375,562 results match your criteria stem cells

A novel 4D cell culture mimicking stomach peristalsis altered gastric cancer spheroids growth and malignance.

Biofabrication 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 2 Yikuang Street, Nangang District, Harbin, 150001, CHINA.

In vitro cancer models that can largely mimic the in vivo microenvironment are crucial for conducting more accurate research. Models of three-dimensional (3D) culture that can mimic some aspects of cancer microenvironment or cancer biopsies that can adequately represent tumor heterogeneity are intensely used currently. Those models still lack the dynamic stress stimuli in gastric carcinoma exposed to stomach peristalsis in vivo. Read More

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Cell cycle abnormality is a cellular phenotype in OCD.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 Mar 27;59:102637. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Molecular Genetics Lab, Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India; Accelerator Program for Discovery in Brain disorders using Stem cells (ADBS), National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India. Electronic address:

Abnormal indices of cell cycle regulation have been reported in multiple psychiatric disorders. Though reports specific to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are scant, numerous studies have highlighted partly common underlying biology in psychiatric disorders, cell cycle regulation being one such process. In this study, we therefore aimed to explore cell cycle in OCD. Read More

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Downregulation of inflammatory mediators by ethanolic extract of Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) in oxalate injured renal epithelial cells.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 6:114104. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida, India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological relevance-In the Indian traditional system of medicine, Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl has been used for treatment of urolithiasis. Its efficacious nature has led to its incorporation in various commercial herbal formulations such as Cystone and Neeri, which are prescribed for kidney related ailments. Read More

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Connections between endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated unfolded protein response, mitochondria, and autophagy in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, 259 Mack Avenue, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA. Electronic address:

Arsenic exposure in contaminated drinking water is a global health issue, as more than 200 million people are affected globally. Arsenic has been known to cause skin, liver, lung, bladder and prostate cancers. Accordingly, it has been categorized as a group I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Read More

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Development of p53 Knockout U87MG Cell Line for Unbiased Drug Delivery Testing System Using CRISPR-Cas9 and Transcriptomic Analysis.

J Biotechnol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Japan. Electronic address:

Antibody-drug conjugates offers many advantages as a drug delivery platform that allows for highly specific targeting of cell types and genes. Ideally, testing the efficacy of these systems requires two cell types to be different only in the gene targeted by the drug, with the rest of the cellular machinery unchanged, in order to minimize other potential differences from obscuring the effects of the drug. In this study, we created multiple variants of U87MG cells with targeted mutation in the TP53 gene using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, and determined that their major transcriptional differences stem from the loss of p53 function. Read More

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Neuroprotective role of galantamine with/without physical exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 6:119459. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharos University in Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.

Aims: The fact that physical activity besides central cholinergic enhancement contributes in improving neuronal function and spastic plasticity, recommends the use of the anticholinesterase and cholinergic drug galantamine with/without exercise in the management of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Materials And Methods: Sedentary and 14 days exercised male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to EAE. Hereafter, exercised rats continued on rotarod for 30 min for 17 consecutive days. Read More

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FGF-MAPK signaling regulates human deep-layer corticogenesis.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

Despite heterogeneity across the six layers of the mammalian cortex, all excitatory neurons are generated from a single founder population of neuroepithelial stem cells. However, how these progenitors alter their layer competence over time remains unknown. Here, we used human embryonic stem cell-derived cortical progenitors to examine the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Notch signaling in influencing cell fate, assessing their impact on progenitor phenotype, cell-cycle kinetics, and layer specificity. Read More

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3D image analysis of the complete ventricular-subventricular zone stem cell niche reveals significant vasculature changes and progenitor deficits in males versus females with aging.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Neural Stem Cell Institute, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA. Electronic address:

With age, neural stem cell (NSC) function in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) declines, reducing memory and cognitive function in males; however, the impact on females is not well understood. To obtain a global view of how age and sex impact the mouse V-SVZ, we constructed 3D montages after multiplex immunostaining, and used computer-based 3D image analysis to quantify data across the entire niche at 2, 18, and 22 months. We discovered dramatic sex differences in the aging of the V-SVZ niche vasculature, which regulates NSC activity: females showed increased diameter but decreased vessel density with age, while males showed decreased diameter and increased tortuosity and vessel density. Read More

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Stem cell-based vascularization of microphysiological systems.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Bioengineering and California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (QB3), University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address:

Microphysiological systems (MPSs) (i.e., tissue or organ chips) exploit microfluidics and 3D cell culture to mimic tissue and organ-level physiology. Read More

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Efficient conversion of human induced pluripotent stem cells into microglia by defined transcription factors.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Brain Research Center, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (ROC); Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, School of Life Sciences, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (ROC). Electronic address:

Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system, play critical roles in brain physiology and pathology. We report a novel approach that produces, within 10 days, the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into microglia (iMG) by forced expression of both SPI1 and CEBPA. High-level expression of the main microglial markers and the purity of the iMG cells were confirmed by RT-qPCR, immunostaining, and flow cytometry analyses. Read More

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Generation of Murine Bone Marrow and Fetal Liver Chimeras.

