14,263 results match your criteria stiffness cell

Distinctive roles of fibrillar collagen I and collagen III in mediating fibroblast-matrix interaction: A nanoscopic study.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 8;560:66-71. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Chemistry, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL, 60616, USA. Electronic address:

One major goal in tissue engineering is to create functional materials, mimicking scaffolds in native tissues, to modulate cell function for tissue repair. Collagen is the most abundant structural protein in human body. Though collagen I (COLI) and collagen III (COLIII) are the predominant collagen types in connective tissues and they form stable hybrid fibrils at varied ratios, cell responses to the hybrid matrices are underinvestigated. Read More

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Integration of electrotaxis and durotaxis in cancer cells: Subtle nonlinear responses to electromechanical coupling cues.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 30;186:113289. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China; Beijing Innovation Center for Engineering Science and Advanced Technology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China. Electronic address:

Cells in living organisms live in multiphysics-coupled environments. There is growing evidence indicating that both exogenous electric field (EEF) and extracellular stiffness gradient (ESG) can regulate directional movement of cells, which are known as electrotaxis and durotaxis, respectively. How single cells respond to the ubiquitous electromechanical coupling cues, however, remains mysterious. Read More

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Correlation of cellular traction forces and dissociation kinetics of adhesive protein zyxin revealed by multi-parametric live cell microscopy.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251411. Epub 2021 May 11.

Departamento de Física and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires (IFIBA), CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Cells exert traction forces on the extracellular matrix to which they are adhered through the formation of focal adhesions. Spatial-temporal regulation of traction forces is crucial in cell adhesion, migration, cellular division, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. By cultivating cells on polyacrylamide hydrogels of different stiffness we were able to investigate the effects of substrate stiffness on the generation of cellular traction forces by Traction Force Microscopy (TFM), and characterize the molecular dynamics of the focal adhesion protein zyxin by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP). Read More

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Symmetry breaking of tissue mechanics in wound induced hair follicle regeneration of laboratory and spiny mice.

Nat Commun 2021 May 10;12(1):2595. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Tissue regeneration is a process that recapitulates and restores organ structure and function. Although previous studies have demonstrated wound-induced hair neogenesis (WIHN) in laboratory mice (Mus), the regeneration is limited to the center of the wound unlike those observed in African spiny (Acomys) mice. Tissue mechanics have been implicated as an integral part of tissue morphogenesis. Read More

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3D mechanical characterization of single cells and small organisms using acoustic manipulation and force microscopy.

Nat Commun 2021 May 10;12(1):2583. Epub 2021 May 10.

Multi-Scale Robotics Lab, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Quantitative micromechanical characterization of single cells and multicellular tissues or organisms is of fundamental importance to the study of cellular growth, morphogenesis, and cell-cell interactions. However, due to limited manipulation capabilities at the microscale, systems used for mechanical characterizations struggle to provide complete three-dimensional coverage of individual specimens. Here, we combine an acoustically driven manipulation device with a micro-force sensor to freely rotate biological samples and quantify mechanical properties at multiple regions of interest within a specimen. Read More

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Extrusion-Based 3D Bioprinting of Gradients of Stiffness, Cell Density, and Immobilized Peptide Using Thermogelling Hydrogels.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str. 31, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.

To study biological processes , biomaterials-based engineering solutions to reproduce the gradients observed in tissues are necessary. We present a platform for the 3D bioprinting of functionally graded biomaterials based on carboxylated agarose, a bioink amendable by extrusion bioprinting. Using this bioink, objects with a gradient of stiffness and gradient of cell concentration were printed. Read More

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Polybutylene-adipate-terephthalate and niobium-containing bioactive glasses composites: Development of barrier membranes with adjusted properties for guided bone regeneration.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jun 19;125:112115. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Dental Materials Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study aimed to develop bioactive guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes by manufacturing PBAT/BAGNb composites as casting films. Composites were produced by melt-extrusion, and BAGNb was added at 10 wt%, 20 wt%, and 30 wt% concentration. Pure PBAT membranes were used as a control (0wt%BAGNb). Read More

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Directional Cues in the Tumor Microenvironment due to Cell Contraction against Aligned Collagen Fibers.

