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Unveiling spatial metabolome of Paeonia Suffruticosa and Paeonia Lactiflora roots using MALDI MS imaging.

New Phytol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines and School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

Paeonia suffruticosa (PS) and Paeonia lactiflora (PL) belong to the genus Paeonia, the only genus in the family Paeoniaceae. The comparative analysis of spatial metabolome of PS and PL is scarcely performed. In this work, combined with multiple matrixes and dual-polarity detection, high mass resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) and MALDI tandem MSI were performed on the root sections of two species. Read More

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Molecular mechanisms of physical exercise on depression in the elderly: a systematic review.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Physical Education Department, Federal University of the Valleys of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG, Brazil.

Depressive disorders are common among the elderly. Major depressive disorder will be one of the highest healthcare costs in middle and higher income countries by 2030. It is known that physical inactivity leads to negative effects on mental health in the elderly. Read More

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Reduction of higher-order occipital GABA and impaired visual perception in acute major depressive disorder.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Affilianted Mental Health Center & Hangzhou Seventh People's Hospital, Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex state-dependent psychiatric illness for which biomarkers linking psychophysical, biochemical, and psychopathological changes remain yet elusive, though. Earlier studies demonstrate reduced GABA in lower-order occipital cortex in acute MDD leaving open its validity and significance for higher-order visual perception, though. The goal of our study is to fill that gap by combining psychophysical investigation of visual perception with measurement of GABA concentration in middle temporal visual area (hMT+) in acute depressed MDD. Read More

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Reorganization of auditory-visual network interactions in long-term unilateral postlingual hearing loss.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 May 19;87:97-102. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, China; Neurosurgical Institute of Fudan University, China; Shanghai Clinical Medical Center of Neurosurgery, China. Electronic address:

Long-term unilateral hearing loss could reorganize the functional network association between the bilateral auditory cortices, while alterations of other functional networks need to be further explored. We attempted to investigate the pattern of the reorganization of functional network associations between the auditory and visual cortex caused by long-term postlingual unilateral hearing loss (UHI) and its relationship with clinical characteristics. Therefore, 48 patients with hearing loss caused by unilateral acoustic tumors and 52 matched healthy controls were enrolled, and their high-resolution structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI data were also collected to depict the brain network. Read More

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Single-cell mechanical analysis and tension quantification via electrodeformation relaxation.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032409

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

The mechanical behavior and cortical tension of single cells are analyzed using electrodeformation relaxation. Four types of cells, namely, MCF-10A, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and GBM, are studied, with pulse durations ranging from 0.01 to 10 s. Read More

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'Visual' cortices of congenitally blind adults are sensitive to response selection demands in a go/no-go task.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 13:118023. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Johns Hopkins University, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences.

Studies of occipital cortex plasticity in blindness provide insight into how intrinsic constraints interact with experience to determine cortical specialization. We tested the cognitive nature and anatomical origins of occipital responses during non-verbal, non-spatial auditory tasks. In a go/no-go task, congenitally blind (N=23) and sighted (N=24) individuals heard rapidly occurring (<1/sec) non-verbal sounds and made one of two button presses (frequent-go 50%, infrequent-go 25%) or withheld a response (no-go, 25%). Read More

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Integrated Phylogeny of the Human Brain and Pathobiology of Alzheimer's Disease: A Unifying Hypothesis.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 13:135895. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA.

The disproportionate evolutionary expansion of human cerebral cortex with reinforcement of cholinergic innervations warranted the rise in functional and metabolic load of conserved basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system. Given that acetylcholine (ACh) regulates the properties of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau and promotes non-amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the growing neocortex increased demands for ACh, while the emerging role of BF cholinergic projections in Aβ clearance entailed greater exposure of source neurons and their innervation fields to amyloid pathology and tau toxicity. The higher exposure of evolutionary most recent cortical areas to amyloid pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with synaptic deficit and atrophy, therefore, might involve reduced homeostatic and protective effects of BF cholinergic projections, in addition to fall-outs of inherent processes of expanding association areas. Read More

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Safety learning during development: implications for development of psychopathology.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 13:113297. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3901 Chrysler Dr, Tolan Park Suite 2C, Detroit, MI 48201 United States. Electronic address:

Fear and safety learning are necessary adaptive behaviors that develop over the course of maturation. While there is a large body of literature regarding the neurobiology of fear and safety learning in adults, less is known regarding safety learning during development. Given developmental changes in the brain, there are corresponding changes in safety learning that are quantifiable; these may serve to predict risk and point to treatment targets for fear and anxiety-related disorders in children and adolescents. Read More

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A multimodal meta-analysis of regional structural and functional brain alterations in type 2 diabetes.

Front Neuroendocrinol 2021 Apr 13:100915. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, NO. 37 Guoxue Xiang, Chengdu, 610041, China; Research Unit of Psychoradiology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, NO. 37 Guoxue Xiang, Chengdu, 610041, China; Functional and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan University, NO. 37 Guoxue Xiang, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:

Neuroimaging studies have identified brain structural and functional alterations of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients; however, there is no systematic information on the relations between abnormalities in these two domains. We conducted a multimodal meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry and regional resting-state functional MRI studies in T2DM, including fifteen structural datasets (693 patients and 684 controls) and sixteen functional datasets (378 patients and 358 controls). We found, in patients with T2DM compared to controls, conjoint decreased regional gray matter volume (GMV) and altered intrinsic activity mainly in the default mode network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus/Rolandic operculum, left middle and inferior temporal gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus; decreased GMV alone in the limbic system; and functional abnormalities alone in the cerebellum, insula, and visual cortex. Read More

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Bifurcation analyses and potential landscapes of a cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus model.

IET Syst Biol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Statistics and Mathematics, Inner Mongolia University of Finance and Economics, Hohhot, China.

The dynamics of cortical neuronal activity plays important roles in controlling body movement and is regulated by connection weights between neurons in a cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus (BGCT) loop. Beta-band oscillation of cortical activity is closely associated with the movement disorder of Parkinson's disease, which is caused by an imbalance in the connection weights of direct and indirect pathways in the BGCT loop. In this study, the authors investigate how the dynamics of cortical activity are modulated by connection weights of direct and indirect pathways in the BGCT loop under low dopamine levels through bifurcation analyses and potential landscapes. Read More

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Dysfunctional Brain Reward System in Child Obesity.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

ISGlobal, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Eating habits leading to obesity may reflect nonhomeostatic behavior based on excessive immediate-reward seeking. However, it is currently unknown to what extent excess weight is associated with functional alterations in the brain's reward system in children. We tested the integrity of reward circuits using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging in a population of 230 children aged 8-12 years. Read More

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Region- and receptor-specific effects of chronic social stress on the central serotonergic system in mice.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 3;10:8-16. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Roehampton, London SW15 4JD, UK.

Serotonin (5-HT), via its receptors expressed in discrete brain regions, modulates aversion and reward processing and is implicated in various psychiatric disorders including depression. Stressful experiences affect central serotonergic activity and act as a risk factor for depression; this can be modelled preclinically. In adult male C57BL/6J mice, 15-day chronic social stress (CSS) leads to depression-relevant behavioural states, including increased aversion and reduced reward sensitivity. Read More

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Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation Inhibits Cortical Spreading Depression.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is closely correlated with migraine aura, cerebral ischemia, seizure, and brain injury, is a spreading wave of neuronal and glial depolarization. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation (PUS) inhibits CSD by modulating neural activity and hemodynamics. Behavioral test, intrinsic signal optical imaging and western blot analysis were used for evaluating the inhibition effect of PUS on CSD in rat. Read More

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Effects of transcranial static magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex on local and network spontaneous electroencephalogram oscillations.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8261. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

The Graduate School of Core Ethics and Frontier Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 56-1, Tojiin, Kitamachi, Kita-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto, 603-8577, Japan.

Transcranial static magnetic stimulation (tSMS) is a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique that reduces cortical excitability at the stimulation site. We investigated the effects of tSMS over the left primary motor cortex (M1) for 20 min on the local electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum and interregional EEG coupling. Twelve right-handed healthy subjects participated in this crossover, double-blind, sham-controlled study. Read More

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Botulinum toxin injection changes resting state cerebellar connectivity in cervical dystonia.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8322. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Olomouc, I. P. Pavlova 6, 77900, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

In cervical dystonia, functional MRI (fMRI) evidence indicates changes in several resting state networks, which revert in part following the botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) therapy. Recently, the involvement of the cerebellum in dystonia has gained attention. The aim of our study was to compare connectivity between cerebellar subdivisions and the rest of the brain before and after BoNT treatment. Read More

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State-Dependent Regulation of Cortical Processing Speed via Gain Modulation.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biology and Institute of Neuroscience

To thrive in dynamic environments, animals must be capable of rapidly and flexibly adapting behavioral responses to a changing context and internal state. Examples of behavioral flexibility include faster stimulus responses when attentive and slower responses when distracted. Contextual or state-dependent modulations may occur early in the cortical hierarchy and may be implemented via top-down projections from corticocortical or neuromodulatory pathways. Read More

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Functional connectivity networks and their recruitment during working memory tasks in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors.

Brain Connect 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Georgia State University, 1373, Psychology and the Neuroscience Institute, Atlanta, Georgia, United States;

Assessments of functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) and positively task-related networks (TRNs) using independent component analysis (ICA) may help describe long-term effects of childhood brain tumors and adjuvant treatments. Aiming to identify potential neuronal markers that may aid in prognosis and inform interventions to optimize outcomes, the present study used ICA to evaluate the presence of functional connectivity networks and their recruitment during a letter n-back task in 23 adult survivors of childhood posterior fossa tumors (9 low grade, 14 high grade) at least 5 years past diagnosis compared to 40 age- and sex-matched healthy peers. DMN components generally demonstrated increasing disengagement as task difficulty increased, and relationships between effective DMN disengagement and improved performance were observed in healthy controls (HC). Read More

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Recognition memory and divergent cognitive profiles in prodromal genetic frontotemporal dementia.

Cortex 2021 Mar 19;139:99-115. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Although executive dysfunction is the characteristic cognitive marker of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), episodic memory deficits are relatively common, and may be present even during the prodromal disease phase. In a cohort of mutation carriers with mild behavioral and/or cognitive symptoms consistent with prodromal bvFTD, we aimed to investigate patterns of performance on an abbreviated list learning task, with a particular focus on recognition memory. We further aimed to characterize the cognitive prodromes associated with the three major genetic causes of frontotemporal dementia, as emerging evidence suggests there may be subtle differences in cognitive profiles among carriers of different genetic mutations. Read More

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Language switching training modulates the neural network of non-linguistic cognitive control.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0247100. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, P. R. China.

Bilingual language experience, such as switching between languages, has been shown to shape both cognitive and neural mechanisms of non-linguistic cognitive control. However, the neural adaptations induced by language switching remain unclear. Using fMRI, the current study examined the impact of short-term language switching training on the neural network of domain-general cognitive control for unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals. Read More

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A case of developmental pedophilia unmasked by frontotemporal dementia.

Neurocase 2021 Apr 15:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, Gaffrée e Guinle University Hospital, the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

A 65-year-old right-handed man gradually became socially indifferent and less active. Four years later, he was indicted for molesting children on multiple occasions. Psychomotor slowness and executive impairment contrasted with sparing of language, semantic memory, visuospatial perception, construction praxis, and right-left orientation. Read More

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Controlling for activity-dependent genes and behavioral states is critical for determining brain relationships within and across species.

J Comp Neurol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States.

The genetic profile of vertebrate pallia has long driven debate on homology across distantly related clades. Based on an expression profile of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 in mouse and chicken brains, Puelles et al. (2016) concluded that the avian lateral mesopallium is homologous to the mammalian claustrum, and the medial mesopallium homologous to the insula cortex. Read More

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Morphological and Morphometrical Analyses of Fracture-Healing Sites of an Atypical Femoral Fracture in Patients with and without Long-Term Bisphosphonate Treatment for Osteoporosis: A Report of Two Cases.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2021 ;253(4):261-267

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine.

Bisphosphonates have been the first drug of choice for osteoporosis in the recent years because of their known ability to suppress osteoclast activity. The adverse effect of long-term bisphosphonate administration in the fracture-healing process is controversial. The aim of our study was to observe not only morphology but also morphometry of the fracture site of atypical femoral fracture with and without long-term bisphosphonate administration, in a case study of two difficult-to-obtain human samples. Read More

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January 2021

Repetitive deep TMS for the reduction of body weight: Bimodal effect on the functional brain connectivity in "diabesity".

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università Degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; Department of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, IRCCS MultiMedica, Sesto San Giovanni, MI, Italy. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Deep repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (deep rTMS) over the bilateral insula and prefrontal cortex (PFC) can promote weight-loss in obesity, preventing cardiometabolic complications as Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). To investigate the changes in the functional brain integration after dTMS, we conducted a resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) study in obesity.

Methods And Results: This preliminary study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study: 9 participants were treated with high-frequency stimulation (realTMS group), 8 were sham-treated (shamTMS group). Read More

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February 2021

A bias towards natural rewards away from gambling cues in gamblers undergoing active treatment.

Brain Res 2021 Apr 11:147479. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience/MINDLab, Danish Neuroscience Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, Building 1A, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark; Department of Nuclear Medicine & PET-Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, Indgang J, Plan 2, J220, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

Background: Disorders of substance and behavioral addiction are believed to be associated with a myopic bias towards the incentive salience of addiction-related cues away from general rewards in the environment. In non-treatment seeking gambling disorder patients, neural activity to anticipation of monetary rewards is enhanced relative to erotic rewards. Here we focus on the balance between anticipation of reward types in active treatment gamblers relative to healthy volunteers. Read More

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Levodopa responsiveness in Parkinson's disease patients and white matter alterations in diffusion tensor imaging: a cross-sectional tract-based spatial statistics study.

Neuroreport 2021 May;32(7):636-642

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between levodopa responsiveness and white matter alterations in Parkinson's disease patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-six recruited Parkinson's disease patients were evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y) and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Each patient underwent a DTI scan and an acute levodopa challenge test. Read More

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Heterogeneous distribution of tau pathology in the behavioural variant of Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objective: The clinical phenotype of the rare behavioural variant of Alzheimer's disease (bvAD) is insufficiently understood. Given the strong clinico-anatomical correlations of tau pathology in AD, we investigated the distribution of tau deposits in bvAD, in-vivo and ex-vivo, using positron emission tomography (PET) and postmortem examination.

Methods: For the tau PET study, seven amyloid-β positive bvAD patients underwent [F]flortaucipir or [F]RO948 PET. Read More

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Amygdala hyperconnectivity in the paranoid state: A transdiagnostic study.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Mar 29;138:117-124. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Paranoia significantly contributes to social impairments across clinical diagnoses, and amygdala dysfunction has been identified as a neurobiological marker of paranoia among individuals with schizophrenia. Therefore, we aimed to investigate amygdala functional connectivity (FC) in paranoia across diagnoses.

Methods: Forty-five patients with recent history of clinically significant paranoid ideation and a current DSM-5 diagnosis of any disorder underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging either in a paranoid (N = 23) or non-paranoid (N = 22) state. Read More

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Does pericentral mu-rhythm "power" corticomotor excitability? - a matter of EEG perspective.

Brain Stimul 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Electroencephalography (EEG) and single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (spTMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1-HAND) have been combined to explore whether the instantaneous expression of pericentral mu-rhythm drives fluctuations in corticomotor excitability, but this line of research has yielded diverging results.

Objectives: To re-assess the relationship between the mu-rhythm power expressed in left pericentral cortex and the amplitude of motor potentials (MEP) evoked with spTMS in left M1-HAND.

Methods: 15 non-preselected healthy young participants received spTMS to the motor hot spot of left M1-HAND. Read More

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The orbitofrontal cortex is necessary for learning to ignore.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Electronic address:

Animals learn not only what is potentially useful but also what is meaningless and should be disregarded. How this is accomplished is a key but seldom explored question in psychology and neuroscience. Learning to ignore irrelevant cues is evident in latent inhibition-the ubiquitous phenomenon where presenting a cue several times without consequences leads to retardation of subsequent conditioning to that cue. Read More

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