Curr Protoc 2021 Apr;1(4):e79

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

The generation of radiation chimeras allows researchers to substitute the hematopoietic system of a mouse with that of one or more donors. A suspension of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is prepared from the bone marrow (BM) or the fetal liver (FL) of a donor mouse and adoptively transferred into an irradiated recipient. Within days, the donor's HSCs will engraft, and their progeny will quickly replace the blood cells of the recipient. Read More

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Lupeol induces autophagy and apoptosis with reduced cancer stem-like properties in retinoblastoma via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Ocular Fundus Disease, the Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: To evaluate the anticancer effects of lupeol in retinoblastoma cells.

Methods: WERI-Rb-1 and Y-79 cell lines were used to evaluate the anticancer effect of lupeol. After lupeol treatment, the viability, proliferation, apoptosis, cancer stem-like properties, autophagy and in vivo tumour xenograft formation were detected. Read More

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Pancreatic Cancer Stem-Like Cells With High Calreticulin Expression Associated With Immune Surveillance.

Pancreas 2021 Mar;50(3):405-413

From the Department of Gastroenterological, Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube.

Objective: Pancreatic cancer stem-like cells (P-CSLCs) are thought to be associated with poor prognosis. Previously, we used proteomic analysis to identify a chaperone pro-phagocytic protein calreticulin (CALR) as a P-CSLC-specific protein. This study aimed to investigate the association between CALR and P-CSLC. Read More

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Structural and physiological changes of the human body upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 Apr;22(4):310-317

Dr. Li Dak Sum & Yip Yio Chin Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) has spread to many countries around the world, developing into a global pandemic with increasing numbers of deaths reported worldwide. To data, although some vaccines have been developed, there are no ideal drugs to treat novel coronavirus pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)). By examining the structure of the coronavirus and briefly describing its possible pathogenesis based on recent autopsy reports conducted by various teams worldwide, this review analyzes the possible structural and functional changes of the human body upon infection with SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Extracellular vesicle-derived microRNA-18b ameliorates preeclampsia by enhancing trophoblast proliferation and migration via Notch2/TIM3/mTORC1 axis.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Preeclampsia (PE), a common disorder of pregnancy, is characterized by insufficient trophoblast migration and inadequate vascular remodelling, such that promotion of trophoblast proliferation might ameliorate PE. In the current study, we sought to study the underlying mechanism of extracellular vesicle (EV)-derived microRNA-18 (miR-18b) in PE. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) isolated from placental tissues were verified through osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation assays. Read More

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Centrosome-mediated microtubule remodeling during axon formation in human iPSC-derived neurons.

EMBO J 2021 Apr 9:e106798. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Biophysics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Axon formation critically relies on local microtubule remodeling and marks the first step in establishing neuronal polarity. However, the function of the microtubule-organizing centrosomes during the onset of axon formation is still under debate. Here, we demonstrate that centrosomes play an essential role in controlling axon formation in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons. Read More

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A Cyclometalated IrIII Complex Conjugated to a Coumarin Derivative Is a Potent Photodynamic Agent against Prostate Differentiated and Tumorigenic Cancer Stem Cells.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biophysics, Kralovopolska 135, CZ-61265, Brno, CZECH REPUBLIC.

A cyclometalated IrIII complex conjugated to a far-red-emitting coumarin, IrIII-COUPY (3), was recently shown as a very promising photosensitizer suitable for photodynamic therapy of cancer. Conventional anticancer chemotherapies exhibit several disadvantages, such as limited efficiency to target cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are considered the main reason for chemotherapy resistance, relapse, and metastasis. Herein, we show, using DU145 tumor cells, taken as the model of hormone-refractory and aggressive prostate cancer cells resistant to conventional antineoplastic drugs, that the photoactivated 3 very efficiently eliminates both prostate bulk, differentiated and prostate, hardly treatable CSCs simultaneously and with a similar efficiency. Read More

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IL-10 lentivirus-laden hydrogel tubes increase spinal progenitor survival and neuronal differentiation after spinal cord injury.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA.

A complex cellular cascade characterizes the pathophysiological response following spinal cord injury (SCI) limiting regeneration. Biomaterial and stem cell combination therapies together have shown synergistic effects, compared to the independent benefits of each intervention, and represent a promising approach towards regaining function after injury. In this study, we combine our polyethylene glycol (PEG) cell delivery platform with lentiviral-mediated overexpression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 to improve mouse embryonic day 14 (E14) spinal progenitor transplant survival. Read More

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Angiogenesis as a hallmark of solid tumors - clinical perspectives.

Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cancer and Immunology Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Angiogenesis is a key and early step in tumorigenesis, and is known as a hallmark of solid tumors and a key promoter of tumor recurrence. Unlike normal tissue vessels, the architecture of the tumor vasculature is abnormal, being leaky, tortuous, fragile and blind-ended. Perivascular cells are either detached or absent, causing reduction of vascular integrity, an increase in vessel immaturity, incoherent perfusion, defective functionality and enhanced tumor dissemination and metastasis. Read More

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The Cellular Organization of the Mammary Gland: Insights From Microscopy.

