5,146 results match your criteria stillbirth infant

Systematic Literature Review and Quantitative Analysis of Health Problems Associated with Sexually Transmitted Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Objective: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) is the second most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection (STI), leading to serious health problems in men, women and newborns. While early antibiotic treatment is effective, infections are increasingly antibiotic-resistant. No systematic reviews present health problems associated with Ng infections or their likelihood of occurrence. Read More

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Association Between Iatrogenic Delivery for Suspected Fetal Growth Restriction and Childhood School Outcomes.

JAMA 2021 07;326(2):145-153

The Ritchie Centre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Importance: Timely delivery of infants suspected of having fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a balance between preventing stillbirth and minimizing prematurity, particularly because many infants with suspected FGR have normal growth.

Objective: To explore the association between iatrogenic delivery for suspected FGR and childhood school outcomes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective whole-population cohort study linking perinatal data from births 32 weeks' or more gestation between January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2013, to developmental and educational test scores at preparatory school, and at school grades 3, 5, and 7 in Victoria, Australia. Read More

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A New Call to Action to Combat an Old Nemesis: Addressing Rising Congenital Syphilis Rates in the United States.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 Jul;30(7):920-926

Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Congenital syphilis (CS) is on the rise in the United States and is a growing public health concern. CS is an infection with in an infant or fetus, acquired via transplacental transmission when a pregnant woman has untreated or inadequately treated syphilis. Pregnant women with untreated syphilis are more likely to experience pregnancies complicated by stillbirth, prematurity, low birth weight, and early infant death, while their children can develop clinical manifestations of CS such as hepatosplenomegaly, bone abnormalities, developmental delays, and hearing loss. Read More

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Epidemiology of Pregnancy Complications Through the Lens of Immunological Memory.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:693189. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Center for Inflammation and Tolerance, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

In the fifteen minutes it takes to read this short commentary, more than 400 babies will have been born too early, another 300 expecting mothers will develop preeclampsia, and 75 unborn third trimester fetuses will have died in utero (stillbirth). Given the lack of meaningful progress in understanding the physiological changes that occur to allow a healthy, full term pregnancy, it is perhaps not surprising that effective therapies against these great obstetrical syndromes that include prematurity, preeclampsia, and stillbirth remain elusive. Meanwhile, pregnancy complications remain the leading cause of infant and childhood mortality under age five. Read More

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A Narrative Review of Nutritional Malpractices, Motivational Drivers, and Consequences in Pregnant Women: Evidence from Recent Literature and Program Implications in Ethiopia.

Gesessew Kibr

ScientificWorldJournal 2021 19;2021:5580039. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shambu Campus, Wollega University, P. O. Box: 38, Shambu, Ethiopia.

Maternal nutrition is very important for the wellbeing of pregnant women, childbirth, and lactating women, which are crucial and meant for the wellbeing of a mother and newborn baby. This narrative review discusses nutritional malpractices, motivational drivers, and their consequences typically from Ethiopian pregnant women's context. Different studies (regarding less of study design and type) done among pregnant women (aged 15-49 years) by considering pregnancy-related outcomes and timing of nutritional malpractices were included mostly. Read More

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Blood pressure thresholds in pregnancy for identifying maternal and infant risk: a secondary analysis of Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) trial data.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Aug 5;9(8):e1119-e1128. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Women and Children's Health, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Blood pressure measurement is a marker of antenatal care quality. In well resourced settings, lower blood pressure cutoffs for hypertension are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to study the associations between blood pressure thresholds and adverse outcomes and the diagnostic test properties of these blood pressure cutoffs in low-resource settings. Read More

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Micro-CT processing's effects on microscopic appearance of human fetal cardiac samples.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Jun 20;53:101934. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza - Anatomia Patologica U, Sezione Materno-Fetale-Pediatrica, corso Bramante 88, 10126 Torino, Italy.

