4,592 results match your criteria stem equivalent

Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Screening of Plant Extracts.

Dose Response 2021 Jan-Mar;19(1):15593258211004739. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Botany, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan.

The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemicals using reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activities of stem extracts. The extraction was carried out by conventional shaking process (CSP) and ultrasonic assisted process (UAP). The highest total phenolic contents (97. Read More

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HLA Ligand Atlas: a benign reference of HLA-presented peptides to improve T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Apr;9(4)

Clinical Neuroscience Center and Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) complex controls adaptive immunity by presenting defined fractions of the intracellular and extracellular protein content to immune cells. Understanding the benign HLA ligand repertoire is a prerequisite to define safe T-cell-based immunotherapies against cancer. Due to the poor availability of benign tissues, if available, normal tissue adjacent to the tumor has been used as a benign surrogate when defining tumor-associated antigens. Read More

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Efficiency comparison of B6(Cg)-Tyr /J and C57BL/6NTac embryos as hosts for the generation of knockout mice.

Transgenic Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

CAM-SU Genomic Resource Center, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, Jiang Su, China.

Careful selection of the host embryo is critical to the efficient production of knockout (KO) mice when injecting mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells into blastocysts. B6(Cg)-Tyr/J (B6 albino) and C57BL/6NTac (B6NTac) strains of mice are widely used to produce host blastocysts for such procedures. Here, we tested these two strains to identify an appropriate match for modified agouti C57BL/6N (JM8A3. Read More

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Impact of Previously Unrecognized HLA Mismatches Using Ultrahigh Resolution Typing in Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 9:JCO2003643. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Anthony Nolan Research Institute, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.

Purpose: Ultrahigh resolution (UHR) HLA matching is reported to result in better outcomes following unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation, improving survival and reducing post-transplant complications. However, most studies included relatively small numbers of patients. Here we report the findings from a large, multicenter validation study. Read More

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Optical characteristics of type-II hexagonal-shaped GaSb quantum dots on GaAs synthesized using nanowire self-growth mechanism from Ga metal droplet.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7699. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Center of Opto-Electronic Convergence Systems, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792, Korea.

We report the growth mechanism and optical characteristics of type-II band-aligned GaSb quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaAs using a droplet epitaxy-driven nanowire formation mechanism with molecular beam epitaxy. Using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images, we confirmed that the QDs, which comprised zinc-blende crystal structures with hexagonal shapes, were successfully grown through the formation of a nanowire from a Ga droplet, with reduced strain between GaAs and GaSb. Photoluminescence (PL) peaks of GaSb capped by a GaAs layer were observed at 1. Read More

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Effects of Heat Acclimation and Acclimatisation on Maximal Aerobic Capacity Compared to Exercise Alone in Both Thermoneutral and Hot Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression.

Sports Med 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

School of Biomedical, Nutritional and Sport Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

Background: Heat acclimation and acclimatisation (HA) is typically used to enhance tolerance to the heat, thereby improving performance. HA might also confer a positive adaptation to maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), although this has been historically debated and requires clarification via meta-analysis.

Objectives: (1) To meta-analyse all studies (with and without control groups) that have investigated the effect of HA on [Formula: see text] adaptation in thermoneutral or hot environments; (2) Conduct meta-regressions to establish the moderating effect of selected variables on [Formula: see text] adaptation following HA. Read More

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The Sankara Nethralaya Tamil Nadu Essilor Myopia (STEM) Study-Defining a Threshold for Non-Cycloplegic Myopia Prevalence in Children.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 15;10(6). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC 3216, Australia.

The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic autorefraction with an open-field auto refractor in a school vision screening set up, and to define a threshold for myopia that agrees with the standard cycloplegic refraction threshold. The study was conducted as part of the Sankara Nethralaya Tamil Nadu Essilor Myopia (STEM) study, which investigated the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for myopia among children in South India. Children from two schools aged 5 to 15 years, with no ocular abnormalities and whose parents gave informed consent for cycloplegic refraction were included in the study. Read More

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Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 05 30;9(5):276-292. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, and Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: A 2017 meta-analysis of data from 25 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) revealed a protective effect of this intervention. We aimed to examine the link between vitamin D supplementation and prevention of ARIs in an updated meta-analysis.

Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and the ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Xylem transport of root-derived CO caused a substantial underestimation of belowground respiration during a growing season.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Previous research has indicated that a potentially large portion of root-respired CO can move internally through tree xylem, but these reports are relatively scarce and have generally been limited to short observations. Our main objective was to provide a continuous estimate of the quantity and variability of root-respired CO that moves either internally through the xylem (F ) or externally through the soil to the atmosphere (F ) over most of a growing season. Nine trees were measured in a Populus deltoides stand for 129 days from early June to mid-October. Read More

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Corticosterone inhibits GAS6 to govern hair follicle stem-cell quiescence.

Nature 2021 Apr 31;592(7854):428-432. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Chronic, sustained exposure to stressors can profoundly affect tissue homeostasis, although the mechanisms by which these changes occur are largely unknown. Here we report that the stress hormone corticosterone-which is derived from the adrenal gland and is the rodent equivalent of cortisol in humans-regulates hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) quiescence and hair growth in mice. In the absence of systemic corticosterone, HFSCs enter substantially more rounds of the regeneration cycle throughout life. Read More

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Adipose-derived stromal cells seeded in pullulan-collagen hydrogels improve healing in murine burns.

Tissue Eng Part A 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Surgery, GK-201, 257 Campus Drive West, Stanford, California, United States, 94305;

Burn scars and scar contractures cause significant morbidity for patients. Recently, cell-based therapies have been proposed as an option for improving healing and reducing scarring after burn injury, through their known pro-angiogenic and immunomodulatory paracrine effects. Our lab has developed a pullulan-collagen hydrogel that, when seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), improves cell viability and augments their pro-angiogenic capacity in vivo. Read More

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The Relationship between Mammography Readers' Real-Life Performance and Performance in a Test Set-based Assessment Scheme in a National Breast Screening Program.

Radiol Imaging Cancer 2020 Sep 25;2(5):e200016. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Division of Cancer and Stem Cells, University of Nottingham, School of Medicine, City Hospital Campus, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, England (Y.C.); Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, England (J.J.J.); Department of Radiology, Cheltenham General Hospital, Cheltenham, England (E.J.C.); and Young Person and Adult Screening Programmes, Public Health England, Sheffield, England (J.J.).

Purpose: To compare an individual's Personal Performance in Mammographic Screening (PERFORMS) score with their Breast Screening Information System (BSIS) real-life performance data and determine which parameters in the PERFORMS scheme offer the best reflection of BSIS real-life performance metrics.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, the BSIS real-life performance metrics of individual readers ( = 452) in the National Health Service Breast Screening Program (NHSBSP) in England were compared with performance in the test set-based assessment scheme over a 3-year period from 2013 to 2016. Cancer detection rate (CDR), recall rate, and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated for each reader, for both real-life screening and the PERFORMS test. Read More

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September 2020

Quadrivalent influenza nanoparticle vaccines induce broad protection.

Nature 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Influenza vaccines that confer broad and durable protection against diverse viral strains would have a major effect on global health, as they would lessen the need for annual vaccine reformulation and immunization. Here we show that computationally designed, two-component nanoparticle immunogens induce potently neutralizing and broadly protective antibody responses against a wide variety of influenza viruses. The nanoparticle immunogens contain 20 haemagglutinin glycoprotein trimers in an ordered array, and their assembly in vitro enables the precisely controlled co-display of multiple distinct haemagglutinin proteins in defined ratios. Read More

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miR-34a mimic or pre-mir-34a, which is the better option for cancer therapy? KatoIII as a model to study miRNA action in human gastric cancer cells.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Mar 19;21(1):178. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Sari, Iran.

Background: Aberrantly expressed microRNAs play important roles in gastric tumorigenesis. However, use of miRNAs as a therapeutic option in gastric cancer still remains as a challenging problem.

Methods: We performed transient transfection of miR-34a-5p mimic and stable transfection of pre-mir-34a into KatoIII cells. Read More

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Human CD141 dendritic cells (cDC1) are impaired in patients with advanced melanoma but can be targeted to enhance anti-PD-1 in a humanized mouse model.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Mar;9(3)

Mater Research, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia

Background: The conventional type 1 dendritic cell subset (cDC1) is indispensable for tumor immune responses and the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies in animal models but little is known about the role of the human CD141 DC cDC1 equivalent in patients with melanoma.

