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What prompts clinicians to start antibiotic treatment in COVID-19 patients? An Italian web-survey helps us understand where the doubts lie.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Infectious Diseases I Unit, Fondazione IRCCS San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; Department of Medical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Science, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

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Indoor solid fuel use for heating and cooking with blood pressure and hypertension: A cross-sectional study among middle-aged and older adults in China.

Indoor Air 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the impact of solid fuel use for heating and cooking on blood pressure (BP) and hypertension, using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). The primary fuels used for indoor heating and cooking were collected by questionnaires, respectively. Hypertension was defined based on self-report of physician's diagnosis, and/or measured BP, and/or anti-hypertensive medication use. Read More

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Medication errors during treatment with new oral anticancer agents: consequences for clinical practice based on the AMBORA study.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Friedrich- Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Patients treated with oral anticancer agents (e.g. kinase inhibitors) are a high-risk population for medication errors due to e. Read More

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Predicting species and community responses to global change using structured expert judgement: An Australian mountain ecosystems case study.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Australian Capital Territory, Acton, 2601, Australia.

Conservation managers are under increasing pressure to make decisions about the allocation of finite resources to protect biodiversity under a changing climate. However, the impacts of climate and global change drivers on species are outpacing our capacity to collect the empirical data necessary to inform these decisions. This is particularly the case in the Australian Alps which has already undergone recent changes in climate and experienced more frequent large-scale bushfires. Read More

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Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza hospitalizations in Danish children 2010-2016.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: To pave the way for universal or risk factor-based vaccination strategies, the present study aimed to describe the epidemiology and compare risk factors for hospitalization associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus infections in Danish children.

Methods: National register-based cohort study among 403,422 Danish children born 2010-2016.

Results: Prior asthma hospitalization, number of children in the household, chronic disease and maternal history of asthma hospitalization were the most important risk factors for both RSV and influenza hospitalization. Read More

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The politics of testing positive: an autoethnography of media (mis)representations at the 'start' and 'end' of different pandemics.

Max Morris

Cult Health Sex 2021 Jun 11:1-15. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Criminology and Sociology, Kingston University, Kingston-Upon-Thames, UK.

This paper draws on an autoethnographic 'digital diary' which the author began after testing positive for HIV in July 2016, until May 2021, to critically assess (mis)representations of both the AIDS and COVID-19 pandemics in the media. Drawing on insights from art, literature, queer theory and social anthropology, the paper focuses on dominant moral and political discourses to show how narratives of blame, shame and guilt about viral transmission contribute to the stigmatisation of 'at risk' groups. Concepts of biopower and normative judgement are used to reflect on discourses which construct those who 'test positive' for HIV or SARS-CoV-2 as 'reckless', 'risky' or 'irresponsible' subjects. Read More

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"Poor Effort" Does Not Account for Reduced Forced Vital Capacity in Asthmatic Children.

Front Pediatr 2021 25;9:596384. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Poor forced vital capacity (FVC) effort has been considered to be the main reason for FVC reduction by the ATS/ERS guideline; however, this has rarely been mentioned in previous studies. The present study aims to determine whether reduced FVC in asthmatic children is correlated to poor FVC effort. A total of 209 asthmatic children within 5-13 years old were included and divided into reduced FVC ("restricted," = 66) and typical obstruction group ("obstructed," = 143). Read More

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Study of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Endosomal Toll-Like Receptors-3, 7, and 9 Genes in Patients With Dengue: A Case-Control Study.

Cureus 2021 May 7;13(5):e14883. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, IND.

Introduction The endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR) TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 are localized in immune cells, recognize the viral pattern associated molecular pattern (PAMPs), and start signaling cascades for immune defense response and genetic factor is known to affect the dengue virus infection therefore in our study we study the association of endosomal Toll-like receptors 3 polymorphism rs3775291, rs3775290, and rs3775296 with rs179008 A/T and rs179009C/T polymorphisms of TLR7 and rs187084 (C/T), rs5743836 (C/T) of TLR9 gene with dengue and controls. Materials and methods Ninety-eight cases of dengue virus (DV) infection and 98 healthy controls were enrolled. Clinical details were recorded and cases were classified as severe or non-severe dengue, based on WHO 2009 classification. Read More

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Variability in Emergency Management of Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Can J Diabetes 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: Our aim in this study was to identify pediatric patients presenting in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) who received initial treatment inconsistent with current guidelines, and then to track associated complications.