Acta Biomater 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, 1111 Highland Ave. WIMRII, Madison, WI, 53705; University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, 600 Highland Ave. Madison, WI, 53705. Electronic address:

It is well established that collagen alignment in the breast tumor microenvironment provides biophysical cues to drive disease progression. Numerous mechanistic studies have demonstrated that tumor cell behavior is driven by the architecture and stiffness of the collagen matrix. However, the mechanical properties within a 3D collagen microenvironment, particularly at the scale of the cell, remain poorly defined. Read More

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Cochlear supporting cells require GAS2 for cytoskeletal architecture and hearing.

Dev Cell 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

In mammals, sound is detected by mechanosensory hair cells that are activated in response to vibrations at frequency-dependent positions along the cochlear duct. We demonstrate that inner ear supporting cells provide a structural framework for transmitting sound energy through the cochlear partition. Humans and mice with mutations in GAS2, encoding a cytoskeletal regulatory protein, exhibit hearing loss due to disorganization and destabilization of microtubule bundles in pillar and Deiters' cells, two types of inner ear supporting cells with unique cytoskeletal specializations. Read More

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Single-cell Transcriptomics Uncover a Novel Role of Myeloid Cells and T-lymphocytes in the Fibrotic Microenvironment in Peyronie's Disease.

Eur Urol Focus 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratory of Experimental Urology, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Urology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Peyronie's disease (PD) is an acquired fibrotic disease affecting the penile tunica albuginea that can lead to curvature and deformities, shortening, and erectile dysfunction. Although immunological mechanisms have been suggested for the pathophysiology of PD, these have not been investigated using single-cell transcriptomics.

Objective: To investigate the immunological signature of plaques from PD patients using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq). Read More

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Cell Surface Area to Volume Relationship During Apoptosis and Apoptotic Body Formation.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 May;55(S1):161-170

Institute of Biomedical Research of Salamanca (IBSAL), Salamanca, Spain,

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death culminating in packing cell content and corpse dismantling into membrane sealed vesicles called apoptotic bodies (ABs). Apoptotic bodies are engulfed and disposed by neighboring and immune system cells without eliciting a noxious inflammatory response, thus preventing sterile tissue damage. AB formation requires a total surface area larger than the apparent, initial cell's surface area. Read More

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3D Printing Improved Testicular Prostheses: Using Lattice Infill Structure to Modify Mechanical Properties.

Front Surg 2021 20;8:626143. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Patients often opt for implantation of testicular prostheses following orchidectomy for cancer or torsion. Recipients of testicular prostheses report issues regarding firmness, shape, size, and position, aspects of which relate to current limitations of silicone materials used and manufacturing methods for soft prostheses. We aim to create a 3D printable testicular prosthesis which mimics the natural shape and stiffness of a human testicle using a lattice infill structure. Read More

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Adverse immunological responses against non-viral nanoparticle (NP) delivery systems in the lung.

J Immunotoxicol 2021 Dec;18(1):61-73

Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

There is a large, unmet medical need to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other respiratory diseases. New modalities are being developed, including gene therapy which treats the disease at the DNA/RNA level. Despite recent innovations in non-viral gene therapy delivery for chronic respiratory diseases, unwanted or adverse interactions with immune cells, particularly macrophages, can limit drug efficacy. Read More

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December 2021

Effects of different ischemic preconditioning occlusion pressures on muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise: a study protocol for a randomized controlled placebo clinical trial.

Trials 2021 May 5;22(1):326. Epub 2021 May 5.

Undergraduate Program in Physiotherapy and the Post-Graduate Program in Physiotherapy at Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCT/UNESP, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: Due to its greater generation of muscle strength and less metabolic demand, eccentric exercise has been widely used in rehabilitation and for improving physical fitness. However, eccentric exercise can induce muscle damage by providing structural changes and reduced muscle function, so even with the protection caused by the repeated bout effect from eccentric exercise, it is necessary to seek alternatives to reduce this damage caused by stress. Thus, ischemic preconditioning could represent an aid to reduce the damage muscle or increase the protective effect caused by eccentric exercise. Read More

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Molecular rotors as intracellular probes of red blood cell stiffness.

Soft Matter 2021 May;17(17):4525-4537

Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, UMR 7057 CNRS - Université de Paris, 75013 Paris, France.

