quorum Sensing Cascades of Rhamnolipids Biosynthesis in sp. AK6U.

Molecules 2021 Jul 6;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Environmental Biotechnology Program, Life Sciences Department, College of Graduate Studies, Arabian Gulf University, Manama 26671, Bahrain.

We followed a comparative approach to investigate how heavy vacuum gas oil (HVGO) affects the expression of genes involved in biosurfactants biosynthesis and the composition of the rhamnolipid congeners in sp. AK6U. HVGO stimulated biosurfactants production as indicated by the lower surface tension (26 mN/m) and higher yield (7. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

TP53-Induced Glycolysis and Apoptosis Regulator (TIGAR) Is Upregulated in Lymphocytes Stimulated with Concanavalin A.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 11;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Departament de Ciències Fisiològiques, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Feixa Llarga, s/n, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain.

The glycolytic modulator TP53-Inducible Glycolysis and Apoptosis Regulator (TIGAR) is overexpressed in several types of cancer and has a role in metabolic rewiring during tumor development. However, little is known about the role of this enzyme in proliferative tissues under physiological conditions. In the current work, we analysed the role of TIGAR in primary human lymphocytes stimulated with the mitotic agent Concanavalin A (ConA). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nitrous oxide fluxes from long-term limed soils following P and glucose addition: Nonlinear response to liming rates and interaction from added P.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 16;797:148933. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark; iCLIMATE, Aarhus University Interdisciplinary Centre for Climate Change, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark.

Liming of acidic soils to regulate pH for crop growth may decrease emissions of nitrous oxide (NO) due to direct effects of pH on the synthesis of NO reductases by denitrifying bacteria. However, liming also changes general pH-dependent soil properties, including availability of phosphorus (P), with a feedback on NO fluxes that remains largely unknown. Here we used a mesocosm approach to study the combined role of liming and P in regulating NO fluxes from denitrification in an arable coarse sandy soil where NO emissions under field condition coincided with rainfall events and irrigation, which facilitated anoxia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microtubules and Gαo-signaling modulate the preferential secretion of young insulin secretory granules in islet β cells via independent pathways.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0241939. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, The Program of Developmental Biology and the Center for Stem Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States of America.

For sustainable function, each pancreatic islet β cell maintains thousands of insulin secretory granules (SGs) at all times. Glucose stimulation induces the secretion of a small portion of these SGs and simultaneously boosts SG biosynthesis to sustain this stock. The failure of these processes, often induced by sustained high-insulin output, results in type 2 diabetes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modifying Effects of Glucose and Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factors on Colon Cancer Cells.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:645732. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

There are only a few experimental studies which have investigated effects of glucose alone, and glucose in combination with insulin/insulin-like growth factors (IGF) on the growth of colon cancer. In the present study, we studied in human colorectal cancer cells originating from four Dukes' stages of colorectal cancer the effects of glucose, insulin and IGFs on proliferation, migration, cell cycle progression and gene expression of the IGF system. Growth of colon cancer cells originating from a Dukes' stage A was glucose-dependent, whereas growth of cancer cells from Dukes' stage B, C and D was glucose-independent. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

GLP-2 Is Locally Produced From Human Islets and Balances Inflammation Through an Inter-Islet-Immune Cell Crosstalk.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 5;12:697120. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) shows robust protective effects on β-cell survival and function and GLP-1 based therapies are successfully applied for type-2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Another cleavage product of pro-glucagon, Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2; both GLP-1 and GLP-2 are inactivated by DPP-4) has received little attention in its action inside pancreatic islets. In this study, we investigated GLP-2 production, GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) expression and the effect of GLP-2R activation in human islets. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

β-amyloid monomers drive up neuronal aerobic glycolysis in response to energy stressors.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 21;13. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Drug and Health Sciences, University of Catania, Catania 95125, Italy.

Research on cerebral glucose metabolism has shown that the aging brain experiences a fall of aerobic glycolysis, and that the age-related loss of aerobic glycolysis may accelerate Alzheimer's disease pathology. In the healthy brain, aerobic glycolysis, namely the use of glucose outside oxidative phosphorylation, may cover energy demand and increase neuronal resilience to stressors at once. Currently, the drivers of aerobic glycolysis in neurons are unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Aloe-emodin prevents nerve injury and neuroinflammation caused by ischemic stroke the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and NF-κB pathway.