Methods: We developed a flow cytometry assay to quantify and characterize human blood DC subsets in healthy donors and patients with stage 3 and stage 4 metastatic melanoma. To examine whether harnessing CD141 DCs could improve responses to ICIs in human melanoma, we developed a humanized mouse model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG-SGM3 mice with human CD34 hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from umbilical cord blood followed by transplantation of a human melanoma cell line and treatment with anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (anti-PD-1). Read More

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The role of lithium in the osteogenic bioactivity of clay nanoparticles.

Biomater Sci 2021 Apr 17;9(8):3150-3161. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Bone & Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells & Regeneration, Institute of Developmental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK.

LAPONITE® clay nanoparticles are known to exert osteogenic effects on human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs), most characteristically, an upregulation in alkaline phosphatase activity and increased calcium deposition. The specific properties of LAPONITE® that impart its bioactivity are not known. In this study the role of lithium, a LAPONITE® degradation product, was investigated through the use of lithium salts and lithium modified LAPONITE® formulations. Read More

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Mammalian primordial germ cell specification.

Development 2021 Mar 15;148(6). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

The peri-implantation window of mammalian development is the crucial window for primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. Whereas pre-implantation dynamics are relatively conserved between species, the implantation window marks a stage of developmental divergence between key model organisms, and thus potential variance in the cell and molecular mechanisms for PGC specification. In humans, PGC specification is very difficult to study To address this, the combined use of human and nonhuman primate embryos, and stem cell-based embryo models are essential for determining the origin of PGCs, as are comparative analyses to the equivalent stages of mouse development. Read More

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Pocket MUSE: an affordable, versatile and high-performance fluorescence microscope using a smartphone.

Commun Biol 2021 Mar 12;4(1):334. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Smartphone microscopes can be useful tools for a broad range of imaging applications. This manuscript demonstrates the first practical implementation of Microscopy with Ultraviolet Surface Excitation (MUSE) in a compact smartphone microscope called Pocket MUSE, resulting in a remarkably effective design. Fabricated with parts from consumer electronics that are readily available at low cost, the small optical module attaches directly over the rear lens in a smartphone. Read More

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Reprogrammed mesenchymal stem cells derived from iPSCs promote bone repair in steroid-associated osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Mar 12;12(1):175. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, Hubei, China.

Background: Cellular therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising novel therapeutic strategy for the osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), which is gradually becoming popular, particularly for early-stage ONFH. Nonetheless, the MSC-based therapy is challenging due to certain limitations, such as limited self-renewal capability of cells, availability of donor MSCs, and the costs involved in donor screening. As an alternative approach, MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which may lead to further standardized-cell preparations. Read More

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Autophagy is dispensable for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells in neonates.

Blood Adv 2021 Mar;5(6):1594-1604

International Research Center for Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto City, Japan.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo self-renewal or differentiation to sustain lifelong hematopoiesis. HSCs are preserved in quiescence with low mitochondrial activity. Recent studies indicate that autophagy contributes to HSC quiescence through suppressing mitochondrial metabolism. Read More

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Downregulation of SUV39H1 and CITED2 Exerts Additive Effect on Promoting Adipogenic Commitment of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Stem Cells Dev 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Biological Sciences Department, California State Polytechnic University at Pomona, Pomona, California, USA.

Human adipogenesis is the process through which uncommitted human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiate into adipocytes. Through a -based high-throughput screen that identifies adipogenic regulators whose expression knockdown leads to enhanced adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs, two new regulators, SUV39H1, a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes H3K9Me3, and CITED2, a CBP/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 were uncovered. Both SUV39H1 and CITED2 are normally downregulated during adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Read More

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Transcriptomic Changes Due to Early, Chronic Intermittent Alcohol Exposure During Forebrain Development Implicate WNT Signaling, Cell-Type Specification and Cortical Regionalization as Primary Determinants of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico HSC, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA.

Background: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) due to gestational alcohol exposure represents one of the most common causes of non-heritable lifelong disability worldwide. In vitro and in vivo models have successfully recapitulated multiple facets of the disorder, including morphological and behavioral deficits, but far less is understood regarding the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying FAS.