The deformability of red blood cells is an essential parameter that controls the rheology of blood as well as its circulation in the body. Characterizing the rigidity of the cells and their heterogeneity in a blood sample is thus a key point in the understanding of occlusive phenomena, particularly in the case of erythrocytic diseases in which healthy cells coexist with pathological cells. However, measuring intracellular rheology in small biological compartments requires the development of specific techniques. Read More

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Arterial structure and function in Africans with HIV for > 5 years: longitudinal relationship with endothelial activation and cardiovascular risk markers.

HIV Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Hypertension in Africa Research Team (HART), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Objectives: We aimed to determine whether people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWHIV) have increased measures of arterial injury [carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)] and large artery stiffness [carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV)] when compared with their counterparts without HIV, and whether baseline markers of endothelial activation and cardiovascular risk are associated with cIMT and cfPWV after 5 years.

Methods: We matched 126 PWHIV from North West Province, South Africa, to 126 without HIV according to age, sex and locality. Cardiovascular risk and endothelial function markers [soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1)] were measured at baseline and cIMT and cfPWV at follow-up. Read More

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Mechanotransduction assays for neural regeneration strategies: A focus on glial cells.

APL Bioeng 2021 Jun 30;5(2):021505. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637459.

Glial cells are mechanosensitive, and thus, engineered systems have taken a step forward to design mechanotransduction platforms in order to impart diverse mechanical stresses to cells. Mechanical strain encountered in the central nervous system can arise from diverse mechanisms, such as tissue reorganization, fluid flow, and axon growth, as well as pathological events including axon swelling or mechanical trauma. Biomechanical relevance of the mechanical testing requires to be placed in line with the physiological and mechanical changes in central nervous tissues that occur during the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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A thermo-responsive collagen-nanocellulose hydrogel for the growth of intestinal organoids.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 24;124:112051. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Bioresource Processing Research Institute of Australia (BioPRIA), Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Australia. Electronic address:

Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems include bioengineered microenvironments that mimic the complexity of human tissues and organs in vitro. Robust biological models, like organoids and spheroids, rely on biomaterials to emulate the biochemical and biomechanical properties found in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Collagen (COL) is the main protein component of the ECM and has been used to generate fibrous matrices for 3D cell culture. Read More

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The impact of multimodal pore size considered independently from porosity on mechanical performance and osteogenic behaviour of titanium scaffolds.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 10;124:112026. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Leics LE11 3TU, UK.

Titanium porous scaffolds comprising multimodal pore ranges (i.e., uni-, bi-, tri-modal and random) were studied to evaluate the effect of pore size on osteoblastogenesis. Read More

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Extracellular Polymeric Substance Protects Some Cells in an Biofilm from the Biomechanical Consequences of Treatment with Magainin 2.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 30;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Departments of Biology and Chemistry, Cornell College, Mount Vernon, IA 52314, USA.

Bacterial biofilms have long been recognized as a source of persistent infections and industrial contamination with their intransigence generally attributed to their protective layer of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). EPS, consisting of secreted nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides, make it difficult to fully eliminate biofilms by conventional chemical or physical means. Since most bacteria are capable of forming biofilms, understanding how biofilms respond to new antibiotic compounds and components of the immune system has important ramifications. Read More

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Polymer-coated microparticle scaffolds engineered for potential use in musculoskeletal tissue regeneration.

Biomed Mater 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, University of Missouri Kansas City School of Dentistry, 650 E 25th St, Kansas City, Missouri, 64108-2716, UNITED STATES.

Biomaterials constructed exclusively of sintered microspheres have great potential in tissue engineering scaffold applications, offering the ability to create shape-specific scaffolds with precise controlled release yet to be matched by traditional additive manufacturing methods. The problem is that these microsphere-based scaffolds are limited in their stiffness for applications such as bone regeneration. Our vision to solve this problem was borne from a hierarchical structure perspective, focusing on the individual unit of the structure: the microsphere itself. Read More

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Inhomogeneity of stiffness and density of the extracellular matrix within the leukoplakia of human oral mucosa as potential physicochemical factors leading to carcinogenesis.

Transl Oncol 2021 May 1;14(7):101105. Epub 2021 May 1.

Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, PL-25317 Kielce, Poland. Electronic address:

Oral leukoplakia is a clinical term relating to various morphological lesions, including squamous cell hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma. Leukoplakia morphologically manifested as hyperplasia with epithelial dysplasia is clinically treated as precancerous condition. Nevertheless, there is a lack of good markers indicating the transformation of premalignancies towards cancer. Read More

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Microfluidic valvular chips and a numerical lymphatic vessel model for the study of lymph transport characteristics.

Lab Chip 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.

Lymph transport inside lymphatic vessels is highly complex and not yet fully understood. So far, a consensus has not been reached among existing analytical models on how spatiotemporal coordination of contracting adjacent lymphangions affects lymph transport. To understand complex lymph transport, we created a novel microfluidic valvular chip with flexible bicuspid valves and segmental pneumatic pumps based on a microfluidic device with an inside 3D structure made of hydrogels. Read More

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Delineating the heterogeneity of matrix-directed differentiation toward soft and stiff tissue lineages via single-cell profiling.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Alexander Grass Center for Bioengineering, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 9190401 Jerusalem, Israel;

Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) form a heterogeneous population of multipotent progenitors that contribute to tissue regeneration and homeostasis. MSCs assess extracellular elasticity by probing resistance to applied forces via adhesion, cytoskeletal, and nuclear mechanotransducers that direct differentiation toward soft or stiff tissue lineages. Even under controlled culture conditions, MSC differentiation exhibits substantial cell-to-cell variation that remains poorly characterized. Read More

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Effects of anti-resorptive treatment on the material properties of individual canine trabeculae in cyclic tensile tests.

Bone 2021 Apr 30:115995. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute of Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, TU Wien, Gumpendorfer Straße 7/Objekt 8/E317/BE02, 1060 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Osteoporosis is defined as a decrease of bone mass and strength as well as an increase in fracture risk. It is conventionally treated with antiresorptive drugs, such as bisphosphonates (BPs) and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Although both drug types successfully decrease the risk of bone fractures, their effect on bone mass and strength is different. Read More

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Liver Fibrosis in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: From Liver Biopsy to Non-invasive Biomarkers in Diagnosis and Treatment.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 14;8:615978. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium.

An increasing percentage of people have or are at risk to develop non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide. NAFLD comprises different stadia going from isolated steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is a chronic state of liver inflammation that leads to the transformation of hepatic stellate cells to myofibroblasts. Read More

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Foreign Body Reaction to Implanted Biomaterials and Its Impact in Nerve Neuroprosthetics.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 15;9:622524. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

The implantation of any foreign material into the body leads to the development of an inflammatory and fibrotic process-the foreign body reaction (FBR). Upon implantation into a tissue, cells of the immune system become attracted to the foreign material and attempt to degrade it. If this degradation fails, fibroblasts envelop the material and form a physical barrier to isolate it from the rest of the body. Read More

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Fresh autologous stromal tissue fraction for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis related pain and disability.

Orthop Rev (Pavia) 2021 Mar 31;13(1):9161. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" School of Medicine, Naples, Italy.

Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a very common condition with multifactorial etiology leading to severe pain and disability in the adult population. Although KOA is considered a non-inflammatory arthritis, upregulation of inflammatory and catabolic pathways with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines leading to cartilage degradation and extracellular matrix degeneration has been reported. Intra-articular injection of fresh fat derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) fraction has been proposed as a valid and alternative treatment for symptomatic KOA that guarantees mechanical support through viscosupplementation, anti-inflammatory, and anabolic action. Read More

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AFM-based indentation method for measuring the relaxation property of living cells.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 19;122:110444. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Biomechanics and Medical Engineering, AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China. Electronic address:

Probing the mechanical properties of cells is critical for understanding their deformation behaviors and biological functions. Although some methods have been proposed to characterize the elastic properties of cells, it is still difficult to measure their time-dependent properties. This paper investigates the use of atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine the reduced relaxation modulus of cells. Read More

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Coupling hemodynamics with mechanobiology in patient-specific computational models of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 15;205:106107. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Mines Saint-Étienne, Univ Lyon, Univ Jean Monnet, INSERM, U1059 Sainbiose, Saint-Étienne F - 42023 France. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: The prevention of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs), which affect thousands of persons every year worldwide, remains a major issue. ATAAs may be caused by anything that weakens the aortic wall. Altered hemodynamics, which concerns a majority of patients with bicuspid aortic valves, has been shown to be related to such weakening and to contribute to ATAA development and progression. Read More

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