51,018 results match your criteria statin


A case of statin-induced liver injury with positive rechallenge with a second statin. Is there a class effect?

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Operating Unit of Internal and Metabolic Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria of Modena and University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Civil Hospital of Baggiovara, Modena, Italy.

Objectives: Statins have proved to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in high-risk population and are generally well tolerated, although adverse events can occur. Up to 3% of patients develop aminotransferases elevation, which usually normalizes with continued treatment and hardly is associated with clinical symptoms. Serious statin-related liver injury is exceedingly rare. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sex-Related Disparities in Cardiovascular Health Care Among Patients With Premature Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Health Policy, Quality and Informatics Program, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center Health Services Research and Development Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness, and Safety, Houston, Texas.

Importance: There is a paucity of data regarding secondary prevention care disparities in women with premature and extremely premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), defined as an ASCVD event at 55 years or younger and 40 years or younger, respectively.

Objective: To evaluate sex-based differences in antiplatelet agents, any statin, high-intensity statin (HIS) therapy, and statin adherence in patients with premature and extremely premature ASCVD.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a cross-sectional, multicenter, nationwide VA health care system-based study with patients enrolled in the Veterans With Premature Atherosclerosis (VITAL) registry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Role of Angiotensin Antagonism in Coronary Plaque Regression: Insights from the Glagovian Model.

Int J Vasc Med 2021 5;2021:8887248. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Hasanuddin University, 90245, Indonesia.

The benefit of antagonizing the effect of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), notably by the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) for coronary artery disease (CAD), has been demonstrated in multiple studies, which may be attributed to their ability to inhibit the deleterious effect of RAAS to the cardiovascular system. It is well known that angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a vital role in atheromatous plaque formation and progression through multiple pathways, including inflammatory and arterial remodeling aspects. Significant coronary atheromatous plaque regression has been previously demonstrated in various studies using statin agents. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gender- and age-related differences of statin use on incident dementia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a Nationwide population-based cohort study.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 Apr 20;20(1):37. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital and Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Background: Some observational studies have found a significant association between the use of statin and a reduced risk of dementia. However, the results of these studies are unclear in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study is to determine the association between the use of statins and the incidence of dementia according to sex and age-related differences in patients with RA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The gut microbiota is associated with clinical response to statin treatment in patients with coronary artery disease.

Atherosclerosis 2021 Mar 29;325:16-23. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China. Electronic address:

Background: The structure and composition of the gut microbiota influence patients' response to therapeutic interventions. It is also known that the response to statin treatment can vary greatly from one patient to another, suggesting a possible connection between microbiome composition and response to statins. In the present study, we aim to explore the influence of the microbiome composition on the response to statin treatment among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Two steps forward, one step back: 50 years of societal value from LDL-C-lowering therapies.

Am J Manag Care 2021 Apr;27(4):162-168

PRECISIONheor, 11100 Santa Monica Blvd, Ste 500, Los Angeles, CA 90025. Email:

Objectives: To assess the evolving landscape of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapies (LLTs) and quantify their effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality and morbidity.

Study Design: Secondary data came from LLT clinical trials and 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. 1996-2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data were used to estimate LLT spending. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Race/Ethnic Differences in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Patients with Hypertension: Analysis from 143 primary care clinics.

Am J Hypertens 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Enterprise Population Health, Advocate Aurora Health, Downers Grove, IL, USA.

Background: While it is known that sex and race/ethnic disparities persist for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), disparities in risk factor control have not been well-described in primary care where ASCVD can be prevented.

Methods: Adult patients with a hypertension diagnosis without ASCVD were included in this analysis of electronic health records from a large US healthcare system from 2018. Patients were categorized based on risk factor control defined as blood pressure <130/80 mmHg; statin prescription among patients with indications, HbA1c of <7%, and not smoking. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Preferences for and acceptability of receiving pharmacogenomic results by mail: A focus group study with a primarily African-American cohort.

J Genet Couns 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Although genetic counseling is traditionally done through in-person, one-on-one visits, workforce shortages call for efficient result return mechanisms. Studies have shown that telephone and in-person return of cancer genetic results are equivalent for patient outcomes. Few studies have been conducted with other modes, result types or racially diverse participants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lipid-lowering therapy and percutaneous coronary interventions.

EuroIntervention 2021 Apr;16(17):1389-1403

Department of Cardiology, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Although technological and procedural advances have resulted in substantial improvements in clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), recurrent coronary events may occur despite achieving optimal procedural results. Beyond myocardial revascularisation failure related to anatomical or stent-related factors, adverse cardiovascular events post PCI often arise from non-culprit lesions not treated during index interventions. While stenting treats a focal manifestation of a systemic, progressive disease, the residual risk following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or elective PCI is largely related to the systemic pro-atherogenic effects of suboptimally controlled cardiovascular risk factors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Herpes Zoster Vaccine Live and Risk of Stroke Among Medicare Beneficiaries: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Stroke 2021 Apr 20:STROKEAHA120032788. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Background And Purpose: Herpes zoster (HZ) is associated with increased risk of stroke, and zoster vaccine live (ZVL, Zostavax) reduces the risk of HZ. No study has examined the association between ZVL (Zostavax) and risk of stroke. Present study examined association between receipt of ZVL (Zostavax) and risk of stroke among older US population. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle Improved Clinical Outcomes in Coronary Artery Disease Patients After Coronary Intervention.