Methods: In this study, we utilized an in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-based (hPSC) model of corticogenesis to probe the effects of early, chronic intermittent alcohol exposure on the transcriptome of first trimester-equivalent cortical neurons. Read More

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SDF-1α gene-activated collagen scaffold enhances provasculogenic response in a coculture of human endothelial cells with human adipose-derived stromal cells.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 Mar 6;32(3):26. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Tissue Engineering Research Group, Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Novel biomaterials can be used to provide a better environment for cross talk between vessel forming endothelial cells and wound healing instructor stem cells for tissue regeneration. This study seeks to investigate if a collagen scaffold containing a proangiogenic gene encoding for the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α GAS) could be used to enhance functional responses in a coculture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ADSCs). Functional responses were determined by (1) monitoring the amount of junctional adhesion molecule VE-cadherin released during 14 days culture, (2) expression of provasculogenic genes on the 14th day, and (3) the bioactivity of secreted factors on neurogenic human Schwann cells. Read More

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Alteration of 3D Matrix Stiffness Regulates Viscoelasticity of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 28;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Institute of Clinical Medicine and Stem Cell Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 115, Taiwan.

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) possess potential of bone formation and were proposed as ideal material against osteoporosis. Although interrogation of directing effect on lineage specification by physical cues has been proposed, how mechanical stimulation impacts intracellular viscoelasticity during osteogenesis remained enigmatic. Cyto-friendly 3D matrix was prepared with polyacrylamide and conjugated fibronectin. Read More

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February 2021

Persistence of CRISPR/Cas9 gene edited hematopoietic stem cells following transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Canadian Blood Services, Stem Cells and Centre for Innovation, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Gene editing blood-derived cells is an attractive approach to cure selected monogenic diseases but remains experimental. A systematic search of preclinical controlled studies is needed to determine the persistence of edited cells following reinfusion. All studies identified in our systematic search (to 20 October 2020) examining the use of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in blood-derived cells for transplantation were included. Read More

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High density bioprocessing of human pluripotent stem cells by metabolic control and in silico modeling.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Leibniz Research Laboratories for Biotechnology and Artificial Organs (LEBAO), Germany.

To harness the full potential of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) we combined instrumented stirred tank bioreactor (STBR) technology with the power of in silico process modeling to overcome substantial, hPSC-specific hurdles toward their mass production. Perfused suspension culture (3D) of matrix-free hPSC aggregates in STBRs was applied to identify and control process-limiting parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen, glucose and lactate levels, and the obviation of osmolality peaks provoked by high density culture. Media supplements promoted single cell-based process inoculation and hydrodynamic aggregate size control. Read More

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Enhanced Photodetection in Glancing Angle Deposited One-Dimensional In₂O₃ Nanorod Array.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 May;21(5):3115-3122

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046, India.

Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) oriented electron beam (e-beam) evaporation process has been employed to develop 1D In₂O₃ nanorod array over -Si substrate. The morphology of as-deposited In₂O₃ thin film (∼70 nm) and GLAD 1D In₂O₃ nanorod array (∼400 nm) were explored using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. The structural analysis were perceived by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Read More

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The antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of a controlled gentamicin-releasing single-layer sol-gel coating on hydroxyapatite-coated titanium.

Bone Joint J 2021 Mar;103-B(3):522-529

Department of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a single-layer hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel coating that is capable of a controlled antibiotic release for cementless hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium orthopaedic prostheses.

Methods: Coatings containing gentamicin at a concentration of 1.25% weight/volume (wt/vol), similar to that found in commercially available antibiotic-loaded bone cement, were prepared and tested in the laboratory for: kinetics of antibiotic release; activity against planktonic and biofilm bacterial cultures; biocompatibility with cultured mammalian cells; and physical bonding to the material (n = 3 in all tests). Read More

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Value of 3D preoperative planning for primary total hip arthroplasty based on artificial intelligence technology.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Feb 24;16(1):156. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Orthopedics, Orthopedic Hospital of Guangdong Province, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, No. 183, Zhongshan Rd West, Guangzhou, 510630, China.

Background: Accurate preoperative planning is an important step for accurate reconstruction in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Presently, preoperative planning is completed using either a two-dimensional (2D) template or three-dimensional (3D) mimics software. With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, AI HIP, a planning software based on AI technology, can quickly and automatically identify acetabular and femur morphology, and automatically match the optimal prosthesis size. Read More

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February 2021