Higher resolution than common computed tomography has been reached through Micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) on small samples. Emerging forensic applications of micro-CT are the study of fetal/infant organs and whole fetuses, and their two/three-dimension reconstruction; it allows: to facilitate pathologists' role in the identification of causes of fetal stillbirth and of infant death; to create digital two and/or three-dimension representations of fetal/infant organs and whole fetuses which can be easily discussed in civil and/or penal courts. Micro-CT reconstructs cardiac anatomy of animal and human sample. Read More

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A core outcome set for the treatment of pregnant women with pregestational diabetes: an international consensus study.

BJOG 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Objective: To develop a core outcome set (COS) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of interventions for the treatment of pregnant women with pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM).

Design: A consensus developmental study.

Setting: International. Read More

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Stillbirth as left truncation for early neonatal death in California, 1989-2015: a time-series study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jul 2;21(1):478. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Université de Paris, CRESS, Obstetrical, Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology Research Team, EPOPé, INSERM, INRA, F-75004, Paris, France.

Background: Some scholars posit that attempts to avert stillbirth among extremely preterm gestations may result in a live birth but an early neonatal death. The literature, however, reports no empirical test of this potential form of left truncation. We examine whether annual cohorts delivered at extremely preterm gestational ages show an inverse correlation between their incidence of stillbirth and early neonatal death. Read More

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Qualitative Assessment of the Quality of Care for Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Sick Newborns in Ethiopia.

Health Serv Insights 2021 17;14:11786329211025150. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

This study assesses the quality of care for preterm, low birth weight (LBW), and sick newborns across the public health care system levels in 3 regions of Ethiopia. Qualitative data based on the WHO framework to assess provision and experience of care was collected using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with women who recently delivered preterm, LBW, and sick newborns, as well as health care providers and health extension workers, and facility administrators associated with study health facilities. This qualitative approach revealed perspectives of patients, health care providers and facility administrators to assess what is actually happening in facilities. Read More

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Anti-hypertensive use for non-severe gestational hypertension in Botswana: A case-control study.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: The fetal risks and benefits of antihypertensives to treat gestational hypertension in pregnancy are understudied, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

Methods: We performed a nested case-control study within a retrospective cohort of obstetrical patients in Botswana from 2014 to 2019. We included women carrying singletons who developed new onset non-severe hypertension (140-159 mm Hg systolic or 90-109 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure) after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Read More

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Sleep Apnea and Fetal Growth Restriction (SAFER) study: protocol for a pragmatic randomised clinical trial of positive airway pressure as an antenatal therapy for fetal growth restriction in maternal obstructive sleep apnoea.

BMJ Open 2021 06 29;11(6):e049120. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Anesthesiology, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA

Introduction: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major contributor to fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with intrauterine, neonatal and lifelong complications. This study explores maternal obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a potentially modifiable risk factor for FGR. We hypothesise that, in pregnancies complicated by FGR, treating mothers who have OSA using positive airway pressure (PAP) will improve birth weight and neonatal outcomes. Read More

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of maternity waiting homes in low- and middle-income countries.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, Saskatoon SK, S7N 2Z4, Canada.

Maternity waiting homes (MWHs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) provide women with accommodation close to a health facility to enable timely access to skilled care at birth. We examined whether MWH use and availability compared with non-use/unavailability were associated with facility birth, birth with a skilled health professional, attendance at postnatal visit(s) and/or improved maternal and newborn health, in LMICs. We included (non-)randomized controlled, interrupted time series, controlled before-after, cohort and case-control studies published since 1990. Read More

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Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections among pregnant women and male partners in Dutch midwifery practices: prevalence, risk factors, and perinatal outcomes.

Reprod Health 2021 Jun 26;18(1):132. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Midwifery Science, AVAG, Amsterdam Public Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Antenatal screening for HIV, syphilis and HBV has been successfully implemented in The Netherlands, but data on other STI among pregnant women or male partners are limited. Our objectives: (i) to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among pregnant women and male partners, (ii) to identify risk factors for these STI during pregnancy, and (iii) to identify adverse perinatal outcomes (APO) associated with STI.