J Chin Med Assoc 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital Taoyuan Branch, Taiwan, ROC Health Care and Management Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Division of Cardiology, Heart Center, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University and Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC Cardiology Division of Cardiovascular Medical Center and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital and Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC Mackay Memorial Hospital, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, and Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC Department of Cardiology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Primary Care Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Institute of Clinical Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Lifestyle modification is suggested for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but the impact of adherence to a healthy lifestyle remains undetermined. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of adherence to a healthy lifestyle with future outcomes and biochemical markers in CAD patients.

Methods: The Biosignature CAD study examined 716 CAD patients who underwent a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Update on apolipoprotein B.

Curr Opin Lipidol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Mike and Valeria Rosenbloom Centre for Cardiovascular Prevention, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Department of Laboratory Medicine, AZ St.-Jan Hospital, Bruges, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: The 2019 European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines concluded that apolipoprotein B (apoB) was a more accurate measure of cardiovascular risk and a better guide to the adequacy of lipid lowering than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Also, they stated that apoB can be measured more accurately than LDL-C or non-HDL-C. This strong endorsement of the central role of apoB contrasts with the limited endorsement of apoB by the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Multisociety Guidelines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical considerations after endovascular therapy of peripheral artery disease.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2021 Apr 19:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Cardiology, Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA.

: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at higher risk for all-cause mortality, driven by increased cardiovascular mortality rates. In this manuscript we review the literature on guideline-recommended therapies and discuss the major clinical considerations after endovascular therapy of PAD.: Current guidelines recommend smoking cessation, aspirin, statin, and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular and limb-related adverse events. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hyperlipidemia Is a Risk Factor of Adhesive Capsulitis: Real-World Evidence Using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Apr 5;9(4):2325967120986808. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Graduate Institute of Sports Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan.

Background: Patients with adhesive capsulitis are evaluated for pain and progressive contracture of the glenohumeral joint. Whether endocrine, immune, or inflammatory processes are involved in its definite pathogenesis is still under debate. Some cross-sectional studies with a small sample size have noted that hyperlipidemia is a possible risk factor for frozen shoulders. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Non-HDL-C Is More Stable Than LDL-C in Assessing the Percent Attainment of Non-fasting Lipid for Coronary Heart Disease Patients.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 1;8:649181. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

This study aimed to compare the percentage attainment of fasting and non-fasting LDL-C and non-HDL-C target levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients receiving short-term statin therapy. This study enrolled 397 inpatients with CHD. Of these, 197 patients took statins for <1 month (m) or did not take any statin before admission (CHD1 group), while 204 patients took statins for ≥1 m before admission (CHD2 group). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of PCSK9 Inhibitors in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Faculty of Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China.

Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are at high or very high risk for cardiovascular disease. Those with heterozygous FH (HeFH) often do not reach low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets with statin and ezetimibe therapy, and those with homozygous FH (HoFH) usually require additional lipid-modifying therapies. Drugs that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) offer a novel approach to reduce LDL-C. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of Preoperative Statin on the Frequency of Ventricular Fibrillation and C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients Undergoing Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Apr;30(4):373-378

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Health Sciences, Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital, Bursa, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate the effects of statin use in preoperative period on the development of ventricular fibrillation (VF) following the removal of aortic cross-clamp (ACC) and on the levels of inflammation biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients who undergo elective isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Study Design: Observational study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital, Bursa, Turkey, between May 2019 and January 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mechanistic Insights from REDUCE-IT STRENGTHen the Case Against Triglyceride Lowering as a Strategy for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction.

Am J Med 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO.

Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels have been linked to residual atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in patients with controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, outcome trials testing TG-lowering agents have failed to demonstrate cardiovascular risk reduction in statin-treated subjects. One such example is the recent STRENGTH trial, which tested mixed omega fatty acids (n3-FAs, 4g/d) in high-risk patients with elevated TGs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Is the effect of atorvastatin 60 mg on stabilization of lipid-rich plaque equivalent to that of rosuvastatin 10 mg? A serial optical coherence tomography combined with intravascular ultrasound imaging.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, The Key Laboratory of Myocardial Ischemia, Chinese Ministry of Education, Harbin, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effect of atorvastatin 60 (AT60) mg to that of rosuvastatin 10 (RT10) mg on the morphological changes in lipid-rich plaques (LRPs) and plaque volume, using serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS).

Background: Intensive lipid lowering therapy by statin provides more clinical benefit compared to that of moderate lipid lowering therapy.

