291,372 results match your criteria states functional


Aquatic microbial community is partially functionally redundant: Insights from an in situ reciprocal transplant experiment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147433. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan; Bioinformatics Program, Institute of Information Science, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Microbial communities are considered to be functionally redundant, but few studies have tested this hypothesis empirically. In this study, we performed an in situ reciprocal transplant experiment on the surface and bottom waters of two lakes (Tsuei-Feng (T) and Yuan-Yang (Y)) with disparate trophic states and tracked changes in their microbial community composition and functions for 6 weeks using high-throughput sequencing and functional approaches. T lake's surface (Ts) and bottom (Tb) water active bacterial community (16S rRNA gene-transcript) was dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Cyanobacteria, whereas Y lake's surface (Ys) and bottom (Yb) water had Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidia as the dominant classes. Read More

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Agent-based model provides insight into the mechanisms behind failed regeneration following volumetric muscle loss injury.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 10;17(5):e1008937. Epub 2021 May 10.

Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States of America.

Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable capacity for repair and regeneration following a variety of injuries. When successful, this highly orchestrated regenerative process requires the contribution of several muscle resident cell populations including satellite stem cells (SSCs), fibroblasts, macrophages and vascular cells. However, volumetric muscle loss injuries (VML) involve simultaneous destruction of multiple tissue components (e. Read More

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Detection of Emotional Sensitivity Using fNIRS based Dynamic Functional Connectivity.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2021 May 10;PP. Epub 2021 May 10.

In this study, we proposed an analytical framework to identify dynamic task-based functional connectivity (FC) features as new biomarkers of emotional sensitivity in nursing students, by using a combination of unsupervised and supervised machine learning techniques. The dynamic FC was measured by functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), and computed using a sliding window correlation (SWC) analysis. A k-means clustering technique was applied to derive four recurring connectivity states. Read More

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Microfabricated Device to Record Axonal Conduction under Pharmacological Treatment for Functional Evaluation of Axon Ion Channel.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 May 10;PP. Epub 2021 May 10.

Objective: Neuronal networks are fundamental structures for information processing in the central nervous system. This processing function is severely impaired by abnormal axonal conduction from changes in functional ion channel expression. The evaluation of axonal conduction properties can be effective in the early diagnosis of information-processing abnormalities. Read More

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Evidence of Orbital Ferromagnetism in Twisted Bilayer Graphene Aligned to Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

Nano Lett 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, United States.

We have previously reported ferromagnetism evinced by a large hysteretic anomalous Hall effect in twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG). Subsequent measurements of a quantized Hall resistance and small longitudinal resistance confirmed that this magnetic state is a Chern insulator. Here, we report that when tilting the sample in an external magnetic field, the ferromagnetism is highly anisotropic. Read More

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Universal Spectrum Explorer: A Standalone (Web-)Application for Cross-Resource Spectrum Comparison.

J Proteome Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Chair of Proteomics and Bioanalytics, Technical University of Munich, Freising 85354, Germany.

Here, we present the Universal Spectrum Explorer (USE), a web-based tool based on IPSA for cross-resource (peptide) spectrum visualization and comparison (https://www.proteomicsdb.org/use/). Read More

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Concentration-Dependent Solvation Structure and Dynamics of Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Using Multinuclear NMR and DFT.

J Phys Chem B 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States.

Sulfuric acid is a ubiquitous compound for industrial processes, and aqueous sulfate solutions also play a critical role as electrolytes for many prominent battery chemistries. While the thermodynamic literature on it is quite well-developed, comprehensive studies of the solvation structure, particularly molecular-scale dynamical and transport properties, are less available. This study applies a multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approach to the elucidation of the solvation structure and dynamics over wide temperature (-10 to 50 °C) and concentration (0-18 M) ranges, combining the O shift, line width, and relaxation measurements, S shift and line width measurements, and H pulsed-field gradient NMR measurements of proton self-diffusivity. Read More

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Evidence for Moiré Trions in Twisted MoSe Homobilayers.

Nano Lett 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics and Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. China.

Moiré superlattices of van der Waals structures offer a powerful platform for engineering band structure and quantum states. For instance, Moiré superlattices in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene, ABC trilayer graphene have been shown to harbor correlated insulating and superconducting states, while in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) twisted bilayers, Moiré excitons have been identified. Here we show that the effects of a Moiré superlattice on the band structure are general: In TMD twisted bilayers, excitons and exciton complexes can be trapped in the superlattice in a manner analogous to ultracold bosonic or Fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Read More

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Multitask Learning Based Three-Dimensional Striatal Segmentation of MRI: fMRI and PET Objective Assessments.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.

Background: Recent studies have established a clear topographical and functional organization of projections to and from complex subdivisions of the striatum. Manual segmentation of these functional subdivisions is labor-intensive and time-consuming, and automated methods are not as reliable as manual segmentation.

Purpose: To utilize multitask learning (MTL) as a method to segment subregions of the striatum consisting of pre-commissural putamen (prePU), pre-commissural caudate (preCA), post-commissural putamen (postPU), post-commissural caudate (postCA), and ventral striatum (VST). Read More

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Beyond cognitive templates: re-examining template metaphors used for animal recognition and navigation.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati.

The term 'cognitive template' originated from work in human-based cognitive science to describe a literal, stored, neural representation used in recognition tasks. As the study of cognition has expanded to non-human animals, the term has diffused to describe a wider range of animal cognitive tools and strategies that guide action through the recognition of and discrimination between external states. One potential reason for this non-standardized meaning and variable employment is that researchers interested in the broad range of animal recognition tasks enjoy the simplicity of the cognitive template concept and have allowed it to become shorthand for many dissimilar or unknown neural processes without deep scrutiny of how this metaphor might comport with underlying neurophysiology. Read More

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The Comparability of Perceived Physical and Mental Health Measures Across Immigrants and Natives in the United States.

Demography 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

University of Cologne, Faculty of Management, Economics and Social Sciences, Institute of Sociology and Social Psychology, Cologne, Germany.

The comparative study of perceived physical and mental health in general-and the comparative study of health between the native-born and immigrants, in particular-requires that the groups understand survey questions inquiring about their health in the same way and display similar response patterns. After all, observed differences in perceived health may not reflect true differences but rather cultural bias in the health measures. Research on cross-country measurement equivalence between immigrants and natives on self-reported health measures has received very limited attention to date, resulting in a growing demand for the validation of existing perceived health measures using samples of natives and immigrants and establishing measurement equivalence of health-related assessment tools. Read More

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Effect of RNA on Morphology and Dynamics of Membraneless Organelles.

J Phys Chem B 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States.

Membraneless organelles (MLOs) are spatiotemporally regulated structures that concentrate multivalent proteins or RNA, often in response to stress. The proteins enriched within MLOs are often classified as high-valency "scaffolds" or low-valency "clients", with the former being associated with a phase-separation promoting role. In this study, we employ a minimal model for P-body components, with a defined protein-protein interaction network, to study their phase separation at biologically realistic low protein concentrations. Read More

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The effect of tether groups on the spin states of iron(II)/bis[2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine] complexes.

Dalton Trans 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, UK LS2 9JT.

The synthesis of six 2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine derivatives bearing dithiolane or carboxylic acid tether groups is described: [2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyrid-4-yl]methyl (R)-lipoate (L1), 2-[(2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)-4-carboxamido]ethyl (R)-lipoate (L2), 2-[(2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)-4-carboxy]ethyl (R)-lipoate (L3), N-([2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyrid-4-ylsulfanyl]-2-aminoethyl (R)-lipoamide (L4), 2-[(2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)-4-carboxamido]acetic acid (L5) and 2-[(2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)-4-carboxamido]propionic acid (L6). The iron(ii) perchlorate complexes of all the new ligands exhibit gradual thermal spin-crossover (SCO) in the solid state above room temperature, except L4 whose complex remains predominantly high-spin. Crystalline [Fe(L6)2][ClO4]2·2MeCN contains three unique cation sites which alternate within hydrogen-bonded chains, and undergo gradual SCO at different temperatures upon warming. Read More

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Carbocation-Mediated Cyclization of Trienes in Acid Zeolites.

J Phys Chem A 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, United States.

The mechanism by which acid zeolites catalyze the formation of aromatic species is not fully understood and is important in an array of industrial processes such as the methanol to gasoline reaction. The so-called "carbon pool" mechanism is generally agreed to be the main channel for the formation of hydrocarbons from methanol. There is, however, no agreed sequence of elementary steps that explains how linear intermediates transform to cyclic intermediates, let alone aromatic rings. Read More

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Toxicity Assessment of Nano-ZnO Exposure on the Human Intestinal Microbiome, Metabolic Functions, and Resistome Using an In Vitro Colon Simulator.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), IRDR ICoE on Risk Interconnectivity and Governance on Weather/Climate Extremes Impact and Public Health, Fudan Tyndall Centre, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Nano-ZnO, as a commonly used nanomaterial, has been found in drinking water, food, and medicine; therefore, it poses potential health risks via the digestion system. However, little is known about the toxicity of nano-ZnO on the human intestinal microbiome, which plays critical roles in human health. This study comprehensively investigated the impact of nano-ZnO on the human gut microbiome, metabolic functions, and resistome using an in vitro colon simulator. Read More

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In vivo CRISPR screening for novel noncoding RNA functional targets in glioblastoma models.

J Neurosci Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-based genetic screens offer unbiased and powerful tools for systematic and specific evaluation of phenotypes associated with specific target genes. CRISPR screens have been utilized heavily in vitro to identify functional coding and noncoding genes in a large number of cell types, including glioblastoma (GB), though no prior study has described the evaluation of CRISPR screening in GB in vivo. Here, we describe a protocol for targeting and transcriptionally repressing GB-specific long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) by CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system in vivo, with tumor growth in the mouse cerebral cortex. Read More

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The effects of vertically integrated care on health care use and outcomes in inpatient rehabilitation facilities.

Health Serv Res 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, California, Los Angeles, USA.

Objective: To understand the effects of receiving vertically integrated care in inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) on health care use and outcomes.

Data Sources: Medicare enrollment, claims, and IRF patient assessment data from 2012 to 2014.

Study Design: We estimated within-IRF differences in health care use and outcomes between IRF patients admitted from hospitals vertically integrated with the IRF (parent hospital) vs patients admitted from other hospitals. Read More

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Fedratinib Improves Myelofibrosis-related Symptoms and Health-related Quality of Life in Patients with Myelofibrosis Previously Treated with Ruxolitinib: Patient-reported Outcomes from the Phase II JAKARTA2 Trial.

Hemasphere 2021 May 29;5(5):e562. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Mays Cancer Center at UT Health San Antonio MD Anderson, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Myelofibrosis symptoms compromise health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Ruxolitinib can reduce myelofibrosis symptom severity, but many patients discontinue ruxolitinib due to loss of response or unacceptable toxicity. Fedratinib is an oral, selective JAK2 inhibitor approved in the United States for treatment of patients with intermediate-2 or high-risk myelofibrosis. Read More

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Rebuilding the Vascular Network: and Approaches.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:639299. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan, China.

As the material transportation system of the human body, the vascular network carries the transportation of materials and nutrients. Currently, the construction of functional microvascular networks is an urgent requirement for the development of regenerative medicine and drug screening systems. How to construct organs with functional blood vessels is the focus and challenge of tissue engineering research. Read More

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Mutations in RNA Methyltransferase Gene Confer High Risk of Outflow Tract Malformation.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:623394. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

, encoding a cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferase and located in the 7q11.23 locus, is a candidate gene for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Deletion of the 7q11. Read More

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Seeded Growth of Au@CuO Core-Shell Mesoporous Nanospheres and Their Photocatalytic Properties.

Front Chem 2021 23;9:671220. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, China.

We report a facile synthesis of Au@CuO core-shell mesoporous nanospheres with tunable size in the aqueous phase seeded growth. The success of the current work relies on the use of a halide-free copper (Cu) precursor and n-oleyl-1,3-propanediamine as a capping agent to facilitate the formation of a copperish oxide shell with a mesoporous structure and the presence of mixed oxidation states of Cu. By varying the amount of spherical Au seeds while keeping other parameters unchanged, their diameters could be readily tuned without noticeable change in morphology. Read More

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Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Global and Narrative Review.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 23;11:601968. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) has become a major public health concern. Moreover, its colonization among residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) is associated with subsequent infections and mortality. To further explore the various aspects concerning CRE in LTCFs, we conducted a literature review on CRE colonization and/or infections in long-term care facilities. Read More

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SEMMs: Somatically Engineered Mouse Models. A New Tool for Disease Modeling for Basic and Translational Research.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:667189. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Translational Oncology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, United States.

Most experimental oncology therapies fail during clinical development despite years of preclinical testing rationalizing their use. This begs the question of whether the current preclinical models used for evaluating oncology therapies adequately capture patient heterogeneity and response to therapy. Most of the preclinical work is based on xenograft models where tumor mis-location and the lack of the immune system represent a major limitation for the translatability of many observations from preclinical models to patients. Read More

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Analysis of Adenoviral p53 Gene Therapy Clinical Trials in Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:645745. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

University of Toledo Medical Center, Eleanor N. Dana Cancer Center, Toledo, OH, United States.

Background: We conducted an analysis of previous adenoviral p53 (Ad-p53) treatment data in recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients to identify optimal Ad-p53 treatment methods for future clinical trials.

Methods: The analysis involved recurrent HNSCC patients treated with Ad-p53 for whom p53 genotyping and immunohistochemistry tumor biomarker studies had been performed (n = 70). Ad-p53 tumor treatment responses defined by RECIST 1. Read More

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A Pancancer Analysis of the Expression Landscape and Clinical Relevance of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 in Human Cancers.

Front Oncol 2021 21;11:644854. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pathology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is frequently altered in tumors and one of the top therapeutic targets in cholangiocarcinoma (CHOL) with fusions. Although there have been several studies on individual tumors, a comprehensive analysis of genetic aberrations and their simultaneous clinical implications across different tumors have not been reported. In this study, we used the large comprehensive datasets available, covering over 10,000 tumor samples across more than 30 cancer types, to analyze abnormal expression, methylation, alteration (mutations/fusions and amplification/deletion), and their clinical associations. Read More

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Enhancement of euryhaline biomass production for improving biogas generation through anaerobic co-digestion with carbon rich substrate.

3 Biotech 2021 May 3;11(5):251. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004 India.

The microalga was isolated from Muktsar, the southwestern zone of Indian Punjab and identified as BGLR5 (MF661929) by 18S rRNA sequence analysis. The optimization of various cultural factors by the Plackett-Burman and central composite (CCD) designs helped in discerning the significant cultural factors for the increased production of biomass and other functional components (chlorophyll, carbohydrate, lipid and protein). The optimal cultural conditions as per the model were pH 9. Read More

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Appraisal of Health States Worse Than Death in Patients With Acute Stroke.

Neurol Clin Pract 2021 Feb;11(1):43-48

Department of Medicine (EAE, PW) and Department of Neurology (WE, MRB), Washington University in St. Louis, MO.

Objective: To identify health states that patients with acute stroke deem worse than death and to explore potential predictors for these ratings.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients admitted to an urban comprehensive stroke center with acute stroke. Participants were asked to rate 10 possible health states/functional outcomes as better or worse than death using a 5-point Likert scale. Read More

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February 2021

Characterization of a High Hierarchical Regulator, , Functioning in Differentially Regulating Secondary Wall Component Biosynthesis in .

Front Plant Sci 2021 21;12:657787. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Research Center of Saline and Alkali Land of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

In plants, GATA transcription factors () have been reported to play vital roles in to a wide range of biological processes. To date, there is still no report about the involvement and functions of woody plant GATA in wood formation. In this study, we described the functional characterization of a GATA TF, , which encodes a nuclear-localized transcriptional activator predominantly expressing in developing xylem tissues. Read More

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Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Reveals Tissue Compartment-Specific Plasticity of Mycosis Fungoides Tumor Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:666935. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. While initially restricted to the skin, malignant cells can appear in blood, bone marrow and secondary lymphoid organs in later disease stages. However, only little is known about phenotypic and functional properties of malignant T cells in relationship to tissue environments over the course of disease progression. Read More

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Macrophage Biology and Mechanisms of Immune Suppression in Breast Cancer.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:643771. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Breast Tumor Immunology Laboratory, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, United States.

Macrophages are crucial innate immune cells that maintain tissue homeostasis and defend against pathogens; however, their infiltration into tumors has been associated with adverse outcomes. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent a significant component of the inflammatory infiltrate in breast tumors, and extensive infiltration of TAMs has been linked to poor prognosis in breast cancer. Here, we detail how TAMs impede a productive tumor immunity cycle by limiting antigen presentation and reducing activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) while simultaneously supporting tumor cell survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Read More

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