J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cancer Biology and Stem Cells Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 3052, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Despite rapid advances in our knowledge of the cellular heterogeneity and molecular regulation of the mammary gland, how these relate to 3D cellular organization remains unclear. In addition to hormonal regulation, mammary gland development and function is directed by para- and juxtacrine signaling among diverse cell-types, particularly the immune and mesenchymal populations. Precise mapping of the cellular landscape of the breast will help to decipher this complex coordination. Read More

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In-frame deletion in canine PITRM1 is associated with a severe early-onset epilepsy, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration.

Hum Genet 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

We investigated the clinical, genetic, and pathological characteristics of a previously unknown severe juvenile brain disorder in several litters of Parson Russel Terriers. The disease started with epileptic seizures at 6-12 weeks of age and progressed rapidly to status epilepticus and death or euthanasia. Histopathological changes at autopsy were restricted to the brain. Read More

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Differential RA responsiveness among subsets of mouse late progenitor spermatogonia.

Reproduction 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

B Hermann, Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, United States.

Initiation of spermatogonial differentiation in the mouse testis begins with the response to retinoic acid (RA) characterized by activation of KIT and STRA8 expression. In the adult, spermatogonial differentiation is spatiotemporally coordinated by a pulse of RA every 8.6 days that is localized to stages VII-VIII of the seminiferous epithelial cycle. Read More

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Uncovering the Bone-Muscle Interaction and Its Implications for the Health and Function of Older Adults (the Wellderly Project): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Apr 9;10(4):e18777. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science, University of Melbourne and Western Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Bone and muscle are closely linked anatomically, biochemically, and metabolically. Acute exercise affects both bone and muscle, implying a crosstalk between the two systems. However, how these two systems communicate is still largely unknown. Read More

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Positive perception of stem cells for neurological conditions: results from an Australian public forum.

Regen Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Institute, Specialty of Child and Adolescent Health, Sydney Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia.

Stem cells offer great hope and promise as a potential treatment for human diseases. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the public perception of stem cells for neurological conditions. A paper-based questionnaire was administered to all attendees of a free, public stem cell forum. Read More

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Mannotriose induced differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into neuron-like cells.

J Integr Neurosci 2021 Mar;20(1):125-130

Institute of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 201203 Shanghai, P. R. China.

This article demonstrates that mannotriose effectively induces the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into neuron-like cells . Rat-derived mesenchymal stem cells were investigated on their potential to differentiate into neuron-like cells induced by mannotriose purified from . The percentage of the neuron-specific enolase positive cells and the Nissl positive cells after mannotriose treatment was increased. Read More

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Leukemic stem cells shall be searched in the bone marrow before "tyrosine kinase inhibitor-discontinuation" in chronic myeloid leukemia.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Hematology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), persisting in the bone marrow (BM) niche, could be responsible for the relapses within the patients of whom the treatment-free remission (TFR) had been attempted. We assessed the presence of the CML LSCs in the peripheral blood (PB) and concurrently in the BM in the patients with chronic-phase CML (CP CML).

Patients And Methods: Thirty-eight patients with CP CML were included into the study. Read More

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BMP9-ID1 signaling promotes EpCAM-positive cancer stem cell properties in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Mol Oncol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, Kanazawa University Hospital.

The malignant nature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is closely related to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Bone morphologic protein 9 (BMP9), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, was recently reported to be involved in liver diseases including cancer. We aimed to elucidate the role of BMP9 signaling in HCC-CSC properties and to assess the therapeutic effect of BMP receptor inhibitors in HCC. Read More

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[Identification of TCF3-ZNF384 fusion by transcriptome sequencing in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its laboratory and clinical characteristics].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(4):351-354

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Beijing Ludaopei Hospital, Beijing 100176, China.

Objective: To detect fusion gene with pathological significance in a patient with refractory and relapsed acute B cell lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and to explore its laboratory and clinical characteristics.

Methods: Transcriptome sequencing was used to detect potential fusion transcripts. Other laboratory results and clinical data of the patient were also analyzed. Read More

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The Genetic Basis of Reporter Mouse Strains.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1310:551-564

Department of Medical Science and Asan Medical Institute of Convergence Science and Technology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models have been revolutionizing the biomedical studies on deciphering the physiological roles of genes in vivo. In addition to deactivating a gene in mice, diverse strategies have been created to monitor gene expressions and molecular dynamics of specific proteins in vivo. Although gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells was essential for the precise engineering of the mouse genome over almost three decades, this process is a time-consuming, expensive, and laborious one. Read More

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January 2021

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles for Skin Wound Healing.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1310:495-507

Graduate School of International Agricultural Technology and Institute of Green-Bio Science and Technology, Pyeongchang Daero 1447, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Gangwon-do, South Korea.

Skin is vulnerable to various external insults such as burn, severe injury, or inflammation, which necessitates a better strategy for wound repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can self-renew and differentiate into various supporting tissues including cartilage, bone, muscle, and adipose tissue. Along with their unique multipotent capacity, they secrete various paracrine mediators such as growth factors, cytokines, and membrane-enclosed particles called extracellular vesicles (EVs). Read More

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January 2021