5,318 results match your criteria spontaneous seizures

K1.1 channels mediate network excitability and feed-forward inhibition in local amygdala circuits.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 26;11(1):15180. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

K1.1 containing potassium channels play crucial roles towards dampening neuronal excitability. Mice lacking K1. Read More

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Seizure Prophylaxis After Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Importance: Limited evidence is available concerning optimal seizure prophylaxis after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH).

Objective: To evaluate which of 4 seizure prophylaxis strategies provides the greatest net benefit for patients with sICH.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This decision analysis used models to simulate the following 4 common scenarios: (1) a 60-year-old man with low risk of early (≤7 days after stroke) (10%) and late (3. Read More

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Electrographic Features of Spontaneous Recurrent Seizures in a Mouse Model of Extended Hippocampal Kindling.

Cereb Cortex Commun 2021 22;2(1):tgab004. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 2S8.

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and comorbidities. Kindling through repetitive brief stimulation of a limbic structure is a commonly used model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Particularly, extended kindling over a period up to a few months can induce SRS, which may simulate slowly evolving epileptogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. Read More

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January 2021

Seizure-mediated iron accumulation and dysregulated iron metabolism after status epilepticus and in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of (Neuro)Pathology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Neuronal dysfunction due to iron accumulation in conjunction with reactive oxygen species (ROS) could represent an important, yet underappreciated, component of the epileptogenic process. However, to date, alterations in iron metabolism in the epileptogenic brain have not been addressed in detail. Iron-related neuropathology and antioxidant metabolic processes were investigated in resected brain tissue from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS), post-mortem brain tissue from patients who died after status epilepticus (SE) as well as brain tissue from the electrically induced SE rat model of TLE. Read More

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Chronic limbic epilepsy models for therapy discovery: Protocols to improve efficiency.

Epilepsia 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

SEIN: Epilepsy Institute in the Netherlands Foundation Heemstede, Heemstede, The Netherlands.

Objective: There have been recommendations to improve therapy discovery for epilepsy by incorporating chronic epilepsy models into the preclinical process, but unpredictable seizures and difficulties in maintaining drug levels over prolonged periods have been obstacles to using these animals. We report new protocols in which drugs are administered through a new chronic gastric tube to rats with higher seizure frequencies to minimize these obstacles.

Methods: Adult rats with spontaneous limbic seizures following an episode of limbic status epilepticus induced by electrical hippocampal stimulation were monitored with long-term video- electroencephalography (EEG). Read More

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Scopolamine prevents aberrant mossy fiber sprouting and facilitates remission of epilepsy after brain injury.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Jul 16:105446. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany; Center for Systems Neuroscience, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Prevention or modification of acquired epilepsy in patients at risk is an urgent, yet unmet, clinical need. Following acute brain insults, there is an increased risk of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), which is often associated with debilitating comorbidities and reduced life expectancy. The latent period between brain injury and the onset of epilepsy may offer a therapeutic window for interfering with epileptogenesis. Read More

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Disproportionality analysis of reported drug adverse events to assess a potential safety signal for pentavalent vaccine in 2019 in El Salvador.

Vaccine 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Independent Consultant, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Detection and surveillance of vaccine safety hazards is a public health staple. In the post-marketing phase, when vaccines are used in mass, it is crucial to monitor potential signals of adverse reactions that may have been missed in the pre-marketing phase. We analysed spontaneous reports of drug adverse events in El Salvador to assess a potential safety signal related to an increase in febrile seizures following the pentavalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae Type B) vaccine in 2019. Read More

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Altered Spontaneous Glutamatergic and GABAergic Activity in the Peritumoral Cortex of Low-Grade Gliomas Presenting With History of Seizures.

Front Neurosci 2021 28;15:689769. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

The peritumoral regions of WHO grade II gliomas, like astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma, have been reported to show epileptiform activities. An imbalance of glutamatergic and GABAergic mechanisms is primarily responsible for the generation of epileptiform activities. Here we have compared the electrophysiological properties of pyramidal neurons in intraoperative peritumoral specimens obtained from glioma patients with (GS) and without (GN) a history of seizures at presentation. Read More

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New Horizons in Temporal Lobe Seizure Control.

J Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Unit for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Epilepsy Clinic, Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico.

Summary: In patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, high-frequency, low-amplitude electrical stimulation (ES) was applied during 3 weeks through contacts of intracranial electrodes that defined the epileptogenic zone. This subacute ES induced cessation of spontaneous seizures, decreased the number of EEG interictal spikes, caused a 10-fold increase in threshold to induce postdischarges, and showed a profound decrease in regional blood flow of the stimulated area in SPECT studies. Autoradiography analysis of surgical specimens from these patients demonstrated increased expression of benzodiazepine receptors and in gamma-aminobutyric acid content, particularly in the parahippocampal cortex. Read More

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Personalized Real-Time Federated Learning for Epileptic Seizure Detection.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jul 9;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent paroxystic neurological disorders. It is characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. About 1 out of 3 patients have drug-resistant epilepsy, thus their seizures cannot be controlled by medication. Read More

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A Pilot Evaluation of the Possible Association of Metronidazole With Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Premature Neonates.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2021 28;26(5):455-459. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Objective: Metronidazole is recommended as a first-line treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates. Metronidazole-associated neurotoxicity has been reported, but long-term neurodevelopmental effects in neonates have not been explored. The primary objective was to evaluate the relationship of cumulative metronidazole dose with each Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) composite score in neonates with NEC. Read More

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Novel Concepts for the Role of Chloride Cotransporters in Refractory Seizures.

