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Polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility: an update.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most well-known endocrine condition among women of this generation (PCOS). Symptoms of hyperandrogenism, irregular menstrual periods, and insulin resistance are all traits associated with PCOS. In women with PCOS, the chance of having problems including infertility, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes increases. Read More

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Survey of Quaternary Neonatal Management of Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective:  This study aimed to determine clinical care practices for infants at risk for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) across level IV neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).

Study Design:  Cross-sectional survey that addressed center-specific surveillance, neurosurgical intervention, and follow-up practices within the Children's Hospitals Neonatal Consortium.

Results:  We had a 59% (20/34 sites) response rate, with 10 sites having at least two participants. Read More

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Long-Term Quality of Life in Patients Following Minimally Invasive Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy With StopLoss Jones Tube.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Jozef Strus City Hospital, Poznan, Poland Department of Ophthalmology, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland Govindram Seksaria Institute of Dacryology, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: To assess the long-term quality of life outcomes of minimally invasive conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with StopLoss Jones tubes.

Methods: A retrospective interventional case series was performed on all patients diagnosed with proximal bicanalicular obstruction who underwent a minimally invasive conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with StopLoss Jones tubes over a period of 5 years from October 2014 to September 2019. The procedure was performed as per standard published protocols of minimally invasive conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy and StopLoss Jones tubes. Read More

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High-Dose Compared With Standard-Dose Oxytocin Regimens to Augment Labor in Nulliparous Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 Aug;138(2):308-309

Systematic Review Workshop Peer Support Group (SRWS-PSG), Osaka, and the Department of Pharmacy, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Japan.

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Sequencing of Circulating Microbial Cell-Free DNA Can Identify Pathogens in Periprosthetic Joint Infections.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Hospital for Special Surgery Research Institute, New York, NY.

Background: Over 1 million Americans undergo joint replacement each year, and approximately 1 in 75 will incur a periprosthetic joint infection. Effective treatment necessitates pathogen identification, yet standard-of-care cultures fail to detect organisms in 10% to 20% of cases and require invasive sampling. We hypothesized that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments from microorganisms in a periprosthetic joint infection can be found in the bloodstream and utilized to accurately identify pathogens via next-generation sequencing. Read More

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Anatomic Distribution of Cherry Angiomas in the General Population.

Dermatology 2021 Jul 22:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Dermatology Research Centre, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Cherry angiomas are common benign vascular skin lesions of unknown aetiology, found largely on the trunk. However, their exact anatomic distribution besides their truncal predisposition, and how they manifest in the general population, has not been characterised.

Methods: Three-dimensional (3D) total body imaging was obtained from 163 adult participants of a general population cohort study in Brisbane, Australia. Read More

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Ferric Citrate Dosing in Iron Deficiency Anemia in Nondialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease.

Am J Nephrol 2021 Jul 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Akebia Therapeutics, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: Ferric citrate (FC) is indicated as an oral iron replacement for iron deficiency anemia in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis. The recommended starting dose is one 1-g tablet three times daily (TID). This study investigated long-term efficacy and safety of different FC dosing regimens for treating anemia in nondialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD). Read More

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Tumor Budding is a reliable predictor for death and metastasis in invasive ductal breast cancer and correlates with other prognostic clinicopathological parameters.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2021 Jul 15;54:151792. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Turkey.

Background And Objective: Breast cancers are the most common type of cancer and the most common cause of mortality in women worldwide. Different prognostic factors are the subject of research to differentiate the prognosis even between cases at a similar stage and identify risky patients earlier and create individual treatment approaches. Tumor budding (TB) has been identified as a poor prognostic factor in many types of cancer, especially colorectal carcinomas. Read More

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Highly sensitive magnetic relaxation sensing method for aflatoxin B1 detection based on Au NP-assisted triple self-assembly cascade signal amplification.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jul 9;192:113489. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institute of Quality Standard and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science/Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Quality and Safety of MOA, Beijing, 100081, PR China. Electronic address:

Highly sensitive detection of aflatoxin B (AFB) is of great significance because of its high toxicity and carcinogenesis. We propose a magnetic relaxation sensing method based on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)-assisted triple self-assembly cascade signal amplification for highly sensitive detection of AFB. Both AFB antibody and initiator DNA (iDNA) are labeled on Au NPs to form Ab-Au-iDNA probe. Read More

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Prediction of chemotherapy response in breast cancer patients at pre-treatment using second derivative texture of CT images and machine learning.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jul 19;14(10):101183. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Center, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a crucial component of treatment for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), only about 70% of patients respond to it. Effective adjustment of NAC for individual patients can significantly improve survival rates of those resistant to standard regimens. Thus, the early prediction of NAC outcome is of great importance in facilitating a personalized paradigm for breast cancer therapeutics. Read More

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Endovascular aortic repair for abdominal aortic injury complicated with bowel injury due to blunt abdominal trauma: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jul 18;85:106216. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of General Surgery, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan.

Introduction And Importance: Blunt abdominal aortic injury (BAAI) resulting from blunt abdominal trauma is rare; therefore, there are no standard guidelines for its treatment. Herein, we report the successful treatment of BAAI via endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) performed immediately after emergency laparotomy to repair a bowel injury.

Case Presentation: A 78-year-old man was injured after being caught between a shovel car and the bumper of his own car for approximately 15 s. Read More

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Home-based early stimulation program targeting visual and motor functions for preterm infants with delayed tracking: Feasibility of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 Jul 19;116:104037. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Health Science, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Araranguá, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aims: To verify the feasibility of a home-based early stimulation program targeting visual and motor functions in preterm infants with delayed visual tracking.

Method: We applied a randomized controlled trial. We included thirty low-risk preterm infants, from both genders, with delayed visual tracking, gestational between 28-37 weeks, and age at entrance between 1-2 months of corrected age, and absence of visual impairments. Read More

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Rapid determination of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in PCR-positive samples by SDS-PMA assisted RT-qPCR.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 17;797:149085. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

CAS Key Laboratory of Emerging Pathogens and Biosafety, Centre for Biosafety Mega-Sciences, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has generated a global health crisis that needs well management of not only patients but also environments to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The gold standard RT-qPCR method is sensitive and rapid to detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, but does not answer if PCR-positive samples contain infectious virions. To circumvent this problem, we report an SDS-propidium monoazide (PMA) assisted RT-qPCR method that enables rapid discrimination of live and dead SARS-CoV-2 within 3 h. Read More

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Health effects of air pollutant mixtures on overall mortality among the elderly population using Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR).

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 17;286(Pt 1):131566. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Gangarosa Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

It is well documented that fine particles matter (PM), ozone (O), and nitrogen dioxide (NO) are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. However, most epidemiologic studies have focused on understanding their additive effects, despite that individuals are exposed to multiple air pollutants simultaneously that are likely correlated with each other. Therefore, we applied a novel method - Bayesian Kernel machine regression (BKMR) and conducted a population-based cohort study to assess the individual and joint effect of air pollutant mixtures (PM, O, and NO) on all-cause mortality among the Medicare population in 15 cities with 656 different ZIP codes in the southeastern US. Read More

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Non-targeted analysis by DLLME-GC-MS for the monitoring of pollutants in the Mar Menor lagoon.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 17;286(Pt 1):131588. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, E-30100, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Non-targeted analysis for the monitoring of organic pollutants resulting from agricultural and industrial practices, plastics and pharmaceutical products of seawater from the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) is proposed using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Initially, a home-made MS database including 118 environmental organic pollutants, whose presence in different ecosystems has already been reported, was created. The analytical method was applied for the analysis of 42 samples and a total of 18 pollutants were detected and identified. Read More

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Postharvest shelf life enhancement of peach fruit treated with glucose oxidase immobilized on ZnO nanoparticles.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 14;366:130591. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Chemistry, Government College University Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.

For the shelf life extension of fruits, we envisioned a novel antimicrobial approach that is based on the production of a thin layer of hydrogen peroxide at the surface of food by utilizing the bioactivity of glucose oxidase (GOx). The enzyme, purified from Aspergillus Niger, was immobilized on zinc oxide nanoparticles and then suspended in a buffer to prepare a spraying solution of GOx/ZnONPs. Post-immobilization analyses indicated that immobilized enzyme showed higher activity as compared to the free enzyme. Read More

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Clinical benefits of a Bayesian model for plasma-derived factor VIII/VWF after one year of pharmacokinetic-guided prophylaxis in severe/moderate hemophilia A patients.

Thromb Res 2021 Jul 15;205:99-105. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Pharmacy Department, Valencia, Spain.

Introduction: Individual pharmacokinetic (PK) profiling in hemophilia A (HA) helps to individualize prophylaxis using population PK models (popPK). A specific popPK model for plasma-derived factor VIII containing von-Willebrand Factor (pdFVIII/VWF) was developed.

Aim: To compare standard versus PK-driven prophylaxis, using a generic or a specific popPK model for pdFVIII/VWF. Read More

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The predictive value of segmentation metrics on dosimetry in organs at risk of the brain.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jul 13;73:102161. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

ARTORG Center for Biomedical Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Fully automatic medical image segmentation has been a long pursuit in radiotherapy (RT). Recent developments involving deep learning show promising results yielding consistent and time efficient contours. In order to train and validate these systems, several geometric based metrics, such as Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Hausdorff, and other related metrics are currently the standard in automated medical image segmentation challenges. Read More

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A distributed optimisation framework combining natural gradient with Hessian-free for discriminative sequence training.

Neural Netw 2021 May 29;143:537-549. Epub 2021 May 29.

Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK. Electronic address:

This paper presents a novel natural gradient and Hessian-free (NGHF) optimisation framework for neural network training that can operate efficiently in a distributed manner. It relies on the linear conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm to combine the natural gradient (NG) method with local curvature information from Hessian-free (HF). A solution to a numerical issue in CG allows effective parameter updates to be generated with far fewer CG iterations than usually used (e. Read More

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Improving severity scoring of food-induced allergic reactions: a global "Best-Worst Scaling" exercise.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK;. Electronic address:

Background: There is no current consensus on assigning severity to food-induced allergic reactions, for example to assess the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy. Existing severity scores lack the capability to discriminate between non-anaphylaxis reactions of different severities. Attempts are ongoing to develop a more discriminatory score, which should ideally be data-driven and validated in multiple cohorts. Read More

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Biomechanical evaluation of syndesmotic fixation techniques via finite element analysis: Screw vs. suture button.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Jul 13;208:106272. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

M2BE-Multiscale in Mechanical and Biological Engineering, Instituto de Investigación en Ingeniería de Aragón (I3A), Aragón Institute of Health Science (IACS), Universidad de Zaragoza, Campus Río Ebro, c/María de Luna s/n, 50018-Zaragoza, España, Spain. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Tibiofibular syndesmotic injuries may cause degenerative changes, reduction in ankle function and compromising ankle stability. Different fixation techniques try to restore its functionality. Screw-fixation is the gold-standard. Read More

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Agreement between Compass Fundus Perimeter New Grid and 10-2 Testing Protocols for Detecting Central Visual Field Defects.

Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Hamilton Glaucoma Center, Shiley Eye Institute, and the Viterbi Family Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the agreement between Compass New Grid (NG) and 10-2 test protocols for detecting early glaucomatous defects in the central 10 degrees of the visual field (CVFD).

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Subjects And Controls: A total of 123 eyes of 14 healthy individuals, 17 glaucoma suspects and 32 glaucoma patients were enrolled. Read More

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Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-Based Antigen-Receptor Gene Clonality Assays: Will They Become the Clinical Standard?

J Mol Diagn 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York. Electronic address:

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A More Universal Approach to Comprehensive Analysis of ThalaSsemia Alleles (CATSA).

J Mol Diagn 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Hunan Jiahui Genetics Hospital, Changsha, Hunan 410078, China; Center for Medical Genetics and Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410078, China. Electronic address:

The aim of the study was to assess the clinical utility of a third generation sequencing (TGS) approach termed Comprehensive Analysis of ThalaSsemia Alleles (CATSA) for identifying both alpha and beta thalassemia genetic carrier status. Prospective blood samples (n = 1759) with abnormal hemoglobin parameters were screened for pathogenic thalassemia variants by CATSA on the PacBio TGS platform. In 1159 individuals, a total of 1317 pathogenic thalassemia variants were identified and confirmed by independent PCR based tests. Read More

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The complex interplay of gut microbiota with the five most common cancer types: From carcinogenesis to therapeutics to prognosis.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Jul 19:103429. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2747, Australia. Electronic address:

The association between human gut microbiota and cancers has been an evolving field of biomedical research in recent years. The gut microbiota is composed of the microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal system that interact with the host to regulate behaviours and biochemical processes within the gut. This symbiotic physiological interaction between the gut and the microbiota plays a significant role in the modulation of gut homeostasis, in which perturbations to the microbiota, also known as dysbiosis can lead to the onset of diseases, including cancer. Read More

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Antitumor effect of dimethyl itaconate on thymic carcinoma by targeting LDHA-mTOR axis.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 19:119847. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuga, Japan.

Aims: Thymic carcinoma is a rare type of cancer without an established standard pharmaceutical treatment. This study investigated the antitumor effect of dimethyl itaconate (DI), a cell-permeable derivative of itaconate, on human thymic carcinoma cell line.

Main Methods: Human thymic carcinoma cell line Ty82 was used to evaluate the effect of DI on cell viability. Read More

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Orientation of Neurites Influences Severity of Mechanically-Induced Tau Pathology.

Biophys J 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455. Electronic address:

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI). CTE is a tauopathy, in which cognitive decline is accompanied by the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles of the protein tau in patients' brains. We recently found that mechanical force alone can induce tau mislocalization to dendritic spines and loss of synaptic function in in vitro neuronal cultures with random cell organization. Read More

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Pneumatic retinopexy as a treatment for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in pediatric patients meeting PIVOT criteria.

Can J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences; University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, The John and Liz Tory Eye Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ont.. Electronic address:

Objective: To report the results of pneumatic retinopexy (PnR) as the initial treatment in pediatric patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) fulfilling The Pneumatic Retinopexy versus Vitrectomy for the Management of Primary Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Outcomes Randomized Trial (PIVOT) criteria.

Design: A retrospective multicentre study.

Participants: Pediatric patients who underwent outpatient PnR as the initial treatment for RRD from January 2006 to July 2019 who met PIVOT criteria. Read More

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Inhaled corticosteroid prescriptions in the ED for recurrent asthma using IT clinical decision support: Revisit after cessation of an incentive program.

J Asthma 2021 Jul 22:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Statistics Department, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

The objective of this study was to assess whether inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) prescription rates for patients with poorly controlled asthma presenting to the emergency department (ED) remained high with a clinical support system in place, after a financial incentive program ended. This study is the second phase of a previous study done at our institution. The first phase demonstrated that the introduction of an electronic alert system advising providers to prescribe ICS to patients with poorly controlled asthma, along with a financial incentive, increased ICS prescription rates from 2% to 77%. Read More

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