46,556 results match your criteria spores absence


Decontamination of respirators amid shortages due to SARS-CoV-2.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294-0022, USA.

The pandemic created by SARS-CoV-2 has caused a shortage in the supplies of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs), disposable respirators with at least 95% efficiency to remove non-oily airborne particles, due to increasing cases all over the world. The current article reviewed various possible decontamination methods for FFR reuse including ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV), microwave-generated steam (MGS), hydrogen peroxide gas plasma (HPGP), and 70% or higher ethanol solution. HPV decontamination was effective against bacterial spores (6 log reduction of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores) on FFRs and viruses (> 4 log reduction of various types of viruses) on inanimate surfaces, and no degradation of respirator materials and fit has been reported. Read More

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The molecular mechanism underlying pathogenicity inhibition by sanguinarine in Magnaporthe oryzae.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Fuzhou Institute of Oceanography, Minjiang University, Fuzhou, 350108, China.

Background: Sanguinarine (SAN) is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid that broadly targets a range of pathways in mammalian and fungal cells. In this study we set to explore the molecular mechanism how sanguinarine inhibits fungal development and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae with the hope that sanguinarine will bolster the development of anti-blast agents.

Results: We found that the fungus exhibited a significant reduction in the vegetative growth and hyphal melanization while the spores produced long germ tubes on the artificial hydrophobic surface characteristic of a defect in thigmotropic sensing when exposed to 4 μM, 8 μM and 0. Read More

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First report of stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis, and crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata var. avenae f. sp. avenae, on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) in Georgia, USA.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Georgia, 1355, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Griffin, Georgia, United States, 30223.

Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis, and crown rust, caused by P. coronata, are common rust diseases on cool-season grasses (Karakkat et al. 2018), for which long-distance spore dispersal was recorded in northern US (Harder and Haber 1992). Read More

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Phylogenetic relationships among false truffle genera of Paxillaceae-, and , gen. nov.

Mycologia 2021 Jun 10:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Carrer Massaballs 10, 17118 Sant Sadurní de l'Heura, Girona, Spain.

A phylogenetic analysis of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS), nuc rDNA 28S domains D1-D2 (28S), and the region between conserved domains 6 and 7 of RNA polymerase II second largest subunit () from multiple species of and revealed four major clades, proposed here as distinct genera: s. str. Read More

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Extract of spores induces cell cycle arrest of hepatoma cell via endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):704-714

MOE Key Laboratory of Gene Function and Regulation, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Context: Zhao, Xu et Zhang (Ganodermataceae) has been used for the prevention or treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer.

Objective: We investigated the antitumor activity and mechanism of an extract from against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Materials And Methods: A extract (GSE) was obtained from sporoderm-broken spores by supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. Read More

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December 2021

L-asparaginase from spp.: effects of production process and biochemical parameters.

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Jun 10:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Food Science, School of Food Engineering, UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil.

L-asparaginases prevent the formation of acrylamide, a substance commonly found in foods subjected to heat and that also contains reducing sugars and L-asparagine. This work aimed to select a strain of spp. able to produce L-asparaginase and to optimize the fermentation parameters, the partial purification and biochemical characterization were also performed. Read More

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Mass spore production of on rice.

3 Biotech 2021 Jul 4;11(7):311. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Laboratorio de Diferenciación Celular, Instituto de Investigaciones Químico Biológicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria 58030, Morelia, Michoacán México.

is a fungus that produces diverse spores throughout its life cycle. The sporangiospores, which are the most well-studied spores in this fungus, are asexual spores produced during aerial mycelial development. has the potential to be used in diverse biotechnological applications. Read More

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Effect of a sp. Red Yeast Rice Extract on Germination of Bacterial Spores.

Front Microbiol 2021 24;12:686100. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Prague, Czechia.

The pink-red color of traditional sausages (cured meat) is the result of nitrite addition and the formation of nitrosomyoglobin. However, the pleasant color of processed meat products is a side effect of nitrite addition while the main anticipated goal is to suppress the germination of clostridial spores. The fungus is known as a producer of oligoketide pigments, which are used in Asian countries, especially in China, for coloring foods, including meat products. Read More

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Amyloid Proteins in Plant-Associated Microbial Communities.

Microb Physiol 2021 Jun 9:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

ZMBP/IMIT, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Amyloids have proven to be a widespread phenomenon rather than an exception. Many proteins presenting the hallmarks of this characteristic beta sheet-rich folding have been described to date. Particularly common are functional amyloids that play an important role in the promotion of survival and pathogenicity in prokaryotes. Read More

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The contribution of bile acid metabolism to the pathogenesis of infection.

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2021 28;14:17562848211017725. Epub 2021 May 28.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 850 Boylston Street, Suite 201, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA.

infection (CDI) remains a major global cause of gastrointestinal infection, with significant associated morbidity, mortality and impact upon healthcare system resources. Recent antibiotic use is a key risk factor for the condition, with the marked antibiotic-mediated perturbations in gut microbiome diversity and composition that underpin the pathogenesis of CDI being well-recognised. However, only relatively recently has further insight been gained into the specific mechanistic links between these gut microbiome changes and CDI, with alteration of gut microbial metabolites - in particular, bile acid metabolism - being a particular area of focus. Read More

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Streptomyces venezuelae NRRL B-65442: genome sequence of a model strain used to study morphological differentiation in filamentous actinobacteria.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK.

For over a decade, Streptomyces venezuelae has been used to study the molecular mechanisms that control morphological development in streptomycetes and it is now a well-established model strain. Its rapid growth and ability to sporulate in a near-synchronised manner in liquid culture, unusual among streptomycetes, greatly facilitates the application of modern molecular techniques such as ChIP-seq and RNA-seq, as well as fluorescence time-lapse imaging of the complete Streptomyces life cycle. Here we describe a high-quality genome sequence of our isolate of the strain (NRRL B-65442) consisting of an 8. Read More

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Inhalation Triggers Neuroimmune, Glial, and Neuropeptide Transcriptional Changes.

ASN Neuro 2021 Jan-Dec;13:17590914211019886

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States.

Increasing evidence associates indoor fungal exposure with deleterious central nervous system (CNS) health, such as cognitive and emotional deficits in children and adults, but the specific mechanisms by which it might impact the brain are poorly understood. Mice were exposed to filtered air, heat-inactivated r (3 × 10 spores), or viable r (3 × 10 spores) via nose-only inhalation exposure 2 times per week for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Analysis of cortex, midbrain, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum tissue from mice exposed to viable r spores for 1, 2, and 4 weeks revealed significantly elevated pro-inflammatory () and glial activity ( and ) gene expression in several brain regions when compared to filtered air control, with the most consistent and pronounced neuroimmune response 48H following the 4-week exposure in the midbrain and frontal lobe. Read More

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Process performance improvement for the simultaneous production of ligninolytic enzymes in solid culture using agricultural wastes through the Taguchi method.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 4;293:112966. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Sciences, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Boulevard Venustiano Carranza SN, Saltillo, Coahuila, 25280, Mexico. Electronic address:

Despite a large amount of published research on the production of ligninolytic enzymes, the latter are not yet being applied to combat environmental pollution. No cost-effective process has been developed to date. This study describes an improvement of the solid-state fermentation procedure for the production of ligninolytic enzymes via Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATX by applying the Taguchi method and using an agro-industrial waste as substrate. Read More

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Using surrogate data to assess risks associated with microbial peak events in source water at drinking water treatment plants.

Water Res 2021 May 25;200:117296. Epub 2021 May 25.

Canada Research Chair in Source Water Protection, Department of Civil, Geological, and Mining Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3A7, Canada.

A monitoring strategy was implemented at two drinking water treatment plants in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate microbial reduction performances of full-scale treatment processes under different source water conditions. β-D-glucuronidase activity in source water was automatically monitored in near-real-time to establish baseline and event conditions at each location. High-volume water samples (50-1,500 L) were collected at the inflow and the outflow of coagulation/flocculation, filtration, and UV disinfection processes and were analysed for two naturally occurring surrogate organisms: Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. Read More

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In vivo-wound healing studies of sodium thiosulfate gel in rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 4;140:111797. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Brig. S.K. Majumdar Marg, Delhi 110054, India. Electronic address:

Sodium Thiosulfate (STS) is already reported as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent with antiseptic, antifungal properties. The search for an ideal antiseptic still continues, which is lethal to all types of bacteria and their spores and sustain the activity for a longer time without any harm to the host tissue. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of STS on curing of wounds in rats when compared to Betadine. Read More

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The murine neonatal Fc receptor is required for transport of immunization-induced specific IgG to the gut and protection against disease but does not affect disease susceptibility.

Infect Immun 2021 Jun 7:IAI0027421. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.

The pathology associated with disease is caused in large part by TcdB, an intracellular bacterial toxin that inactivates small GTPases. Despite causing an enteric disease, anti-toxin IgG is a clear correlate of protection against infection-associated pathology. Immunization with TcdB-based immunogens or passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies specific for the TcdB carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) confers protection following infection. Read More

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Spore-Associated Proteins Involved in c-di-GMP Synthesis and Degradation of .

J Bacteriol 2021 Jun 7:JB0013521. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology.

Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is an important bacterial regulatory signaling molecule affecting biofilm formation, toxin production, motility and virulence. The genome of , the causative agent of anthrax, is predicted to encode ten putative GGDEF/EAL/HD-GYP-domain containing proteins. Heterologous expression in hosts indicated that there are five active GGDEF domain-containing proteins and four active EAL or HD-GYP domain-containing proteins. Read More

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First report of Nigrospora oryzae causing wilt in summer cypress (Bassia scoparia) in Pakistan.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 66724, Plant Pathology, Mehndi muhala dhobi ghat, st#2, p-126, Gojra, T. T. Singh, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan, 38000.

Summer Cypress (Bassia scoparia) is a large annual herb belonging to the family Amaranthaceae native to Eurasia. It has been introduced in many other countries of the world. In Pakistan, summer cypress is also known as kochia and grown as an ornamental plant for its red fall foliage for landscapes. Read More

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Hyphal growth of Penicillium rubens in changing relative humidity.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612, AZ, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

When considering mold prevention strategies, the environmental conditions in which fungi grow need to be taken into consideration. This environment is often characterized by a time-dependent relative humidity, and porous substrate. Growth has mainly been investigated in steady-state experiments. Read More

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Phenotypic, molecular, and virulence characterization of entomopathogenic fungi, (Balsam) Vuillemin, and (Metschn.) Sorokin from soil samples of Ethiopia for the development of mycoinsecticide.

Heliyon 2021 May 22;7(5):e07091. Epub 2021 May 22.

College of Natural Science, Microbial, Cellular, and Molecular Biology Program Unit, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Fungal entomopathogens are the most effective biocontrol agents against insect pests in the natural ecosystem. This study was conducted for phenotypic, molecular, and virulence characterization of locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi from soil samples of six localities in Ethiopia. Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from 120 soil samples with the baiting method. Read More

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Pressure and Temperature Combined With Microbial Supernatant Effectively Inactivate Spores.

Front Microbiol 2021 18;12:642501. Epub 2021 May 18.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, National Engineering Research Center for Fruit and Vegetable Processing, Key Laboratory of Fruits and Vegetables Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Engineering Research Centre for Fruits and Vegetables Processing, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Spores from the species pose a challenge to the food industry because of their ubiquitous nature and extreme resistance. Accumulated evidence indicates that it is effective to induce spore germination homogenously before killing them. However, it is difficult to obtain and apply exogenous germination factors, which will affect food composition. Read More

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Extracellular Antifungal Activity of Chitinase-Producing Bacteria Isolated From Guano of Insectivorous Bats.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

PROIMI, CONICET, Av. Belgrano Y Pje. Caseros, 4000, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina.

A reduction in the use of agrochemicals requires the development of either alternatives or complementary control methods in order to limit their dangerousness. An alternative is the biological control of fungi by bacteria. The fungal cell wall is a unique structure of the fungi, composed of glucan, chitin, and glycoproteins. Read More

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Clostridioides difficile spores stimulate inflammatory cytokine responses and induce cytotoxicity in macrophages.

Anaerobe 2021 May 31:102381. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, Tulsa, OK, USA; Oklahoma State University College of Osteopathic Medicine at Cherokee Nation, Tahlequah, OK, USA. Electronic address:

Clostridioides difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium, and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. During C. difficile infection, spores germinate in the presence of bile acids into vegetative cells that subsequently colonize the large intestine and produce toxins. Read More

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New Perspectives in the Diagnosis and Management of Allergic Fungal Airway Disease.

J Asthma Allergy 2021 25;14:557-573. Epub 2021 May 25.

Institute for Lung Health, Department of Respiratory Sciences, College of Life Sciences, University of Leicester, and Allergy and Respiratory Medicine Service, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre: Respiratory, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK.

Allergy to airway-colonising, thermotolerant, filamentous fungi represents a distinct eosinophilic endotype of often severe lung disease. This endotype, which particularly affects adult asthma, but also complicates other airway diseases and sometimes occurs de novo, has a heterogeneous presentation ranging from severe eosinophilic asthma to lobar collapse. Its hallmark is lung damage, characterised by fixed airflow obstruction (FAO), bronchiectasis and lung fibrosis. Read More

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Anthrax Surveillance and the Limited Overlap Between Obligate Scavengers and Endemic Anthrax Zones in the United States.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Anthrax is a zoonosis caused by the spore-forming bacterium , with potential for high fatality rate, especially in herbivores. Upon host death, spores can enter the soil surrounding the carcass and be ingested by other animals feeding in the same location. Accordingly, surveillance to quickly identify and decontaminate anthrax carcasses is crucial to outbreak prevention. Read More

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First Report of Causing Leaf Sheath and Leaf Spot on Maize in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Nantong University, 66479, College of Life Sciences, Nantong, China;

In November 2020, leaf sheath on maize () was detected in southeastern Jiangsu (Nantong municipality; 120.54° E, 31.58° N) in China. Read More

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Identification of Colletotrichum liriopes as the Causative Agent of Anthracnose in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Lanzhou University, Pastoral Agriculture Sci. & Tech., Jiayuguan Xilu 768, Lanzhou, Gansu, China, 730020;

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), belonging to the Polygonaceae family, is one of the most important "functional food" crops in China. In fall 2020, buckwheat plants grown in field exhibiting stem canker symptoms were found in Tongxin county, Ningxia province, China. Symptoms included stem canker, dieback and extensive vascular discoloration. Read More

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Causing Stem and Branch Blight Disease of in Sichuan, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Sichuan Agricultural University - Chengdu Campus, 506176, college ofLandscape Architecture, Chengdu, Sichuan, China;

The Chinese pepper Maxim is a special economically important species and a traditional spice in China. It is widely used in medicine, food, timber, tourism, soil and water conservation. In April 2019, A stem and branch blight disease of was discovered in Muli, Puge and Yanyuan counties, in Liangshan Prefecture (27°15'20″-27°19'38″N, 101°44'58″-102°04'10″E), causing approximately 15% yield loss in the three counties. Read More

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Techniques for inactivating Toxoplasma gondii oocysts: a systematic review.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2021 28;30(2):e026420. Epub 2021 May 28.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, Londrina, PR, Brasil.

The oocyst, a resistant form of Toxoplasma gondii, plays an important role in the transmission of this protozoan. The objective of this review was to report the methods capable of inactivating oocysts through a systematic review of the literature carried out in the Scientific Electronic Library Online, Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed and Scopus databases. The keywords searched were (((effects OR infectivity OR resistance) AND Toxoplasma) AND oocyst). Read More

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Evaluation of Stable LifeAct-mRuby2- and LAMP1-NeonGreen Expressing A549 Cell Lines for Investigation of Interaction with Pulmonary Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

FH Gesundheit/Health University of Applied Sciences Tyrol, Innrain 98, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Inhaled spores can be internalized by alveolar type II cells. Cell lines stably expressing fluorescently labeled components of endocytic pathway enable investigations of intracellular organization during conidia internalization and measurement of the process kinetics. The goal of this report was to evaluate the methodological appliance of cell lines for studying fungal conidia internalization. Read More

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