Methods: Cross-sectional study. Read More

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Levetiracetam Use During Pregnancy in Women With Active Epilepsy: A Hospital-Based, Retrospective Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Eastern INDIA.

Neurol India 2021 May-Jun;69(3):692-697

Department of Pediatric Medicine, NEIGRIHMS, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Shillong, Meghalaya, India (An Autonomous Institute, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India), India.

Background And Purpose: Epilepsy during pregnancy is a therapeutic challenge. Since the 1990s, the number of licensed antiepileptic drugs has substantially increased, but safety data on managing epilepsy during conception, pregnancy, and postpartum period use of newer generation antiepileptic drugs and birth defects are limited. We analyzed efficacy and safety of levetiracetam during pregnancy in northeast Indian women with active epilepsy (WWAE) which is being presented here. Read More

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Monitoring Iodine Deficiency in a District Hospital, Nepal.

Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2020 Oct.-Dec.;18(72):344-348

Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal.

Background Iodine deficiency possesses serious threat to pregnant women and infants. During pregnancy, iodine deficiency can result in stillbirth while in infants it can lead to impaired brain development. Objective This study was conducted to assess the status of iodine deficiency among pregnant women and infants. Read More

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Factors associated with birthweight and adverse pregnancy outcomes among children in rural Guinea-Bissau - a prospective observational study.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 17;21(1):1164. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

OPEN, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Background: Low birthweight (LBW) is associated with higher mortality and morbidity, but there is limited data on the prevalence of LBW in rural Africa, where many births occur at home. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has non-specific effects. Studies suggest that maternal BCG-vaccination may affect the health of the child. Read More

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Trends in childhood viable pregnancy and risk of stillbirth in the United States.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Aug 17;180(8):2645-2653. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Center of Excellence in Health Equity, Training and Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

There is limited data on the trends of childhood viable pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth in the United States. Our study assessed the trends in childhood viable pregnancy and associated stillbirth rates over the previous three decades, as well as the risk of stillbirth in these highly vulnerable child mothers aged 10-14 compared with teen mothers aged 15-19. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study that used birth datasets, fetal death datasets, and the US population census data: 1982-2017. Read More

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Professional practice in caring for maternal grief in the face of stillbirth in two countries.

Rev Bras Enferm 2021 9;74(3):e20200253. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.

Objective: to understand professional care for maternal grief in the puerperium of stillbirth.

Methods: a clinical-qualitative study with all the women who had stillbirths living in Maringá (Brazil) and participating in the Center d'Études et de Recherche in Family Intervention at the University of Quebec in Outaouais in Gatineau (Canada). Semi-structured interviews were carried out and the relevant aspects were categorized into themes. Read More

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Timing of delivery in obese women and risk of stillbirth.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Increased body mass index (BMI) is an independent risk factor for stillbirth. The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal time of delivery at term in obese women in order to decrease the risk of stillbirth in this population.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using the CDC's Period Linked Birth-Infant Death and Fetal Death data. Read More

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Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury at high altitude: a retrospective observational study in a single center.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Jun 9;22(1):215. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (Pr-AKI) is associated with maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. There are few studies focusing on Pr-AKI at high altitude in the literature.

Objectives: to investigate the incidence, etiology, clinical features and maternal-fetal outcomes of Pr-AKI in women living at high altitude. Read More

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Mapping Hospital-Based Lactation Care Provided to Bereaved Mothers: A Basis for Quality Improvement.

Breastfeed Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Acton, Australia.

The study aimed to identify and map the factors that shape the delivery of hospital-based lactation care for bereaved mothers to inform quality improvement initiatives targeting hospital-based lactation care. Focus groups and interviews were conducted at three large hospitals in Australia with 113 health professionals including obstetricians, neonatologists, midwives, neonatal nurses, lactation consultants, social workers or pastoral care workers, Human Milk Bank (HMB) staff, and perinatal bereavement nurses. Thematic and interactional data analysis identified the nature, scope, and pattern of bereavement lactation care. Read More

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Womb to womb: Maternal litter size and birth weight but not adult characteristics predict early neonatal death of offspring in the common marmoset monkey.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0252093. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America.