Methods: Fifty patients who underwent OCT and IVUS at baseline, 6, and 12 months were grouped by statin therapy into the AT60 mg (n = 27) and RT10 mg (n = 23) groups. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Excessive expression of miR-1a by statin causes skeletal injury through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 16;13. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Backgrounds: A major side effect of statin, a widely used drug to treat hyperlipidemia, is skeletal myopathy through cell apoptosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the roles of microRNA in statin-induced injury.

Methods: Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice were administered with simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fewer patients receive recommendations for pharmacotherapy in primary prevention using the 2018 atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator.

Prev Med 2021 Apr 13:106555. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:

Shortly after the introduction of the 2013 original Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE), an overestimation of risk was suggested. As such, the updated 2018 PCE was developed to more accurately assess atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in the population. Hence, this study aims to compare drug prescribing recommendations in a large, real-world patient population, depending on which PCE is used to estimate 10-year ASCVD risk. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of 2016 SCCT/STR guidelines for coronary artery calcium scoring of noncardiac chest CT scans on lung cancer screening CT reporting.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, 420 Delaware Street SE, MMC 508, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

The 2016 SCCT/STR guideline for coronary artery calcification (CAC) scoring on non-cardiac chest CT (NCCT) scans explicitly calls for the reporting of CAC. Whether the publication of the 2016 SCCT/STR guideline has had any impact on CAC reporting in lung cancer screening (LCS) scans has not been investigated. Consecutive patients with a LCS scan were identified from the University of Minnesota LCS registry and evaluated for CAC reporting in 3 separate cohorts: 6 months before, 6 months after, and 1 year after the publication of the 2016 SCCT/STR guideline. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Beneficial Effect of Statin Therapy on Arterial Stiffness.

Biomed Res Int 2021 30;2021:5548310. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Arterial stiffness describes the increased rigidity of the arterial wall that occurs as a consequence of biological aging and several diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated that parameters to assess arterial stiffness, especially pulse-wave velocity, are predictive of those individuals that will suffer cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Statin therapy may be a pharmacological strategy to improve arterial elasticity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Persistent Cigarette Smoking Attenuates Plaque Stabilization in Response to Lipid-Lowering Therapy: A Serial Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 30;8:616568. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of smoking on morphological changes in non-culprit plaques in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients at 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, the reasons for the high risk of re-infarction and worsened health among patients who continue to smoke after PCI remain unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Statin-induced necrotising autoimmune myopathy: a rare complication of statin therapy.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 15;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Rheumatology, Sligo University Hospital, Sligo, Ireland.

Statin-induced necrotising autoimmune myopathy (SINAM), a rare complication of statin use, presents with significant proximal muscle weakness and raised creatine kinase (CK) levels (50-100 times). This is different from other musculoskeletal conditions caused by statin use. Anti-hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA) reductase antibody is usually positive in SINAM and it generally indicates good response to immunosuppressive medications. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identifying genetic modulators of statin response using subject-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines.

Pharmacogenomics 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, Oakland, CA, USA.

Although statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors) have proven effective in reducing plasma low-density lipoprotein levels and risk of cardiovascular disease, their lipid lowering efficacy is highly variable among individuals. Furthermore, statin treatment carries a small but significant risk of adverse effects, most notably myopathy and new onset diabetes. Hence, identification of biomarkers for predicting patients who would most likely benefit from statin treatment without incurring increased risk of adverse effects can have a significant public health impact. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association Analysis of Hyperlipidemia with the 28-Day All-Cause Mortality of COVID-19 in Hospitalized Patients.

Chin Med Sci J 2021 Mar;36(1):17-26

Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China.

Objective This study aimed to determine the association of hyperlipidemia with clinical endpoints among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially those with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study included all patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from 21 hospitals in Hubei province, China between December 31, 2019 and April 21, 2020. Patients who were aged < 18 or ≥ 85 years old, in pregnancy, with acute lethal organ injury (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association between Adherence to SSRI Treatment and Mortality among Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome Components.

Pharmacopsychiatry 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Geha Mental Health Center, Petah-Tikva, Israel.

Introduction: Depression and anxiety have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The effect of antidepressants in this association is unknown. This study aimed to examine the association between adherence to selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) and all-cause mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome components (hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The interaction between inflammation, urinary symptoms and erectile dysfunction in early-stage prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy.

Andrologia 2021 Apr 14:e14070. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Erectile function has been shown to decline as a function of increasing peripheral blood inflammatory markers, namely the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). We evaluated if the association between NLR and erectile dysfunction (ED) applies to patients with localised prostate cancer. We included 1,282 patients who underwent brachytherapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Statins Are Associated with Improved 28-day Mortality in Patients Hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Background: Statins may be protective in viral infection and have been proposed as treatment in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Objective: We evaluated the effect of statins on mortality in four groups hospitalized with (SARS-CoV-2) infection (continued statin, newly initiated statin, discontinued statin, never on statin).

Design: In a single center cohort study of 1179 patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the outcome of death, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission or hospital discharge was evaluated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF