392,743 results match your criteria stimulated


Dysiscalarones A-E, scalarane sesterterpenoids with nitric oxide production inhibitory activity from marine sponge Dysidea granulosa.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Mar 5;111:104791. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Research Center for Marine Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Department of Pharmacy, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, China. Electronic address:

Dysiscalarones A-E (1-5), five new scalarane-type bishomoscalarane sesterterpenoids, were isolated from marine sponge Dysidea granulosa collected from the South China Sea, together with two known ones, honulactone A (6) and phyllofolactone I (7). The new structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HR-ESI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR data, and their absolute configurations were assigned by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The inhibitory activity of all the seven isolates on the production of nitric oxide (NO) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse RAW 264. Read More

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Neutrophil extracellular traps induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance procoagulant activity in NASH patients.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 10:101697. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin Heilongjiang, China; Department of Research, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury, Boston, MA 02132, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients are at a high risk of developing venous thromboembolism, with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in procoagulant activity (PCA) in patients with NASH remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the formation of NETs in NASH patients stimulated by specific pro-inflammatory factors. Read More

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β-1,3-glucan from Euglena gracilis as an immunostimulant mediates the antiparasitic effect against Mesanophrys sp. on hemocytes in marine swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biotechnology, Ministry of Education; Collaborative Innovation Center for Zhejiang Marine High-efficiency and Healthy Aquaculture; School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo 315211, P. R. China. Electronic address:

β-1,3-glucans, natural polysaccharide groups, exert immunomodulatory effects to improve the innate response and disease resistance in aquatic species and mammals. However, this β-glucan stimulant is yet to be assayed in swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) hemocytes. In this study, we explored the immunomodulatory effect of β-1,3-glucans (derived from Euglena gracilis) via in vitro 24 h stimulation assays in swimming crab hemocytes. Read More

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Distinct circuits in rat central amygdala for defensive behaviors evoked by socially signaled imminent versus remote danger.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Emotions Neurobiology, BRAINCITY-Centre of Excellence for Neural Plasticity and Brain Disorders, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Animals display a rich repertoire of defensive responses adequate to the threat proximity. In social species, these reactions can be additionally influenced by the behavior of fearful conspecifics. However, the majority of neuroscientific studies on socially triggered defensive responses focuses on one type of behavior, freezing. Read More

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Modulation of stimulated dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens shell by GABA in vitro: Effect of sub-chronic phencyclidine pretreatment.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 9HN, UK.

Dopamine signaling in nucleus accumbens (NAc) is modulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through GABA-A and GABA-B receptors: dysregulation of GABAergic control of dopamine function may be important in behavioral deficits in schizophrenia. We investigated the effect of GABA-A (muscimol) and GABA-B (baclofen) receptor agonists on electrically stimulated dopamine release. Furthermore, we explored whether drug-induced changes were disrupted by pretreatment with phencyclidine, which provides a well-validated model of schizophrenia. Read More

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Organic Nanoparticles-Assisted Low-Power STED Nanoscopy.

Nano Lett 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Optical Materials and Photonic Devices, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China.

Stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy plays a key role in achieving sub-50 nm high spatial resolution for subcellular live-cell imaging. To avoid re-excitation, the STED wavelength has to be tuned at the red tail of the emission spectrum of fluorescent probes, leading to high depletion laser power that might damage the cell viability and functionality. Herein, with the highly emissive silica-coated core-shell organic nanoparticles (CSONPs) enabling a giant Stokes shift of 150 nm, ultralow power STED is achieved by shifting the STED wavelength to the emission maximum at 660 nm. Read More

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Comparing SSB-PriA Functional and Physical Interactions in Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2281:67-80

School of Biomedical Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan.

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein (SSB) is essential for DNA metabolic processes. SSB also binds to many DNA-binding proteins that constitute the SSB interactome. The mechanism through which PriA helicase, an initiator protein in the DNA replication restart process, is stimulated by SSB in Escherichia coli (EcSSB) has been established. Read More

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January 2021

Anti-thrombotic activity of phenolic acids obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells via the NF-κB/JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan, 250012, People's Republic of China.

Over the past 100 years, Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba (Lamiaceae) (RSMA) roots have been used to cure thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) in local clinics. This study aimed to confirm the anti-thrombotic efficacy of 12 phenolic acids obtained from RSMA and to clarify the possible underlying mechanisms. Read More

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The CXCL12/CXCR7 signalling axis promotes proliferation and metastasis in cervical cancer.

Med Oncol 2021 Apr 13;38(5):58. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Gynecology, The First Hospital of Huai'an Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, West Beijing Road, Huai'an, 223300, Jiangsu, China.

C-X-C chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7), a novel receptor of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), is associated with the occurrence and metastasis of various malignant tumours. However, the role, function and underlying mechanisms of CXCR7 expression in cervical cancer remain undefined. The expression level of CXCR7 was evaluated in cervical cancer samples by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR analyses. Read More

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Increased Expression of S100B and RAGE in a Mouse Model of Bile Duct Ligation-induced Liver Fibrosis.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Apr 12;36(14):e90. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biomedical Gerontology, Graduate School of Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea.

Background: Liver fibrosis is defined as the accumulation of the extracellular matrix and scar formation. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been demonstrated to participate in fibrogenesis. S100B is a ligand of RAGE and exerts extracellular functions by inducing a series of signal transduction cascades. Read More

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Long-COVID syndrome-associated brain fog and chemofog: Luteolin to the rescue.

Biofactors 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

First Department of Psychiatry, Eginition Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University, Athens, Greece.

COVID-19 leads to severe respiratory problems, but also to long-COVID syndrome associated primarily with cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. Long-COVID syndrome symptoms, especially brain fog, are similar to those experienced by patients undertaking or following chemotherapy for cancer (chemofog or chemobrain), as well in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). The pathogenesis of brain fog in these illnesses is presently unknown but may involve neuroinflammation via mast cells stimulated by pathogenic and stress stimuli to release mediators that activate microglia and lead to inflammation in the hypothalamus. Read More

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Effect of long noncoding RNAs on epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells and fibrotic human lungs.

J Cell Biochem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Lung Transplantation Center, Kartal Kosuyolu High Specialty Educational and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT involves myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis (PF). We aimed to determine the expression profiles of HOTAIR, CARLo-5, and CD99P1 LncRNAs in EMT-mediated myofibroblast differentiation in A549 cells and fibrotic human lungs and to explain their roles. Read More

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Optogenetic control of neural differentiation in Opto-mGluR6 engineered retinal pigment epithelial cell line and mesenchymal stem cells.

J Cell Biochem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Molecular Biomarkers Nano-imaging Laboratory, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

In retinal degenerative disorders, when neural retinal cells are damaged, cell transplantation is one of the most promising therapeutic approaches. Optogenetic technology plays an essential role in the neural differentiation of stem cells via membrane depolarization. This study explored the efficacy of blue light stimulation in neuroretinal differentiation of Opto-mGluR6-engineered mouse retinal pigment epithelium (mRPE) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Read More

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Nonlinear valley phonon scattering under the strong coupling regime.

Nat Mater 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Research efforts of cavity quantum electrodynamics have focused on the manipulation of matter hybridized with photons under the strong coupling regime. This has led to striking discoveries including polariton condensation and single-photon nonlinearity, where the phonon scattering plays a critical role. However, resolving the phonon scattering remains challenging for its non-radiative complexity. Read More

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Nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor, attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress by activating sirtuin 1 in alcohol-stimulated macrophages.

Lab Invest 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

Macrophages play an essential role in alcohol-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a natural nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) precursor, on alcohol-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in macrophages. NR significantly decreased ethanol-induced inflammatory gene expression, with a concomitant decrease in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB p65 in RAW 264. Read More

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Control of IFN-I responses by the aminopeptidase IRAP in neonatal C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages during RSV infection.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

INRAE, UVSQ, VIM, Université Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants, in whom, the sensing of RSV by innate immune receptors and its regulation are still poorly described. However, the severe bronchiolitis following RSV infection in neonates has been associated with a defect in type I interferons (IFN-I) production, a cytokine produced mainly by alveolar macrophages (AMs) upon RSV infection in adults. In the present study, neonatal C57BL/6 AMs mobilized very weakly the IFN-I pathway upon RSV infection in vitro and failed to restrain virus replication. Read More

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Mechanotransduction channel Piezo is widely expressed in the spider, Cupiennius salei, mechanosensory neurons and central nervous system.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7994. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Dalhousie University, P.O. BOX 15000, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.

Mechanosensory neurons use mechanotransduction (MET) ion channels to detect mechanical forces and displacements. Proteins that function as MET channels have appeared multiple times during evolution and occur in at least four different families: the DEG/ENaC and TRP channels, as well as the TMC and Piezo proteins. We found twelve putative members of MET channel families in two spider transcriptomes, but detected only one, the Piezo protein, by in situ hybridization in their mechanosensory neurons. Read More

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Eotaxin-1/CCL11 is involved in cell migration in rheumatoid arthritis.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7937. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Eotaxin-1 (CCL11) induces the migration of different leukocyte types by interacting with CCR3. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are pathogenic effectors and a major CCR3-expressing cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of CCL11 in RA FLS. Read More

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Nitrogen deposition accelerates soil carbon sequestration in tropical forests.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China;

Terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) sequestration plays an important role in ameliorating global climate change. While tropical forests exert a disproportionately large influence on global C cycling, there remains an open question on changes in below-ground soil C stocks with global increases in nitrogen (N) deposition, because N supply often does not constrain the growth of tropical forests. We quantified soil C sequestration through more than a decade of continuous N addition experiment in an N-rich primary tropical forest. Read More

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J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Pharmacology, Chungnam National University College of Pharmacy, Korea, Republic of

The secretion of platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by specific stimuli, such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, initially increases the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, and continuous stimulation leads to VSMC apoptosis, resulting in the formation of atheroma. Autophagy suppresses VSMC apoptosis, and statins can activate autophagy. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the autophagy-mediated vasoprotective activity of rosuvastatin, one of the most potent statins, in VSMCs continuously stimulated with PDGF-BB, an PDGF isoform to induce phenotypic switching of VSMC, at a high concentration (100 ng/mL). Read More

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Autoreactivity of Peripheral Helper T Cells in the Joints of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

J Immunol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Autoreactive CD4 T cells are thought to play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, a subset of CD4 T cells that express high levels of programmed death-1 (PD-1) but are distinct from follicular helper T cells have been identified in the joints of RA patients and named peripheral helper T (Tph) cells. Because PD-1 is expressed on T cells chronically stimulated with the Ags, we tested a hypothesis that Tph cells are the pathogenic autoreactive CD4 T cells in RA. Read More

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Longitudinal Peripheral Blood Transcriptional Analysis Reveals Molecular Signatures of Disease Progression in COVID-19 Patients.

J Immunol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangdong Laboratory of Computational Biomedicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China;

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with some patients developing severe illness or even death. Disease severity has been associated with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and lymphopenia. To elucidate the atlas of peripheral immune response and pathways that might lead to immunopathology during COVID-19 disease course, we performed a peripheral blood RNA sequencing analysis of the same patient's samples collected from symptom onset to full recovery. Read More

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Longitudinal assessment of IFN-I activity and immune profile in critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Crit Care 2021 04 12;25(1):140. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Immunology Laboratory, Hôpital E. Herriot - Hospices Civils de Lyon, 5 place d'Arsonval, 69437, Lyon Cedex 03, France.

Background: Since the onset of the pandemic, only few studies focused on longitudinal immune monitoring in critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) whereas their hospital stay may last for several weeks. Consequently, the question of whether immune parameters may drive or associate with delayed unfavorable outcome in these critically ill patients remains unsolved.