A singular focus on maternal health at the time of a pregnancy leaves much about perinatal mortality unexplained, especially when there is growing evidence for maternal early life effects. Further, lumping stillbirth and early neonatal death into a single category of perinatal mortality may obscure different causes and thus different avenues of screening and prevention. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), a litter-bearing nonhuman primate, is an ideal species in which to study the independent effects of a mother's early life and adult phenotypes on pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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Maternal circulating SPINT1 is reduced in small-for-gestational age pregnancies at 26 weeks: Growing up in Singapore towards health outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study.

Placenta 2021 Jul 1;110:24-28. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

The Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mercy Hospital for Women, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Singapore Institute of Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Human Potential Translational Research Programme, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Fetal growth restriction arising from placental insufficiency is a leading cause of stillbirth. We recently identified low maternal circulating SPINT1 concentrations as a novel biomarker of poor fetal growth. Here we measured SPINT1 in a prospective cohort in Singapore. Read More

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Pathogenic mechanism, detection methods and clinical significance of group B .

Future Microbiol 2021 Jun 8;16:671-685. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Central Lab, Weihai Municipal Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong, 264200, PR China.

Group B (GBS) is the main pathogen of perinatal infection. It can lead to adverse pregnancy, maternal infection, premature delivery, abortion, stillbirth and a series of adverse maternal and infant outcomes such as neonatal sepsis, meningitis or pneumonia during delivery. In order to reduce the infection of perinatal pregnant and the adverse pregnancy outcome, more attention should be paid in the clinical practice, screening efforts, universal detection of GBS infection for pregnant women and preventive treatment for the possible mother infant infection. Read More

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The brain oxytocin and corticotropin-releasing factor systems in grieving mothers: What we know and what we need to learn.

Peptides 2021 Jun 6;143:170593. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Behavioural and Molecular Neurobiology, Regensburg Center of Neuroscience, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany. Electronic address:

The bond between a mother and her child is the strongest bond in nature. Consequently, the loss of a child is one of the most stressful and traumatic life events that causes Prolonged Grief Disorder in up to 94 % of bereaved parents. While both parents are affected, mothers are of higher risk to develop mental health complications; yet, very little research has been done to understand the impact of the loss of a child, stillbirth and pregnancy loss on key neurobiological systems. Read More

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Association between maternal exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 9;783:146984. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, PR China. Electronic address:

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a class of persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals, are widely used in consumer products due to their unique amphiphilic properties. Previous epidemiological studies suggest association of maternal PFASs exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes, while evidences about the association are inconsistent. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the relationship of maternal PFASs exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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Planned early delivery for late preterm pre-eclampsia in a low- and middle-income setting: a feasibility study.

Reprod Health 2021 Jun 2;18(1):110. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Women and Children's Health, School of Life Course Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity globally. Planned delivery between 34 and 36 weeks may reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes but is yet to be evaluated in a low and middle-income setting. Prior to designing a randomised controlled trial to evaluate this in India and Zambia, we carried out a 6-month feasibility study in order to better understand the proposed trial environment and guide development of our intervention. Read More

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The Immunological Role of the Placenta in SARS-CoV-2 Infection-Viral Transmission, Immune Regulation, and Lactoferrin Activity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 28;22(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Animal Nutrition, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Instytucka 3, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland.

A pandemic of acute respiratory infections, due to a new type of coronavirus, can cause Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has created the need for a better understanding of the clinical, epidemiological, and pathological features of COVID-19, especially in high-risk groups, such as pregnant women. Viral infections in pregnant women may have a much more severe course, and result in an increase in the rate of complications, including spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and premature birth-which may cause long-term consequences in the offspring. In this review, we focus on the mother-fetal-placenta interface and its role in the potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2, including expression of viral receptors and proteases, placental pathology, and the presence of the virus in neonatal tissues and fluids. Read More

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