Aging Dis 2021 Jul 1;12(4):1056-1069. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

1Neuroscience Laboratory, Hugo Moser Research Institute at Kennedy Krieger, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Epilepsy is associated with a multitude of acquired or genetic neurological disorders characterized by a predisposition to spontaneous recurrent seizures. An estimated 15 million patients worldwide have ongoing seizures despite optimal management and are classified as having refractory epilepsy. Early-life seizures like those caused by perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remain a clinical challenge because although transient, they are difficult to treat and associated with poor neurological outcomes. Read More

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Reflex Epilepsy.

Aging Dis 2021 Jul 1;12(4):1010-1020. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

2Department of Neurosurgery, Marshall University, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV 25701, USA.

Reflex seizures (RS) are epileptic events that are objectively and consistently elicited in response to a specific afferent stimulus or by an activity of the patient. The specific stimulus can be a variety of heterogenous intrinsic or extrinsic factors, ranging from the simple to the complex, such as flashing lights or reading a book. These seizures can take a variety of forms, comprising either general or focal onset, with or without secondary generalization. Read More

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A description of the clinical course of severe benzonatate poisonings reported in the literature and to NPDS: A systematic review supplemented with NPDS cases.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2021 Jul 5:9603271211030560. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Maryland Poison Center, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Benzonatate is a commonly prescribed medication that can be lethal in acute overdose of a small number of capsules.

Objective: This was a systematic review to describe the course of severe poisoning and deaths from benzonatate supplemented with the National Poison Data System (NPDS) fatalities module.

Methods: The NPDS was queried from 2000 to 2018 for benzonatate fatalities. Read More

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A De Novo SEMA6B Variant in a Chinese Patient with Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy-11 and Review of the Literature.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Neurology, Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Progressive myoclonic epilepsy is a group of neurodegenerative diseases with complex clinical and genetic heterogeneity, which is associated with spontaneous or action-induced myoclonus and progressive neurodegeneration. Since 2020, 4 families with progressive myoclonic epilepsy-11 [OMIM#618876] have been reported with a very limited spectrum of SEMA6B pathogenic variants. In our study, whole-exome sequencing was used in a proband from a nonconsanguineous Chinese family presenting with growth retardation and recurrent atonic seizures. Read More

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CLN8 Mutations Presenting with a Phenotypic Continuum of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis-Literature Review and Case Report.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Jun 23;12(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Chair and Department of Developmental Neurology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-355 Poznan, Poland.

CLN8 is a ubiquitously expressed membrane-spanning protein that localizes primarily in the ER, with partial localization in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. Mutations in cause late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL). We describe a female pediatric patient with LINCL. Read More

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Disruption of NEUROD2 causes a neurodevelopmental syndrome with autistic features via cell-autonomous defects in forebrain glutamatergic neurons.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Neuroscience and Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

While the transcription factor NEUROD2 has recently been associated with epilepsy, its precise role during nervous system development remains unclear. Using a multi-scale approach, we set out to understand how Neurod2 deletion affects the development of the cerebral cortex in mice. In Neurod2 KO embryos, cortical projection neurons over-migrated, thereby altering the final size and position of layers. Read More

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Rapid infusion of excessive phenytoin: A newborn autopsy case.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Jun 21;53:101935. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

The patient was a two-day-old female infant. The patient's mother was a primigravid in her 20 s who developed premature abruption of the normal placenta on the first day of the 33rd week of gestation. The infant was born by emergency cesarean section with severe neonatal asphyxia with a birth weight of 1928 g. Read More

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Long-term electro-clinical profile of sudden cardiac arrest survivors.

Epilepsia Open 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Epilepsy Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Objective: Recent research has explored the use of continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring for prognostication of spontaneous cardiac arrest (SCA). However, there is limited literature on the long-term (post-hospital discharge) electrographic findings among SCA survivors and their clinical correlates. Our study aims to fill this critical knowledge gap. Read More

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Non-Cell Autonomous Epileptogenesis in Focal Cortical Dysplasia.

Ann Neurol 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Low-level somatic mosaicism in the brain has been shown to be a major genetic cause of intractable focal epilepsy. However, how a relatively few mutation-carrying neurons are able to induce epileptogenesis at the local network level remains poorly understood.

Methods: To probe the origin of epileptogenesis, we measured the excitability of neurons with MTOR mutation and nearby nonmutated neurons recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp and array-based electrodes comparing the topographic distribution of mutation. Read More

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Black stone poisoning with a unique complication of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES).

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 23;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

A 25-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with difficulty in breathing, within 12 hours of intentional black stone ingestion, that is, para-phenylenediamine (p-PD), a chemical component of hair dye. Video laryngoscopy was done which showed laryngeal oedema and got intubated immediately to prevent respiratory failure. She got admitted to the intensive care unit and rigorous fluid resuscitation was done due to acute kidney injury secondary to rhabdomyolysis. Read More

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Proteomic signature of the Dravet syndrome in the genetic Scn1a-A1783V mouse model.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Jun 16;157:105423. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Dravet syndrome is a rare, severe pediatric epileptic encephalopathy associated with intellectual and motor disabilities. Proteomic profiling in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome can provide information about the molecular consequences of the genetic deficiency and about pathophysiological mechanisms developing during the disease course.

Methods: A knock-in mouse model of Dravet syndrome with Scn1a haploinsufficiency was used for whole proteome, seizure, and behavioral analysis. Read More

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Microglia proliferation plays distinct roles in acquired epilepsy depending on disease stages.

Epilepsia 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Objective: Microgliosis occurs in animal models of acquired epilepsy and in patients. It includes cell proliferation that is associated with seizure frequency and decreased neuronal cells in human epilepsy. The role of microglia proliferation in the development of acquired epilepsy is unknown; thus, we examined its contribution to spontaneous seizure, neurodegeneration, and cognitive deficits in different disease phases. Read More

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Altered Protein Profiles During Epileptogenesis in the Pilocarpine Mouse Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2021 28;12:654606. Epub 2021 May 28.

Division of Neurology and Translational Epilepsy Research Program, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States.

Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent, spontaneous seizures and is a major contributor to the global burden of neurological disease. Although epilepsy can result from a variety of brain insults, in many cases the cause is unknown and, in a significant proportion of cases, seizures cannot be controlled by available treatments. Understanding the molecular alterations that underlie or are triggered by epileptogenesis would help to identify therapeutics to prevent or control progression to epilepsy. Read More

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TREM2 Deficiency Disrupts Network Oscillations Leading to Epileptic Activity and Aggravates Amyloid-β-Related Hippocampal Pathophysiology in Mice.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Genetic mutations in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) have been strongly associated with increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other progressive dementias. In the brain, TREM2 protein is specifically expressed on microglia suggesting their active involvement in driving disease pathology. Using various transgenic AD models to interfere with microglial function through TREM2, several recent studies provided important data indicating a causal link between TREM2 and underlying amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau pathology. Read More

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Alterations in mRNA and Protein Expression of Glutamate Receptor Subunits Following Pentylenetetrazole-induced Acute Seizures in Young Rats.

Neuroscience 2021 08 5;468:1-15. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of RAS, 44, Toreza prospekt, Saint Petersburg 194223, Russia. Electronic address:

Acute seizures can severely affect brain function and development. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Disturbances of the glutamatergic system are considered one of the critical mechanisms of neurological abnormalities. Read More

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Clinical Validation of the Champagne Algorithm for Epilepsy Spike Localization.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 20;15:642819. Epub 2021 May 20.

National Engineering Research Center for E-Learning, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is increasingly used for presurgical planning in people with medically refractory focal epilepsy. Localization of interictal epileptiform activity, a surrogate for the seizure onset zone whose removal may prevent seizures, is challenging and depends on the use of multiple complementary techniques. Accurate and reliable localization of epileptiform activity from spontaneous MEG data has been an elusive goal. Read More

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TSPO PET upregulation predicts epileptic phenotype at disease onset independently from chronic TSPO expression in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 May 28;31:102701. Epub 2021 May 28.

Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.

Neuroinflammation is a key component of epileptogenesis, the process leading to acquired epilepsy. In recent years, with the development of non-invasive in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), a marker of neuroinflammation, it has become possible to perform longitudinal studies to characterize neuroinflammation at different disease stages in animal models of epileptogenesis. This study aimed to utilize the prognostic capability of TSPO PET imaging at disease onset (2 weeks post-SE) to categorize epileptic rats with distinct seizure burden based on TSPO levels at disease onset and investigate their association to TSPO expression at the chronic epilepsy stage. Read More

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Mechanisms of disease-modifying effect of saracatinib (AZD0530), a Src/Fyn tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in the rat kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Aug 1;156:105410. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames 50011, USA. Electronic address:

We have recently demonstrated the role of the Fyn-PKCδ signaling pathway in status epilepticus (SE)-induced neuroinflammation and epileptogenesis in experimental models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this study, we show a significant disease-modifying effect and the mechanisms of a Fyn/Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor, saracatinib (SAR, also known as AZD0530), in the rat kainate (KA) model of TLE. SAR treatment for a week, starting the first dose (25 mg/kg, oral) 4 h after the onset of SE, significantly reduced spontaneously recurring seizures and epileptiform spikes during the four months of continuous video-EEG monitoring. Read More

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