Food Funct 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Digital Quality Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica of State Administration of TCM, Guangzhou 510006, China. and Engineering & Technology Research Center for Chinese Materia Medica Quality of the Universities of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510006, China and School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Ischemic stroke (IS) caused by cerebral arterial occlusion is the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Cellular oxidative stress and inflammation play a vital role in the pathological process of neural damage in IS. It is necessary to develop functional food or drugs, which target neuroinflammation and oxidation mechanisms against IS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of Superoxide Dismutase Inhibitors and Glucose on Cell Death and Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pea Leaves.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Jul;86(7):878-886

Institute of Mitoengineering, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119234, Russia.

The effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitors, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), triethylenetetramine (trien), and their combination with glucose on cells of the epidermis from pea leaves of different age (rapidly growing young leaves and slowly growing old leaves) was investigated. DDC and trien caused death of the guard cells as determined by destruction of their nuclei. Glucose did not affect destruction of the nuclei induced by SOD inhibitors in the cells from old leaves, but intensified it in the cells from young leaves. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microbial Chain Elongation and Subsequent Fermentation of Elongated Carboxylates as H-Producing Processes for Sustained Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Ethenes.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, 1001 S. McAllister Ave., Tempe, Arizona 85287, United States.

In situ anaerobic groundwater bioremediation of trichloroethene (TCE) to nontoxic ethene is contingent on organohalide-respiring , the most common strictly hydrogenotrophic (). The H requirement for is fulfilled by adding various organic substrates (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Decreased Glucocorticoid Signaling Potentiates Lipid-Induced Inflammation and Contributes to Insulin Resistance in the Skeletal Muscle of Fructose-Fed Male Rats Exposed to Stress.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 4;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković"-National Institute of Re-Public of Serbia, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

The modern lifestyle brings both excessive fructose consumption and daily exposure to stress which could lead to metabolic disturbances and type 2 diabetes. Muscles are important points of glucose and lipid metabolism, with a crucial role in the maintenance of systemic energy homeostasis. We investigated whether 9-week fructose-enriched diet, with and without exposure to 4-week unpredictable stress, disturbs insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle of male rats and evaluated potential contributory roles of muscle lipid metabolism, glucocorticoid signaling and inflammation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of dietary supplementation with grape residue flour on weight gain, metabolic profile, leukogram, proteinogram and antioxidant response in suckling lambs.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Jul 6;139:112-120. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Postgraduate Program in Animal Science, State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC), Chapecó, SC 89815-000, Brazil; Department of Animal Science, UDESC, Chapecó, SC 89815-000, Brazil. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of grape residue flour (GRF) in the diet of suckling lambs would improve their health and consequently enhance their growth. We used 48 lambs, 30 days of age divided into four treatments with four repetitions each, with each repetition consisting of three animals. The groups were identified as follows: G-0%, used as a control (without GRF) and G-0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Glucose-dependent activation, activity, and deactivation of beta cell networks in acute mouse pancreas tissue slices.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 07 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.

Many details of glucose-stimulated intracellular calcium changes in beta cells during activation, activity, and deactivation, as well as their concentration-dependence, remain to be analyzed. Classical physiological experiments indicated that in islets, functional differences between individual cells are largely attenuated, but recent findings suggest considerable intercellular heterogeneity, with some cells possibly coordinating the collective responses. To address the above with an emphasis on heterogeneity and describing the relations between classical physiological and functional network properties, we performed functional multicellular calcium imaging in mouse pancreas tissue slices over a wide range of glucose concentrations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C in the Trabecular Meshwork of Patients with Neovascular Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 2;10(13). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Ocular Cell Biology and Visual Science, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638, Hokkaido, Japan.

To investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)3 in the trabecular meshwork (TM) of patients with glaucoma and cultured TM cells. The expressions of VEGF-C in angle tissues collected by trabeculectomy from patients with glaucoma and non-glaucomatous choroidal malignant melanoma were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, VEGF-C concentrations were determined in the aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma by ELISA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Effect of Simulated In Vitro Digestion on Biological Activity of Fruit Juices.

Molecules 2021 Jul 4;26(13). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Institute of Molecular and Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 2/22, 90-537 Łódź, Poland.

