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Predicted Threshold for Seated Stability: Estimation of Margin of Stability Using Wearable Inertial Sensors.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Apr 15;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Individuals with spinal cord injury suffer from seated instability due to impaired trunk neuromuscular function. Monitoring seated stability toward the development of closed-loop controlled neuroprosthetic technologies could be beneficial for restoring trunk stability during sitting in affected individuals. However, there is a lack of (1) a biomechanical characterization to quantify the relationship between the trunk kinematics and sitting balance; and (2) a validated wearable biomedical device for assessing dynamic sitting posture and fall-risk in real-time. Read More

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Quantitative Comparison of Human and Software Reliability in the Categorisation of Sit-to-stand Motion Pattern.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2021 Apr 15;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

The Sit-to-Stand (STS) test is used in clinical practice as an indicator of lower-limb functionality decline, especially for older adults. Due to its high variability, there is no standard approach for categorising the STS movement and recognising its motion pattern. This paper presents a comparative analysis between visual assessments and an automated-software for the categorisation of STS, relying on registrations from a force plate. Read More

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Midbody penile urethrocutaneous fistula repaired by fistulectomy and urethral anastomosis in a stallion.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021 May;258(9):1007-1010

Case Description: A 12-year-old Friesian stallion was examined because of a 1-year history of preputial injury and urination through a urethrocutaneous fistula located at the midbody of the ventral aspect of the penis.

Clinical Findings: Physical examination revealed an opening with a clearly apparent mucocutaneous junction 12 cm from the distal opening of the urethra on the ventral left side of the penis. Endoscopic examination of the distal portion of the urethra confirmed a blind pouch with no communication with the fistula or proximal portion of the urethra. Read More

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Copper-Mediated Radical-Polar Crossover Enables Photocatalytic Oxidative Functionalization of Sterically Bulky Alkenes.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States.

Oxidative heterofunctionalization reactions are among the most attractive methods for the conversion of alkenes and heteroatomic nucleophiles into complex saturated heterocycles. However, the state-of-the-art transition-metal-catalyzed methods to effect oxidative heterofunctionalizations are typically limited to unhindered olefins, and different nucleophilic partners generally require quite different reaction conditions. Herein, we show that Cu(II)-mediated radical-polar crossover allows for highly efficient and exceptionally mild photocatalytic oxidative heterofunctionalization reactions between bulky tri- and tetrasubstituted alkenes and a wide variety of nucleophilic partners. Read More

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Free-Standing Single Ag Nanowires for Multifunctional Optical Probes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Miniaturized and manipulable optical probes are the foundation for developing in situ characterization devices in confined space. We developed two methods for fabricating free-standing single Ag nanowires (AgNWs) directly at the tip of a glass capillary either by chemical or electrochemical reduction. The electrochemical nature of both methods resulted in a rapid growth rate of AgNWs up to 1. Read More

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Effect of standing and sitting positions on energy expenditure in people with transtibial amputation compared to age- and sex-matched controls.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 2Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Background: Energy expenditure (EE) is often greater in people with lower-limb amputation, compared with healthy controls, because of the biomechanical compensations needed to walk with a prosthesis. Compensatory movements are required to stand with a prosthesis; however, little is known about whether standing with a prosthesis also requires greater EE.

Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the effect of standing and sitting positions on EE in people with transtibial amputation and matched controls. Read More

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Why are the batteries in the microwave?: Use of semantic information under uncertainty in a search task.

Cogn Res Princ Implic 2021 Apr 14;6(1):32. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, USA.

A major problem in human cognition is to understand how newly acquired information and long-standing beliefs about the environment combine to make decisions and plan behaviors. Over-dependence on long-standing beliefs may be a significant source of suboptimal decision-making in unusual circumstances. While the contribution of long-standing beliefs about the environment to search in real-world scenes is well-studied, less is known about how new evidence informs search decisions, and it is unclear whether the two sources of information are used together optimally to guide search. Read More

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IV and oral fosfomycin pharmacokinetics in neonates with suspected clinical sepsis.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Fosfomycin has the potential to be re-purposed as part of a combination therapy to treat neonatal sepsis where resistance to current standard of care (SOC) is common. Limited data exist on neonatal fosfomycin pharmacokinetics and estimates of bioavailability and CSF/plasma ratio in this vulnerable population are lacking.

Objectives: To generate data informing the appropriate dosing of IV and oral fosfomycin in neonates using a population pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma and CSF data. Read More

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Taxonogenomics description of sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from urine sample.

New Microbes New Infect 2021 May 2;41:100854. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Strain Marseille-P3248 is a new species from the order that was isolated from the urine sample of a girl aged 20 months with rotavirus gastroenteritis. It is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. Strain Marseille-P3248 exhibits 94. Read More

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Management of infected nasal dermoid cysts and sinuses.

J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 6;2021(4):rjab041. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.

This study investigates outcomes of surgical management of pediatric patients with nasal dermoids with prior infection. A retrospective review at Nationwide Children's Hospital, a large free-standing pediatric hospital in the Midwestern USA, was performed. Patients were identified by the Current Procedural Terminology codes 30124 (simple excision of dermoid cyst) and 30125 (complex excision of nasal dermoid cyst) from 2011 to 2016. Read More

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Redefining the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Pharmacophore: High Potency with No Zinc Cofactor Interaction.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 Apr 7;12(4):540-547. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

MRL, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, United States.

A novel series of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors lacking a zinc-binding moiety has been developed and described herein. HDAC isozyme profiling and kinetic studies indicate that these inhibitors display a selectivity preference for HDACs 1, 2, 3, 10, and 11 via a rapid equilibrium mechanism, and crystal structures with HDAC2 confirm that these inhibitors do not interact with the catalytic zinc. The compounds are nonmutagenic and devoid of electrophilic and mutagenic structural elements and exhibit off-target profiles that are promising for further optimization. Read More

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Synaptic dendritic activity modulates the single synaptic event.

Cogn Neurodyn 2021 Apr 1;15(2):279-297. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Institute of Applied Science and Intelligent Systems (ISASI) of CNR, Pozzuoli, Italy.

Synaptic transmission is the key system for the information transfer and elaboration among neurons. Nevertheless, a synapse is not a standing alone structure but it is a part of a population of synapses inputting the information from several neurons on a specific area of the dendritic tree of a single neuron. This population consists of excitatory and inhibitory synapses the inputs of which drive the postsynaptic membrane potential in the depolarizing (excitatory synapses) or depolarizing (inhibitory synapses) direction modulating in such a way the postsynaptic membrane potential. Read More

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At the Margins of the Medical? Educational Psychology, Child Guidance and Therapy in Provincial England, .1945-74.

Authors:
Andrew Burchell

Soc Hist Med 2021 Feb 17;34(1):70-93. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of History, Institute of Advanced Study Early Career Fellow and Research Fellow, 'Cultural History of the NHS', University of Warwick.

This article mobilises archival material from local authorities in England to assess the shifting role of psychologists within local school health services from the 1930s through to the reorganisation of the National Health Service (NHS) in 1974. It argues that psychologists were increasingly positioned between therapist, diagnostician and social worker, that this was bound together with a local discourse of children's emotional well-being and that the increasing fluidity of the psychologist's role emerged from local policies designed to stress the 'educational' nature of their role. In so doing, it extends work by John Stewart on child guidance and more long-standing histories of local, 'municipal' medical services. Read More

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February 2021

Research Trends in General Medicine Departments of University Hospitals in Japan.

Int J Gen Med 2021 7;14:1227-1230. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of General Medicine, Saga University Hospital, Saga, Japan.

Purpose: The training of generalist physicians in university hospitals needs to emphasize development of their research role in order to continue improving their research capacity and their standing in academic hospitals in Japan. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to survey departments of general medicine (GM) in university hospitals in Japan to identify the research areas and themes pursued by academic generalist physicians.

Patients And Methods: The heads of the departments of GM from 71 university hospitals in Japan were enrolled. Read More

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Vestibular attenuation to random-waveform galvanic vestibular stimulation during standing and treadmill walking.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 14;11(1):8127. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Kinesiology and Health Science, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA.

The ability to move and maintain posture is critically dependent on motion and orientation information provided by the vestibular system. When this system delivers noisy or erred information it can, in some cases, be attenuated through habituation. Here we investigate whether multiple mechanisms of attenuation act to decrease vestibular gain due to noise added using supra-threshold random-waveform galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). Read More

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Revealing molecular conformation-induced stress at embedded interfaces of organic optoelectronic devices by sum frequency generation spectroscopy.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 14;7(16). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Molecular Aggregation Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Interface stresses are pervasive and critical in conventional optoelectronic devices and generally lead to many failures and reliability problems. However, detection of the interface stress embedded in organic optoelectronic devices is a long-standing problem, which causes the unknown relationship between interface stress and organic device stability (one key and unsettled issue for practical applications). In this study, a kind of previously unknown molecular conformation-induced stress is revealed at the organic embedded interface through sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy technique. Read More

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Long-term outcomes of dual innervation in functional muscle transfers for facial palsy.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

 St Andrews' Centre of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET, United Kingdom.

Background: This study describes a different approach with a 2-stage facial reanimation in patients with long-standing unilateral facial paralysis using free gracilis muscle transfer, innervated by both cross-facial nerve graft and masseteric nerve. The authors present their rationale, surgical technique, and long-term outcomes.

Methods: Between August 2012 and March 2016, 11 patients (6 female and 5 male patients) underwent a 2-staged dually innervated gracilis muscle transfer. Read More

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Preventing disease progression in Eisenmenger syndrome.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Adult Congenital Heart Centre and National Centre for Pulmonary Hypertension, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Eisenmenger syndrome describes a condition in which a congenital heart defect has caused severe pulmonary vascular disease, resulting in reversed (right-left) or bidirectional shunting and chronic cyanosis.

Areas Covered: In this paper, the progression of congenital heart defects to Eisenmenger syndrome, including early screening, diagnosis and operability are covered. The mechanisms of disease progression in Eisenmenger syndrome and management strategies to combat this, including the role of pulmonary arterial hypertension therapies, are also discussed. Read More

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Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr;384(15):1402-1411

From the Centre for Psychedelic Research, Department of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London.

Background: Psilocybin may have antidepressant properties, but direct comparisons between psilocybin and established treatments for depression are lacking.

Methods: In a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving patients with long-standing, moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder, we compared psilocybin with escitalopram, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor, over a 6-week period. Patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two separate doses of 25 mg of psilocybin 3 weeks apart plus 6 weeks of daily placebo (psilocybin group) or two separate doses of 1 mg of psilocybin 3 weeks apart plus 6 weeks of daily oral escitalopram (escitalopram group); all the patients received psychological support. Read More

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In-cellulo Mӧssbauer and EPR studies bring new evidences to the long-standing debate on the iron-sulfur cluster binding in human anamorsin.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

University of Florence, CERM, Via Luigi Sacconi, 6, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, ITALY.

Human anamorsin is an iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster binding protein acting as an electron donor in the early steps of cytosolic iron-sulfur protein biogenesis. Human anamorsin belongs to the eukaryotic CIAPIN1 protein family and contains two highly conserved cysteine-rich motifs each binding an Fe-S cluster. In vitro works by various groups has provided rather controversial results for the type of Fe-S clusters bound to the CIAPIN1 proteins. Read More

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A rare case of malignant eccrine spiradenoma mimicking carcinosarcoma.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2021 Apr-Jun;64(2):398-401

Department of Surgery, M R Bangur Super Speciality Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Malignant eccrine spiradenoma is an extremely rare neoplasm of adnexal origin. It almost always originates from a preexisting long standing eccrine spiradenoma. We present a case of malignant eccrine spiradenoma arising from benign counterpart and having both carcinomatous and sarcomatous differentiation. Read More

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Mobilization after joint arthroplasty surgery: who benefits from standing within 12 hours?

ANZ J Surg 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Population and Global Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Early mobilization following joint arthroplasty surgery has been shown to be beneficial for patients, but it is unclear whether it is associated with a shorter length of stay (LOS) for both hip and knee arthroplasty (KA) patients.

Methods: We undertook a retrospective observational study, reviewing the case notes of 386 patients admitted to an enhanced recovery programme for total hip (THA) or total/unicompartmental KA. We evaluated the influence of early mobilization on LOS, adjusting for possible confounders, stratifying by surgery type. Read More

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A Dynamic Optimization Approach for Solving Spine Kinematics While Calibrating Subject-Specific Mechanical Properties.

Ann Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Movement Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

This study aims to propose a new optimization framework for solving spine kinematics based on skin-mounted markers and estimate subject-specific mechanical properties of the intervertebral joints. The approach enforces dynamic consistency in the entire skeletal system over the entire time-trajectory while personalizing spinal stiffness. 3D reflective markers mounted on ten vertebrae during spine motions were measured in ten healthy volunteers. Read More

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Acute presentation of cocoon abdomen as septic peritonitis mimicking with strangulated internal herniation: a case report.

Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 13;7(1):93. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in which loops of small bowel get entrapped inside a fibro-collagenous membrane. Condition is also known in the literature as sclerosing peritonitis and in the majority of cases, it has no known cause. Although the majority of patients exhibit long-standing signs and symptoms of partial bowel obstruction in an out-patient clinic, its acute presentation in the emergency room with features of sepsis is extremely rare. Read More

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[HPV vaccination and the prevention of genital warts and precancerous lesions-current evidence and evaluation].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Lehrstuhl für Epidemiologie, Fakultät für Sport- und Gesundheitswissenschaften, Technische Universität München, Georg-Brauchle-Ring 56, 80992, München, Deutschland.

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can cause both benign and malignant tumors. To date, more than 200 HPV types have been discovered, of which 12 are currently classified as high risk for cervical cancer. HPV types that affect the anogenital tract are sexually transmitted. Read More

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The Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW) Program: An infrastructure for Advancing Population Health Sciences.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Purpose: The Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW) was established in 2008 by the University of Wisconsin (UW) School of Medicine and Public Health (SMPH) with the goals of 1) providing a timely and accurate picture of the health of the state residents; and 2) serving as an agile resource infrastructure for ancillary studies. Today SHOW continues to serve as a vital population health research infrastructure.

Participants: SHOW currently includes 5,846 adult and 980 minor participants recruited between 2008-2019 in four primary waves. Read More

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Longitudinal Study of Boxing Therapy in Parkinson's Disease, Including Adverse Impacts of the COVID-19 Lockdown.

Res Sq 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Background: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease whose incidence is increasing with an aging population. One of the most serious manifestations of PD is gait instability, leading to falls and subsequent complications that can be debilitating, even fatal. Boxing therapy (BT) uses gait and balance exercises to improve ambulation in people with PD, though its efficacy has not yet been fully proven. Read More

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Orthostatic Hypertension and Hypotension and Outcomes in CKD: The CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study.

Kidney Med 2021 Mar-Apr;3(2):206-215.e1. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.

Rationale & Objective: There are limited data about the prevalence and prognostic significance of orthostatic hypo- and hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of orthostatic hypo- and hypertension in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease and examine their association with clinical outcomes.

Study Design: Prospective cohort study: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. Read More

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February 2021

Bilateral Charcot Neuroarthropathy in Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of the Influence of Pregnancy Hormones on Ligament Laxity.

AACE Clin Case Rep 2021 Jan-Feb;7(1):57-60. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Elsie Bertram Diabetes Centre, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk, United Kingdom.

Objective: To describe the case of a woman with long-standing poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus who developed bilateral Charcot foot while pregnant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this condition in pregnancy.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of physical paper medical records; electronically held laboratory results, including glycated hemoglobin; and imaging reports, including plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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December 2020

Adherence to Recommendations and Quality of Endoscopic Colorectal Cancer Surveillance in Long-Standing Ulcerative Colitis.

Inflamm Intest Dis 2021 Feb 29;6(1):25-31. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Crohn's & Colitis Center, Gastroentérologie Beaulieu SA, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Long-standing ulcerative colitis has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Current guidelines recommend endoscopic CRC screening after 8 years of disease duration. The objectives of our study were to assess the adherence to recommendations and the quality of endoscopic procedure in long-standing ulcerative colitis. Read More

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February 2021