Methods: This retrospective chart review examined 47 pediatric patients admitted to our institution with DKA, including those transferred from community hospitals. Primary outcome measures were exposure to treatment-related risk factors for cerebral edema (CE), including administration of an intravenous (IV) insulin bolus, IV bicarbonate, insulin within 1 hour of IV fluid start and non-NPO (nil per os) status. Read More

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Real-world evidence for carfilzomib dosing intensity on overall survival and treatment progression in multiple myeloma patients.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2021 Jun 10:10781552211015283. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Introduction: Carfilzomib dosing as a single agent or in combination with dexamethasone (Kd) has evolved from the initial 27 mg/m twice-weekly (legacy dose), to more recently approved doses of 56 mg/m twice-weekly and 70 mg/m once-weekly (optimized doses). The objective of this study was to evaluate the overall survival (OS), and time to next treatment (TTNT) among multiple myeloma patients treated with Kd optimized vs legacy doses.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients receiving Kd between 01/01/2013-07/31/2017 was conducted using IQVIA's oncology electronic medical records database. Read More

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The association of breastfeeding self-efficacy with breastfeeding duration and exclusivity: longitudinal assessment of the predictive validity of the Greek version of the BSES-SF tool.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jun 9;21(1):421. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus.

Introduction: While breastfeeding self-efficacy (BSES) is an important modifiable determinant of breastfeeding, a structured assessment is not standard practice in Cyprus. We assessed the Greek version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES-SF), including its predictive validity in terms of Breastfeeding (BF) and Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) up to the sixth month.

Methods: A methodological study with longitudinal design among 586 mother-infant dyads, as part of the "BrEaST Start in Life" project. Read More

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Increased risk factors associated with lower BMD in antiretroviral-therapy-naïve HIV-infected adult male.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 9;21(1):542. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Infectious Diseases Division, Fundación Jiménez Díaz University Hospital, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Low BMD (bone mineral density) has been described as a non-AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)-related event in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-patients but it is poorly studied in young HIV-infected men who have received no previous antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 245 naïve-HIV-infected men over 21 and under 50 years old who voluntary attended the Infectious Disease Division appointment in Hospital Fundación Jimenez Díaz in Madrid, from January 1st, 2014 to September 30th, 2017. All subjects underwent a baseline DXA scan (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) performed prior to start antiretroviral treatment. Read More

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Road-Crossing Behavior in Complex Traffic Situations: A Comparison of Children With and Without ADHD.

Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Sq., PO Box: 1518, 9177948974, Mashhad, Iran.

All children are vulnerable to pedestrian injuries, but previous research suggests children diagnosed with ADHD may have elevated risk. Child pedestrian injury risk also increases with increasing traffic volume and speed. The current study examined three hypotheses: (a) Pedestrian behavior of children with ADHD is riskier than that of typically-developing children; (b) Children's pedestrian behavior is riskier with increased traffic complexity; and (c) Pedestrian behavior of children with ADHD is influenced more by complex traffic situations than behavior of typically-developing children. Read More

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Association of Chemotherapy Timing in Pregnancy With Congenital Malformation.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2113180. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Center for Gynecological Oncology Amsterdam, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek-Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Chemotherapy during the first trimester of pregnancy should be avoided owing to the risk of congenital malformations. However, the precise gestational age at which chemotherapy can be initiated safely remains unclear.

Objective: To assess congenital malformation rates associated with gestational age at initiation of chemotherapy among pregnant women with cancer. Read More

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Improving the engagement of Aboriginal families with maternal and child health services: a new model of care.

Public Health Res Pract 2021 Jun 9;31(2). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Objectives: Access in the early years to integrated community-based services that are flexible in their approach, holistic and culturally strong is a proven critical predictor of a child's successful transition to school and lifelong education and employment outcomes, providing long-term wellbeing. Studies show that participation in maternal and child health (MCH) services in Victoria, Australia, improve health outcomes for children and families, particularly for Aboriginal families. Poorer health outcomes and lower participation rates for these families in MCH services suggest there is a need for an urgent review of the current service model. Read More

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Infection vulnerability stratification risk modelling of COVID-19 data: a deterministic SEIR epidemic model analysis.

