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"I just keep quiet about it and act as if everything is alright" - The cascade from trauma to disengagement among adolescents living with HIV in western Kenya.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Apr;24(4):e25695

Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH), Eldoret, Kenya.

Introduction: There are approximately 1.7 million adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV, ages 10 to 19) globally, including 110,000 in Kenya. While ALHIV experience poor retention in care, limited data exist on factors underlying disengagement. Read More

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Feasibility and Effectiveness of Norepinephrine Outside the Intensive Care Setting for Treatment of Hepatorenal Syndrome.

Liver Transpl 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Stanford University, Division of Nephrology.

Background & Aims: Vasoconstrictors are the treatment of choice for hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a potentially lethal complication of end-stage liver disease. We evaluate the real-life effectiveness of a sequential vasoconstrictor regimen of midodrine-octreotide followed by norepinephrine in a non-ICU setting in the United States, where terlipressin is not available.

Approach & Results: Adult patients diagnosed with HRS were treated with oral midodrine and subcutaneous octreotide in conjunction with albumin. Read More

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Healthcare Costs of Not Achieving Remission in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in the United States: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Adv Ther 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA.

Introduction: To compare all-cause and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related healthcare costs and resource use in patients with RA who do not achieve remission versus those who achieve remission, using clinical practice data.

Methods: Data were derived from Optum electronic health records linked to claims from commercial and Medicare Advantage health plans. Two cohorts were created: remission and non-remission. Read More

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Applying evidence-based methods to the development and use of adverse outcome pathways.

ALTEX 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Evidence-Based Toxicology Collaboration (EBTC) at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The workshop "Application of evidence-based methods to construct mechanistic frameworks for the development and use of non-animal toxicity tests" was organized by the Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration and hosted by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group on June 12, 2019. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together international regulatory bodies, risk assessors, academic scientists, and industry to explore how systematic review methods and the adverse outcome pathway framework could be combined to develop and use mechanistic test methods for predicting the toxicity of chemical substances in an evidence-based manner. The meeting covered the history of biological frameworks, the way adverse outcome pathways are currently developed, the basic principles of systematic methodology, including systematic reviews and evidence maps, and assessment of certainty in models, and adverse outcome pathways in particular. Read More

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Floquet-enhanced spin swaps.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 9;12(1):2142. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

The transfer of information between quantum systems is essential for quantum communication and computation. In quantum computers, high connectivity between qubits can improve the efficiency of algorithms, assist in error correction, and enable high-fidelity readout. However, as with all quantum gates, operations to transfer information between qubits can suffer from errors associated with spurious interactions and disorder between qubits, among other things. Read More

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Reassessing the Inclusion of Race in Diagnosing Kidney Diseases: An Interim Report from the NKF-ASN Task Force.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, Priscilla Chan and Mark Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California

For almost two decades, equations that use serum creatinine, age, sex, and race to eGFR have included "race" as Black or non-Black. Given considerable evidence of disparities in health and healthcare delivery in African American communities, some regard keeping a race term in GFR equations as a practice that differentially influences access to care and kidney transplantation. Others assert that race captures important GFR determinants and its removal from the calculation may perpetuate other disparities. Read More

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Global diversity and biogeography of the mycobiome.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Genome Center, University of California, Davis, CA, United States.

Seagrasses are marine flowering plants that provide critical ecosystem services in coastal environments worldwide. Marine fungi are often overlooked in microbiome and seagrass studies, despite terrestrial fungi having critical functional roles as decomposers, pathogens or endophytes in global ecosystems. Here we characterize the distribution of fungi associated with the seagrass, using leaves, roots, and rhizosphere sediment from 16 locations across its full biogeographic range. Read More

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Delayed onset of tooth decay in a routine pediatric adenotonsillectomy.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Mar 31;42(5):103019. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Boston Medical Center- Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery, United States of America. Electronic address:

Adenotonsillectomy is a common pediatric surgical procedure with a well-defined safety profile. Major complications from this procedure include bleeding/hemorrhage, infection, pain leading to dehydration, and airway obstruction or edema. Though rare, oral endotracheal intubation and oral retractor placement may result in injuries to the teeth and the surrounding soft tissue. Read More

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Impacts and challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic on emergency medicine physicians in the United States.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 2;48:38-47. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Kendall Regional Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Emergency medicine (EM) physicians have been on the front line of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and other related factors such as resource availability and institutional support on well-being, burnout and job-satisfaction of EM physicians in the United States.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey study of EM physicians was conducted through the Emergency Medicine Practice Research Network of the ACEP. Read More

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Synthesis and Comparative Evaluation of Site-Specifically Labeled Radioimmunoconjugates for DLL3-Targeted ImmunoPET.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, United States.

Delta-like ligand 3 (DLL3) is a therapeutic target for the treatment of small cell lung cancer, neuroendocrine prostate cancer, and isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant glioma. In the clinic, DLL3-targeted Zr-immunoPET has the potential to aid in the assessment of disease burden and facilitate the selection of patients suitable for therapies that target the antigen. The overwhelming majority of Zr-labeled radioimmunoconjugates are synthesized via the random conjugation of desferrioxamine (DFO) to lysine residues within the immunoglobulin. Read More

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Hospitalization and mortality outcomes in the first 5 years after a childhood cancer diagnosis: a population-based study.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Purpose: Children with cancer are frequently hospitalized. However, hospitalization and death by disease category are not well defined < 5 years from diagnosis.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked cancer registry-hospital discharge-vital records to identify cancer cases < 20 years at diagnosis during 1987-2012 (n = 4,567) and comparison children without cancer, matched on birth year and sex (n = 45,582). Read More

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Deep learning approach to predict pain progression in knee osteoarthritis.

Skeletal Radiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Radiology, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: To develop and evaluate deep learning (DL) risk assessment models for predicting pain progression in subjects with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Materials And Methods: The incidence and progression cohorts of the Osteoarthritis Initiative, a multi-center longitudinal study involving 9348 knees in 4674 subjects with or at risk of knee OA that began in 2004 and is ongoing, were used to conduct this retrospective analysis. A subset of knees without and with pain progression (defined as a 9-point or greater increase in pain score between baseline and two or more follow-up time points over the first 48 months) was randomly stratified into training (4200 knees with a mean age of 61. Read More

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Differential RA responsiveness among subsets of mouse late progenitor spermatogonia.

Reproduction 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

B Hermann, Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, United States.

Initiation of spermatogonial differentiation in the mouse testis begins with the response to retinoic acid (RA) characterized by activation of KIT and STRA8 expression. In the adult, spermatogonial differentiation is spatiotemporally coordinated by a pulse of RA every 8.6 days that is localized to stages VII-VIII of the seminiferous epithelial cycle. Read More

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Simultaneous trimodal single-cell measurement of transcripts, epitopes, and chromatin accessibility using TEA-seq.

Elife 2021 Apr 9;10. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Allen Institute for Immunology, Seattle, United States.

Single-cell measurements of cellular characteristics have been instrumental in understanding the heterogeneous pathways that drive differentiation, cellular responses to signals, and human disease. Recent advances have allowed paired capture of protein abundance and transcriptomic state, but a lack of epigenetic information in these assays has left a missing link to gene regulation. Using the heterogeneous mixture of cells in human peripheral blood as a test case, we developed a novel scATAC-seq workflow that increases signal-to-noise and allows paired measurement of cell surface markers and chromatin accessibility: integrated cellular indexing of chromatin landscape and epitopes, called ICICLE-seq. Read More

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Factors affecting the infection of sweet cherry fruit by .

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Washington State University, Plant Pathology, 24106 N Bunn Road, Prosser, Washington, United States, 99350;

Powdery mildew caused by is the most important fungal disease of sweet cherries in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In this study, several factors related to disease epidemiology were evaluated. The experiments were conducted to investigate flower susceptibility to infection by in planta and in vitro inoculation. Read More

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Measuring Topological Invariants in a Polaritonic Analog of Graphene.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(12):127403

Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8523-PhLAM-Physique des Lasers Atomes et Molécules, F-59000 Lille, France.

Topological materials rely on engineering global properties of their bulk energy bands called topological invariants. These invariants, usually defined over the entire Brillouin zone, are related to the existence of protected edge states. However, for an important class of Hamiltonians corresponding to 2D lattices with time-reversal and chiral symmetry (e. Read More

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Chimera Time-Crystalline Order in Quantum Spin Networks.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(12):120606

National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430, Japan.

Symmetries are well known to have had a profound role in our understanding of nature and are a critical design concept for the realization of advanced technologies. In fact, many symmetry-broken states associated with different phases of matter appear in a variety of quantum technology applications. Such symmetries are normally broken in spatial dimension, however, they can also be broken temporally leading to the concept of discrete time symmetries and their associated crystals. Read More

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Media Matters, Examining Historical and Modern Growth Media and the Experiments They Affect.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 23;11:613623. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States.

While some bacteria can thrive for generations in minerals and salts, many require lavish nutrition and specific chemicals to survive to the point where they can be observed and researched. Although researchers once boiled and rendered animal flesh and bones to obtain a media that facilitated bacterial growth, we now have a plethora of formulations and manufacturers to provide dehydrated flavors of historical, modified, and modern media. The purpose of media has evolved from simple isolation to more measured study. Read More

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Interplay Between Endocrine Disruptors and Immunity: Implications for Diseases of Autoreactive Etiology.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:626107. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

The sex-bias of disease susceptibility has remained a puzzling aspect of several autoimmune conditions, including post-infection viral autoimmunity. In the last half of the twentieth century, the incidence rate of female-biased autoimmunity has steadily increased independent of medical advances. This has suggested a role for environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals, which have been described to interfere with endocrine signaling. Read More

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Non-responsive celiac disease in children on a gluten free diet.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(13):1311-1320

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, United States.

Background: Non-responsive celiac disease (NRCD) is defined as the persistence of symptoms in individuals with celiac disease (CeD) despite being on a gluten-free diet (GFD). There is scant literature about NRCD in the pediatric population.

Aim: To determine the incidence, clinical characteristics and underlying causes of NRCD in children. Read More

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Metabolic syndrome in Zambian adults with human immunodeficiency virus on antiretroviral therapy: Prevalence and associated factors.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25236

University of Zambia School of Public Health.

Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of factors including hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance that separately and together significantly increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. In sub-Saharan Africa, with a substantial burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and increasing prevalence of CVD and diabetes, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics associated with MetS among people with HIV (people with human [PWH]). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the burden and factors influencing MetS in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced individuals in Zambia. Read More

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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Death Associated With Severe Maternal Morbidity in the United States: Failure to Rescue.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Anesthesiology and the Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York; the Department of Anesthesia, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa; and the Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York.

Objective: To analyze racial and ethnic disparities in failure to rescue (ie, death) associated with severe maternal morbidity and describe temporal trends.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study using administrative data. Data for delivery hospitalizations with severe maternal morbidity, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were abstracted from the 1999-2017 National Inpatient Sample. Read More

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Pediatric radiologic manifestations of COVID-19.

Clin Imaging 2021 Mar 30;75:165-170. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Radiology, University of Washington and Seattle Children's Hospital, 4800 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105, United States of America.

Purpose: While full description of pediatric COVID-19 manifestations is evolving, children appear to present less frequently, and often display a less severe disease phenotype. There is correspondingly less data regarding pediatric radiologic findings. To describe the imaging findings of pediatric COVID-19, we evaluated the radiologic imaging of the initial patient cohort identified at our institution. Read More

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Support for an inhibitory model of word retrieval.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 5:135876. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Psychology, Boston College, United States.

Word retrieval may involve an inhibitory process in which a target word is activated and related words are suppressed. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined the inhibition of language processing cortex by the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during word retrieval using an anagram-solving paradigm. Participants were presented with a distractor that was read aloud followed by a to-be-solved anagram. Read More

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Clopidogrel response predicts thromboembolic events associated with coil embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: A prospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249766. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objective: Periprocedural thromboembolic events are a serious complication associated with coil embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. However, no established clinical rule for predicting thromboembolic events exists. This study aimed to clarify the significance of adding preoperative clopidogrel response value to clinical factors when predicting the occurrence of thromboembolic events during/after coil embolization and to develop a nomogram for thromboembolic event prediction. Read More

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Polypharmacy among people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural communes in Vietnam.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249849. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Public Health, Global Health Section, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen K, Denmark.

Objectives: People with diabetes are at high risk of polypharmacy owing to complex treatment of diabetes and comorbidities. Polypharmacy is associated with increased risk of adverse reactions and decreased compliance. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess polypharmacy in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated diabetes-related factors in rural areas in Vietnam. Read More

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Establishing how social capital is studied in relation to cardiovascular disease and identifying gaps for future research-A scoping review protocol.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249751. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Cardiology, The Southeast Permanente Medical Group, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Introduction: Though the relationship between social capital and health has been widely studied, the evidence of this relationship in cardiovascular disease is limited, with varied and inconsistent measures. This scoping review seeks to address this gap by answering the following questions: (1) How has social capital been characterized and measured in the literature related to cardiovascular disease? and (2) What gaps exist in the evaluation of the relationship between social capital and cardiovascular disease?

Materials And Methods: A scoping review will be used to answer the research questions. The scoping review will apply established methods described by Arksey and O'Malley, Levac and colleagues, and the Joanne Briggs Institute: (1) identifying the research question(s); (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) selecting the studies; (4) charting the data; and (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results. Read More

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Flipping the switch on the hub cell: Islet desynchronization through cell silencing.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0248974. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Pancreatic β cells, responsible for secreting insulin into the bloodstream and maintaining glucose homeostasis, are organized in the islets of Langerhans as clusters of electrically coupled cells. Gap junctions, connecting neighboring cells, coordinate the behavior of the islet, leading to the synchronized oscillations in the intracellular calcium and insulin secretion in healthy islets. Recent experimental work has shown that silencing special hub cells can lead to a disruption in the coordinated behavior, calling into question the democratic paradigm of islet insulin secretion with more or less equal input from each β cell. Read More

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Factors associated with dietary diversity among pregnant women in the western hill region of Nepal: A community based cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0247085. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Central Department of Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Dietary diversity can play an important role in providing essential nutrients for both mother and fetus during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the factors associated with dietary diversity during pregnancy in the western hill region of Nepal.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 327 pregnant women was conducted in an urban municipality of Baglung district in the western hill region of Nepal. Read More

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Inhibitory neurons exhibit high controlling ability in the cortical microconnectome.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Apr 8;17(4):e1008846. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Graduate Schools of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

The brain is a network system in which excitatory and inhibitory neurons keep activity balanced in the highly non-random connectivity pattern of the microconnectome. It is well known that the relative percentage of inhibitory neurons is much smaller than excitatory neurons in the cortex. So, in general, how inhibitory neurons can keep the balance with the surrounding excitatory neurons is an important question. Read More

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