Methods: We present a dynamic description of immuno-inflammatory derangements in 64 critically ill COVID-19 patients including plasma IFNα2 levels and IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) score measurements. Read More

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Resolvin D1 reduces cancer growth stimulating a protective neutrophil-dependent recruitment of anti-tumor monocytes.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Apr 12;40(1):129. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medical, Oral, and Biotechnology Science, University "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

Background: Innovative therapies to target tumor-associated neutrophils (PMN) are of clinical interest, since these cells are centrally involved in cancer inflammation and tumor progression. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is a lipid autacoid that promotes resolution of inflammation by regulating the activity of distinct immune and non-immune cells. Here, using human papilloma virus (HPV) tumorigenesis as a model, we investigated whether RvD1 modulates PMN to reduce tumor progression. Read More

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Characterization of the competing role of surface-contact and shear stress on platelet activation in the setting of blood contacting devices.

Int J Artif Organs 2021 Apr 12:3913988211009909. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Supraphysiological shear stress and surface-contact are recognized as driving mechanisms of platelet activation (PA) in blood contacting devices (BCDs). However, the competing role of these mechanisms in triggering thrombogenic events is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the dynamics of PA in response to the combined effect of shear stress and material exposure. Read More

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Stimulated biodegradation of all alkanes in soil.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 5;278:130444. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, 710055, Shaanxi, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Northwest Water Resources, Environment and Ecology, MOE, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Shaanxi Province, China.

This study aim to investigate the biodegradation of all alkanes in soil by adding stimulater and indigenous bacteria. The experiments were carried out by adding native bacteria and the stimulater to the soil S1 (total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) = 22,745 mg/kg) and soil S2 (TPH = 13,833 mg/kg) to explored the effect and mechanism of the stimulated biodegradation of all alkanes in soil. The results showed that most alkanes were used as the main carbon source of TPH in the late stimulation stage, so that all alkanes could be biodegraded by stimulating. Read More

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Can mechanical forces attune heterotypic cell-cell communications?

Authors:
Bipul R Acharya

J Biomech 2021 Apr 2;121:110409. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, USA. Electronic address:

Heterotypic cell lineages relentlessly exchange biomechanical signals among themselves in metazoan organs. Hence, cell-cell communications are pivotal for organ physiology and pathogenesis. Every cell lineage of an organ responds differently to a specific signal due to its unique receptibility and signal interpretation capacity. Read More

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Integrated metabolomics and network pharmacology approach to exploring the potential mechanism of Tianxiang Capsule for treating motion sickness.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 9:114107. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Motion sickness is a multi-system syndrome caused by abnormal spatial environmental sensory conflicts. Tianxiang Capsule (TXC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness for years. However, the main active components of TXC and mechanism of its therapeutic effects on motion sickness are still unclear. Read More

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The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) promotes Rab27B expression and activity to control secretion in breast cancer cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Apr 9:119026. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Departments of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav-IPN), Mexico City, MEXICO. Electronic address:

Chemotactic and angiogenic factors secreted within the tumor microenvironment eventually facilitate the metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) activates secretory pathways in breast cancer cells via a mechanism driven by vesicular trafficking of this receptor. However, it remains to be elucidated how endosomal proteins in secretory vesicles are controlled by CaSR. Read More

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Monitoring of stimulated cycles in assisted reproduction (IVF and ICSI).

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 12;4:CD005289. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Aberdeen, UK.

Background: Monitoring of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is necessary to detect as well as reduce the incidence and severity of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) whilst achieving the optimal ovarian response needed for assisted reproduction treatment. Traditional monitoring of ovarian hyperstimulation during in vitro fertilisation IVF and ICSI treatment has included transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) plus serum estradiol levels. The need for combined monitoring (using TVUS and serum estradiol) during ovarian stimulation in assisted reproduction is controversial. Read More

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