Ann Oper Res 2021 Jun 4:1-27. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Operations and Innovation Management, Nottingham University Business School, Nottingham, UK.

Basic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) models of COVID-19 dynamics tend to be excessively pessimistic due to high basic reproduction values, which result in overestimations of cases of infection and death. We propose an extended SEIR model and daily data of COVID-19 cases in the U.S. Read More

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Electronic cigarettes, vaping-related lung injury and lung cancer: where do we stand?

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul;30(4):293-296

Department of Thoracic Surgery, IRCCS European Institute of Oncology.

Electronic cigarettes have been considered a promising alternative to nicotine replacement products to help heavy tobacco smokers quit smoking. They work thanks to a heating coil causing evaporation of the liquid rapidly followed by cooling, thus creating an aerosol, a completely different mechanism from the combustion of tobacco in traditional cigarettes. The term 'vaping' indicates the use of electronic cigarettes or other devices to inhale heated, aerosolized nicotine, or other substances like cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, or butane hash oils together with solvents, mainly propylene glycol and vegetable glycerine or their combination. Read More

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Relationship between maternal age and labor induction duration and outcomes in nulliparous women.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun 8:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Objective: To determine the relationship between maternal age and labor induction duration among nulliparous women.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included nulliparous women with non-anomalous, term, singleton pregnancies undergoing labor induction with intact membranes at a tertiary-care academic hospital from January 2015 to April 2017. Maternal age was stratified as follows: <25 years, 25-29 years, 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and ≥ 40 years. Read More

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Scientific and regulatory evaluation of mechanistic in silico drug and disease models in drug development: building model credibility.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Biomechanics Section, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The value of in silico methods in drug development and evaluation has been demonstrated repeatedly and convincingly. While their benefits are now unanimously recognized, international standards for their evaluation, accepted by all stakeholders involved, are still to be established. In this white paper, we propose a risk-informed evaluation framework for mechanistic model credibility evaluation. Read More

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The Epidemiology of Alzheimer's Disease Modifiable Risk Factors and Prevention.

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;8(3):313-321

Dr. Jin-Tai Yu, Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai, China; or Dr. Lan Tan, Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, No.5 Donghai Middle Road, Qingdao, China, E-mail addresses: (J.T. Yu); (L. Tan), Tel: +86 21 52888160; Fax: +86 21 62483421.

Mild Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia, accounting for 50-70% of cases. Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease, which affects daily life activities and social functioning. As life expectancy increases and demographic ageing occurs, the global prevalence of Alzheimer's disease is expected to continue to rise especially in developing countries, leading to a costly burden of disease. Read More

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January 2021

Refinement and validation of a tool for stratifying patients with musculoskeletal pain.

Eur J Pain 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Primary Care Centre Versus Arthritis, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Keele University, United Kingdom.

Background: Patients with musculoskeletal pain in different body sites share common prognostic factors. Using prognosis to stratify and treatment match can be clinically and cost-effective. We aimed to refine and validate the Keele STarT MSK tool for prognostic stratification of musculoskeletal pain patients. Read More

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Axicabtagene ciloleucel in vivo expansion and treatment outcome in aggressive B-cell lymphoma in a real-world setting.

Blood Adv 2021 Jun;5(11):2523-2527

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation.

Data on the association between chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell kinetics and patient outcome in the nontrial setting are missing, mainly due to the lack of broadly available CAR-T-cell diagnostic quantification tools. We performed prospective quantification of axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) in 21 patients treated for aggressive B-cell lymphoma at our clinic. Median peak CAR-T-cell count was 16. Read More

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Breast Reconstruction and Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy: Technical Modifications and Their Outcomes Over Time at an Academic Breast Center.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Jun;86(6S Suppl 5):S521-S525

General Surgery, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: Superior aesthetic outcomes can be achieved with mastectomy techniques that maximize breast envelope preservation and maintain the nipple-areolar complex. This is the impetus for the popularization of the nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM). Nipple-sparing mastectomy is a challenging procedure due to potential ischemia of the mastectomy flap (which includes the nipple-areolar complex) and the risk of incomplete oncologic resection. Read More

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Do coronavirus vaccine challenge trials have a distinctive generalisability problem?

J Med Ethics 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Pharmacoepidemiology and Treatment Science and Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.

Notwithstanding the success of conventional field trials for vaccines against COVID-19, human challenge trials (HCTs) that could obtain more information about these and about other vaccines and further strategies against it are about to start in the UK. One critique of COVID-19 HCTs is their distinct paucity of information on crucial population groups. For safety reasons, these HCTs will exclude candidate participants of advanced age or with comorbidities that worsen COVID-19, yet a vaccine should (perhaps especially) protect such populations. Read More

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Police are Influenced by Anchoring and Risk When Allocating Resources for Scenario-based Intimate Partner Violence Cases.

Mark R Kebbell

J Interpers Violence 2021 Jun 7:8862605211021974. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Griffith University, Queensland, Australia.

Sixty-six police officers were given four intimate partner violence (IPV) scenarios to rate for risk of future violence. At the start of the experiment, participants were provided with either a low-risk or high-risk "anchor" scenario of police attending an IPV incident. Next, participants were given three counterbalanced scenarios: high, medium, and low risk. Read More

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HIV Risk and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Eligibility Among Emergency Department Patients.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2021 Jun;35(6):211-219

Department of Emergency Medicine, Highland Hospital, Alameda Health System, Oakland, California, USA.

Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) eligibility, characterize self-perceived and quantified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk, and assess PrEP knowledge and receptiveness of initiating PrEP among emergency department (ED) patients. We performed an IRB-approved cross-sectional study from two urban EDs. Patients were eligible if ≥18 years of age and not known to have HIV. Read More

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The Real-World Observational Prospective Study of Health Outcomes with Dulaglutide and Liraglutide in Type 2 Diabetes Patients (TROPHIES): Design and Baseline Characteristics.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Lilly France SAS, Neuilly Sur Seine, France.

Introduction: The TROPHIES observational study enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) initiating their first injectable treatment with the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) dulaglutide or liraglutide. This manuscript focuses on the study design, baseline characteristics of the enrolled population, and factors associated with GLP-1 RA choice.

Methods: TROPHIES is a prospective, observational, 24-month study conducted in France, Germany, and Italy. Read More

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[Handeczema and occupational health and safety measures].

Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2021 Jun;128(6):323-330

In recent decades, hand eczema has been seen more frequently in oral care practices. Hand eczema is a difficult problem, especially since the start of the current COVID-19-pandemic, and can lead to absence due to illness at work. The main trio in the development of eczema is predisposition (atopy), irritation and allergy. Read More

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Atypical Dyskinesias under treatment with antipsychotic drugs: Report from the AMSP Multicenter Drug Safety Project.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 7:1-41. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Nussbaumstraße 7, 80336 Munich, Germany.

Objectives: Aim of this study was to describe atypical dyskinesias (AtypDs) occurring during treatment with antipsychotic drugs (APDs). AtypDs are dyskinesias showing either an unusual temporal relationship between onset of treatment and start of the adverse drug reaction (ADR) or an unusual presentation of clinical symptoms.

Methods: Data on the utilization of APDs and reports of severe APD-induced AtypDs were collected using data from the observational pharmacovigilance programme - 'Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie (English: drug safety in psychiatry)' (AMSP)- from 1993 to 2016. Read More

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Despite an improved aerobic endurance, still high attrition rates in initially low-fit recruits-results of a randomised controlled trial.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2020 Dec 28;20:100679. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Epidemiology and Data Science, Master Evidence Based Practice in Health Care, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Low baseline fitness of recruits entering basic military training (BMT) is associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) and attrition from training.

Objective: To determine the effects of a pre-training conditioning program (PCP) on aerobic endurance, incidence of musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs), and attrition rates in BMT of a special infantry unit of the Netherlands Armed Forces.

Participants: Recruits were considered eligible for this study when they were 'low-fit' at the start of BMT (time to complete a 2. Read More

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December 2020