In the present study, an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the mouth, stomach, and intestine on the stability and activity in different cell models of the main phenolic compounds from fresh juice (FJ), phenolic-rich juice (PJ), and the bioavailable fractions (DFJ and DPJ). The data obtained indicate that the samples achieved after in vitro digestion had an influence on cellular glucose and lipid metabolism. The bioavailable fraction of both digested juices stimulated glucose uptake and decreased lipid accumulation by L6 myoblasts and HepG2 hepatocytes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microglia NLRP3 Inflammasomes Activation Involving Diabetic Neuroinflammation in Diabetic Mice and BV2 Cells.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine of Jilin University; Department of Endocrinology, Department of Interventional Therapy, Department of Infectious Diseases, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130000, China.

Background: Hyperglycemia-induced microglia activation can cause a continuous release of proinflammatory cytokines, which gradually damages neurons and contributes to central diabetic neuroinflammation.

Objective: This study aimed to illustrate the possible mechanism related to NLRP3 inflammasome and the aggravation of diabetes neuroinflammation.

Methods: The targeted proteins from BV2 cells and brain tissues were tested by Western blot or immunohistochemistry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tacrolimus inhibits insulin release and promotes apoptosis of Min6 cells through the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Sep 19;24(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, General Hospital of Central Theater Command, Wuhan, Hubei 430000, P.R. China.

As a calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus is commonly used as a first‑line immunosuppressant in organ transplant recipients. Post‑transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication following kidney transplantation and is associated with immunosuppressant drugs, such as tacrolimus. PTDM caused by tacrolimus may be related to its influence on insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Sirt3 promotes the autophagy of HK‑2 human proximal tubular epithelial cells via the inhibition of Notch‑1/Hes‑1 signaling.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Sep 19;24(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Nephrology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, P.R. China.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a predominant cause of end‑stage renal disease. The impairment of the autophagy of human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK‑2 cells) is involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of DN. Sirtuin (Sirt)3 regulates the scavenging of damaged organelles and maintains energy balance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Alkaloidal extract from stimulates insulin secretion in normoglycemic and nicotinamide/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Heliyon 2021 Jul 30;7(7):e07452. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Forensic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana.

Introduction: Increase in the prevalence of type-2 diabetes in Sub-Sahara Africa has created the need for robust treatment and management programs. However, an effective diabetes management program requires a high annual budget that most countries in this region cannot afford. That said, various plants and plant products in this region have either been confirmed and/or ethnopharmacologically used for the management of type-2 diabetes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Murine Salivary Amylase Protects Against -Induced Caries.

Front Physiol 2021 2;12:699104. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Saliva protects dental surfaces against cavities (i. e., dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease frequently associated with acidogenic . Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Death-associated protein kinase 1 correlates with podocyte apoptosis and renal damage and can be mediated by miR-361.

Histol Histopathol 2021 Jul 16:18358. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Nephrology, Linyi Central Hospital, Linyi City, Shandong Province, China.

Background: Herein, we aimed to determine whether DAPK1 and its post-transcriptional regulator miR-361 were implicated in high glucose (HG)-induced podocyte injury and renal damage in db/db mice.

Materials And Methods: Podocytes were incubated with normal glucose (NG; 5 mM) or HG (30 mM). Podocyte apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL staining. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

MiR-195 inhibits the ubiquitination and degradation of YY1 by Smurf2, and induces EMT and cell permeability of retinal pigment epithelial cells.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 15;12(7):708. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi Province, P. R. China.

The dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in diabetic retinopathy progression. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell permeability are important events in diabetic retinopathy. However, the function and mechanism of miR-195 in EMT and cell permeability in diabetic retinopathy remain largely unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolic function and insulin sensitivity in people with obesity.

Diabetes 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO

We used stable isotope-labeled glucose and palmitate tracer infusions, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, positron-emission tomography of muscles and adipose tissue after [F]fluorodeoxyglucose and [O]water injections, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsy to test the hypotheses that: i) increased glucose uptake in SAT is responsible for high insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose uptake in people with obesity who are insulin-sensitive, and ii) putative SAT factors thought to cause insulin resistance are present in people with obesity who are insulin-resistant but not in those who are insulin-sensitive. We found high insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive participants with obesity was not due to channeling of glucose into SAT, but was due to high insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake. Furthermore, insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was not different between insulin-sensitive obese and lean participants even though adipocytes were larger, SAT perfusion and oxygenation were lower, and markers of SAT inflammation, fatty acid appearance in plasma in relation to fat-free mass, and plasma fatty acid concentration were higher in the insulin-sensitive obese than lean participants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF