5,327 results match your criteria sputum smear

Cardiac Arrest in an Extensive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patient.

Vancy Zora

Cureus 2021 Jun 30;13(6):e16057. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Internal Medicine, Indiana University (IU) Health Ball Memorial Hospital, Muncie, USA.

Tuberculosis (TB) disease affects a large population worldwide but is often missed. Early diagnosis can be challenging at times due to failure to include TB in the differential diagnoses. Tuberculosis is a treatable disease but it can lead to undesirable consequences if left untreated. Read More

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The blood neutrophil count after 1 month of treatment predicts the radiological severity of lung disease at treatment end.

Chest 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, London NW3 2QG; Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, University College London, Royal Free Campus, London NW3 2QG. Electronic address:

Background: Post-tuberculous lung disease confers significant morbidity. However, the determinants of persistent lung damage in tuberculosis are not well established. We investigated associations between tuberculosis-associated radiological changes and socio-demographic factors, surrogates of bacillary burden and blood inflammatory markers at initiation of therapy and after 1 month. Read More

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Prevalence and associated factors of tuberculosis treatment abandonment.

Rev Esc Enferm USP 2021 23;55:e03767. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Programa de Pós-graduação Cuidados Clínicos em Enfermagem e Saúde, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis treatment abandonment and its associated factors.

Method: Cross-sectional study which used cases of tuberculosis in the System of Information on Notification Aggravations (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação) from 2001 to 2017 in Ceará state. This study included 74,006 cases and the outcome was the closing situation "treatment abandonment". Read More

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The association of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and statin use with inflammation and treatment outcomes in tuberculosis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 27;11(1):15283. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Koch Cancer Research Building, 1550 Orleans St., Room 110, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Tuberculosis (TB) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) have a close epidemiological and pathogenetic overlap. Thus, it becomes essential to understand the relationship between ASCVD and TB outcomes. From our retrospective cohort on drug-susceptible TB patients at the National Taiwan University Hospital, we assessed the association of pre-existing ASCVD (coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherothrombotic stroke (ATS)) with 9-month all-cause and infection-related mortality and the extent of mediation by systemic inflammatory markers. Read More

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Recurrent Tuberculosis Disease in Singapore.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jul 27;8(7):ofab340. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Tuberculosis Control Unit, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.

Background: Previously treated (ie, recurrent) tuberculosis (TB) cases account for approximately 7%-8% of incident TB globally and in Singapore. Molecular fingerprinting has enabled the differentiation of these patients into relapsed or reinfection cases.

Methods: Patient demographics, disease characteristics, and treatment information were obtained from the national TB notification registry and TB Control Unit. Read More

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Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with early bronchial tuberculosis.

J Formos Med Assoc 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Hypertension and Nephrology, NTT Medical Centre Tokyo, 5-9-22, Higashi-Gotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8625, Japan.

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are commonly at high risk of tuberculosis (TB). Conversely, TB rarely causes tubulointerstitial nephritis. A 75-year-old Japanese man who was undergoing periodic follow-ups for CKD stage G3aA3 with membranous nephropathy was diagnosed with acute kidney injury (AKI) (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]: 15 mL/min/1. Read More

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Treatment outcomes of patients with drug-sensitive tuberculosis under community-based versus facility-based directly observed treatment, short course strategy in Southwest Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 07 21;11(7):e048369. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Microbiology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: To compare tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes and associated factors among patients attending community-based versus facility-based directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS).

Design: A prospective cohort study.

Setting: The study was conducted in Southwest Ethiopia. Read More

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EasyNAT MTC assay: A simple, rapid, and low-cost cross-priming amplification method for the detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis suitable for point-of-care testing.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Dec;10(1):1530-1535

National Clinical Laboratory on Tuberculosis, Beijing Key Laboratory for Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Research, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Institute, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

More sensitive, rapid, and affordable diagnostic tools for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are urgently needed. This study aimed to assess the performance of EasyNAT MTC (abbreviation: EasyNAT) (Ustar Biotechnologies, China), a novel isothermal amplification method with a turnaround time of less than two hours that requires a few manual steps to process the sputum. Sputum samples from 249 patients with suspected PTB were subjected to smear, culture, Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, USA) and EasyNAT assay testing. Read More

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December 2021

Comparison of Different Methods for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Rifampin-Resistance.

Clin Lab 2021 Jul;67(7)

Background: Xpert MTB/RIF is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for a rapid and simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and rifampicin resistance specific to patients who have symptoms and signs.

Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance possessed by various assays specific to the detection of Mtb. This study included 345 suspected TB patients who received treatment at the Shandong Public Health Clinical Center during May 2019 and August 2019. Read More

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A Longitudinal Model-Based Biomarker Analysis of Exposure Response in Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Jul 12:AAC0179420. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

University of California San Francisco Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, San Francisco, California, USA.

The identification of sensitive, specific and reliable biomarkers that can be quantified in the early phases of tuberculosis treatment and predictive of long-term outcome is key for the development of an effective short-course treatment regimen. Time-to-positivity (TTP), a biomarker of treatment outcome against , measures longitudinal bacterial growth in Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube broth culture and may be predictive of standard time-to-stable-culture-conversion (TSCC). In two randomized phase 2b trials investigating dose-ranging rifapentine (Study 29 and 29x), 662 participants had sputum collected over six months where TTP, TSCC and time-to-culture-conversion were quantified. Read More

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Diagnostic value of Xpert MTB/RIF assay on pleural tissue obtained via closed pleural biopsy among persons with presumptive tuberculous pleuritis.

Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med 2021 9;27(1). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Pathology, Jimma University Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Tuberculous pleuritis (TBP) is a common extrapulmonary tuberculosis that contributes to the tuberculosis burden. Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a promising method for rapid diagnosis of TBP. The diagnostic value of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in pleural tissue obtained via closed pleural biopsy among sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-negative persons is not well studied. Read More

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Engaging Informal Private Health Care Providers for TB Case Detection: Experiences from RIPEND Project in India.

Tuberc Res Treat 2021 22;2021:9579167. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Stop TB Partnership, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Informal (unqualified) health care providers are an important source of medical care for persons with presumptive TB (PPTB) in India. A project (titled RIPEND) was implemented to engage informal providers for the identification of PPTBs and TB patients in 4 districts of Telangana State, India, during October 2018-December 2019 project period. Engagement involved sensitizing the informal providers about TB, providing them financial incentives to identify PPTBs, and linking these PPTBs to diagnostic and treatment services provided by the Government of India's National TB Elimination Programme. Read More

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Direct Molecular Characterization of Acid-Fast Bacilli Smear of Nontuberculosis Mycobacterium Species Causing Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Guna Yala Region, Panama.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Tuberculosis Biomarker Research Unit, Centro de Biología Molecular y Celular de Enfermedades (CBCME) del Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología (INDICASAT-AIP), Panamá.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) stands out as the main causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). However, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species also have the potential to infect and cause TB in susceptible individuals. The objective of this study was to identify NTM species that cause public health problems in remote areas. Read More

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Khat Chewing and Clinical Conditions Determine the Epidemiology of Primary Drug Resistance Tuberculosis in Amhara Region of Ethiopia: A Multicenter Study.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 30;14:2449-2460. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences and Specialized Comprehensive Hospitals, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Rifampicin and/or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (RR/MDR-TB) remains an uncontrolled public health emergency that has been synergized by the recently increased person-to-person transmission in the community as primary RR/MDR-TB, which is defined as RR/MDR-TB in new TB patients with no prior exposure to anti-TB treatment for more than one month. This study aimed to measure the prevalence and associated factors of primary drug-resistance among drug-resistant tuberculosis patients, as evidenced by the Amhara region treatment initiating centers.

Methods: An institutional-based multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2010 to December 2017, among 580 RR/MDR-TB patients on the second-line anti-TB drug in the Amhara regional state. Read More

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Hemostatic parameters in pulmonary tuberculosis patients after intensive phase treatment.

Caspian J Intern Med 2021 Apr;12(3):294-298

Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This infection causes the release of proinflammatory cytokines that affect hemostasis. Pulmonary TB infection causes an increased activation of procoagulant factors, decreased anticoagulant factors and suppresses fibrinolysis which causes hypercoagulable. Read More

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Detection of Complex Bacilli and Nucleic Acids From Tongue Swabs in Young, Hospitalized Children.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 14;11:696379. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Science and Innovation/National Research Foundation (DSI/NRF) Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand and the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Diagnosis of tuberculosis in pediatric patients remains challenging due to inherent difficulties associated with obtaining respiratory samples for molecular and culture-based testing. To address this, recent studies have highlighted the utility of tongue swabs to detect genomic DNA in the oral epithelia of tuberculosis infected adults. It is unknown whether tongue swabs have similar utility for diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis and if the presence of DNA in these swabs was associated with whole bacilli. Read More

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Spatial clustering and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Jun 30;21(1):206. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.

Background: Tuberculosis remains a serious public health concern globally. The enormous social, economic, and health impacts of the diseases are attributed to the lack of updated data on the prevalence, geospatial distribution, population structures, and genotypic variants of the circulating M. tuberculosis. Read More

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Discordance of the Repeat GeneXpert MTB/RIF Test for Rifampicin Resistance Detection Among Patients Initiating MDR-TB Treatment in Uganda.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 2;8(6):ofab173. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

College of Health Sciences, Makerere University Lung Institute, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: The Global Laboratory Initiative (GLI) guidelines recommend repeat for GeneXpertMTB/RIF (XpertMTB/RIF) in patients with a low pretest probability of rifampicin resistance (RR).

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using results of sputum specimens collected from participants screened for the STREAM 2 trial. We recruited all patients with XpertMTB/RIF RR-TB detected who were referred for RR/multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB treatment initiation at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, between September 2017 and October 2019. Read More

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Access to quality diagnosis and rational treatment for tuberculosis: real-world evidence from China-Gates Tuberculosis Control Project Phase III.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Jun 29;10(1):92. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, 310 Trent Drive, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Background: China has successfully reduced tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate over the past three decades, however, challenges remain in improving the quality of TB diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we assess the effects of the implementation of "China National Health Commission (NHC) and Gates Foundation TB Prevention and Control Project" on the quality of TB care in the three provinces.

Methods: We conducted the baseline study in 2016 and the final evaluations in 2019 in the 12 selected project counties. Read More

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Disseminated Tuberculosis Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a Pregnant Woman With Evans syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Front Immunol 2021 10;12:676132. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in underdeveloped and developing countries. Disseminated TB may induce uncommon and potentially fatal secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Timely treatment with anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) and downmodulation of the immune response is critical. Read More

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Evaluation of CD8 response in QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus as a marker of recent infection.

Respir Med 2021 Jun 15;185:106508. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centro de Diagnóstico Pneumológico Do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Background: Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is essential for the elimination of TB. Preventive therapy could be limited to those with recent TB contact. QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus), a new Interferon-γ release assay, includes a new antigen tube (TB2), which elicits CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses. Read More

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Bronchial brushing Xpert improves the diagnostic efficiency of sputum Xpert in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

Ther Adv Infect Dis 2021 Jan-Dec;8:20499361211020174. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Lab Medicine, Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital, 46# Lishan Road, Jinan City, 250013, PR China.

Background: The role of bronchial brushing Xpert MTB/RIF (hereafter referred to as Xpert) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) remains unclear. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted aiming to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of bronchial brushing Xpert in patients with PTB.

Methods: Between July 2018 and August 2019, suspected PTB patients who were admitted to our hospital and had bronchial brushing and matched sputum collection for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, mycobacterial culture, and Xpert were included for further analysis. Read More

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TB contact tracing for young children: an Australian cascade of care review.

Public Health Action 2021 Jun;11(2):91-96

Victorian Tuberculosis Program, Melbourne Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Objective: To evaluate care cascades for programmatic active case finding and latent TB infection (LTBI) management in young child TB contacts (aged <5 years) in Victoria, Australia.

Design: This was a retrospective review of public health surveillance data to identify contacts of all pulmonary TB cases notified from 2016 to 2019.

Results: Contact tracing identified 574 young child contacts of 251 pulmonary TB cases. Read More

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Evaluation of screening strategies for pulmonary tuberculosis among hospitalized patients in a low-burden setting: cost-effectiveness of GeneXpert MTB/RIF compared to smear microscopy.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 Jun 21:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Objective: Hospitalized patients undergoing evaluation for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) require airborne isolation while testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to reduce risk of nosocomial transmission. GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is more rapid and accurate than sputum smear microscopy, but it is not routinely used to 'rule out' infectious pulmonary TB among hospitalized patients in the United States. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic performance and cost-effectiveness of Xpert-based TB evaluation. Read More

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Status of rpoB gene mutation associated with rifampicin-resistant isolated in a rural setting in Nepal.

Access Microbiol 2021 Mar 11;3(3):000202. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Pyuthan District Hospital, Pyuthan, Nepal.

ranks among the top 10 causes of deaths in Nepal despite the country having a long history of national tuberculosis prevention programmes that have proved very successful in the control of tuberculosis. Several cases of active or latent tuberculosis are still missing despite that the number of infected individuals is increasing each year. Microscopy has its own limitations and factors like low bacterial load, quality of sample, quality of smear, experience of microscopist etc. Read More

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Protein and Microbial Biomarkers in Sputum Discern Acute and Latent Tuberculosis in Investigation of Pastoral Ethiopian Cohort.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 4;11:595554. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD, United States.

Differential diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI) remains a public health priority in high TB burden countries. Pulmonary TB is diagnosed by sputum smear microscopy, chest X-rays, and PCR tests for distinct () genes. Clinical tests to diagnose LTBI rely on immune cell stimulation in blood plasma with TB-specific antigens followed by measurements of interferon-γ concentrations. Read More

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Supplementation of sputum cultures with culture filtrate to detect tuberculosis in a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected individuals.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2021 Jul 12;129:102103. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand and the National Health Laboratory Service, South Africa; CAPRISA, Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, Durban, South Africa. Electronic address:

While some healthcare systems have shifted to molecular diagnostics, culture still remains the gold standard for tuberculosis diagnosis, but it is limited by its long duration to a positive result. Methods to reduce time to culture positivity (TTP) are urgently required. We determined if growth factor supplementation in the mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture system reduces TTP. Read More

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Development and Validation of Signature Sequence-Based PCR for Improved Molecular Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

J Mol Diagn 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

ICMR-National Institute of Pathology, Safdarjung Hospital Campus, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Reliable, fast, and affordable diagnosis for tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge to reduce disease incidence in resource-poor countries. Tests based on nucleotide sequences that are signature to Mycobacterium tuberculosis have the potential to make a positive impact on case detection rates, which can eventually help control TB. Using extensive comparative bioinformatics approach, we mined the genome for M. Read More

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The burden of drug resistance tuberculosis in Ghana; results of the First National Survey.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252819. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Resistance to Tuberculosis drugs has become a major threat to the control of tuberculosis (TB) globally. We conducted the first nation-wide drug resistance survey to investigate the level and pattern of resistance to first-line TB drugs among newly and previously treated sputum smear-positive TB cases. We also evaluated associations between potential risk factors and TB drug resistance. Read More

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