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The immune response of pIgR and iig to Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Freshwater Genetics and Breeding, Shandong Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute, Ji'nan, 250013, PR China. Electronic address:

The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) plays an important role in mediating the transcytosis of polymeric immunoglobulins (pIgs) to protect organisms against pathogen invasion. Here, a polyclonal antibody against grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) recombinant pIgR was developed by immunizing New Zealand white rabbit, and the responses of pIgR, IgM and IgZ were analyzed after bath immunization and intraperitoneal administration with Flavobacterium columnare. The results showed that pIgR transcription level was similar to IgM and IgZ, but pIgR rose much faster and peaked earlier than IgM and IgZ; the pIgR mRNA levels were higher in the skin and spleen for both immunized groups, while IgM and IgZ mRNA expression were higher in skin, gills, and intestines in bath immersion group, or spleen and head kidney in intraperitoneal immunization group. Read More

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Dietary Synbiotics Can Help Relieve the Impacts of Deltamethrin Toxicity of Nile Tilapia Reared at Low Temperatures.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 15;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El Sheikh 33516, Egypt.

The optimal water temperature for the normal growth of Nile tilapia is between 26 and 28 °C, and the toxicity of pesticides is strongly related to water temperature. An alternate approach to augmenting the resistance of fish to ambient water toxicity and low water temperature via synbiotic feeding was proposed. In this study, fish were allocated into four groups with 10 fish in each replicate, where they were fed a basal diet or synbiotics (550 mg/kg) and kept at a suboptimal water temperature (21 ± 2 °C). Read More

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Tilapia lake virus immunoglobulin G (TiLV IgG) antibody: Immunohistochemistry application reveals cellular tropism of TiLV infection.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jun 27;116:115-123. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Electronic address:

Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a notable contagious agent that causes massive economic losses in the tilapia industry globally. Evaluations of the histological changes associated with TiLV infection are not only crucial for diagnosis, but also to gain an understanding of the disease. We therefore synthesized a rabbit polyclonal immunoglobulin G antibody against TiLV and developed an immunohistochemical (IHC) procedure to detect TiLV localization in the tissues of infected fish for comparison with in situ hybridization (ISH) testing. Read More

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Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses to Salmon Gill Poxvirus Infection in Atlantic Salmon Are Modulated Upon Hydrocortisone Injection.

Front Immunol 2021 9;12:689302. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Fish Health, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Ås, Norway.

Salmon Gill Poxvirus Disease (SGPVD) has emerged as a cause of acute mortality in Atlantic salmon () presmolts in Norwegian aquaculture. The clinical phase of the disease is associated with apoptotic cell death in the gill epithelium causing acute respiratory distress, followed by proliferative changes in the regenerating gill in the period after the disease outbreak. In an experimental SGPV challenge trial published in 2020, acute disease was only seen in fish injected with hydrocortisone 24 h prior to infection. Read More

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Do foodborne polyethylene microparticles affect the health of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)?

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 18;793:148490. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Animal Protection and Welfare & Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.

Due to the fact that plastic pollution is a global environmental problem of modern age, studies on the impact of these synthetic materials on aquatic, and especially fish organisms, are an important part of the ecosystem and human nutrition. In our study, the toxicity of pristine polyethylene (PE) microparticles (approx. 50 μm) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was tested in three different dietary concentrations - 0. Read More

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Expression analysis and tissue localization of IgZ in the grouper Epinephelus coioides after Vibrio alginolyticus infection and vaccination.

J Fish Dis 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Eutrophication and Red Tide Prevention of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Engineering Research Center of Tropical and Subtropical Aquatic Ecological Engineering Ministry of Education, Institute of Hydrobiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

The orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) is an important marine farmed fish in China. It is affected by the bacterial pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus, which causes high mortality and substantial economic losses. We studied the transcriptional changes of the IgZ gene in E. Read More

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Expression and functional analysis of the BCL2-Associated agonist of cell death (BAD) gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during bacterial infection.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Oct 2;123:104160. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Guangdong Provincial Water Environment and Aquatic Products Security Engineering, Technology Research Center, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Diseases and Waterfowl Breeding, College of Animal Sciences and Technology, Zhongkai, University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510222, China. Electronic address:

The BCL2-associated agonist of cell death protein is a key participant in apoptosis dependent on mitochondria and in disease progression that involves the regulation of cell death, such as tumorigenesis, diabetes, sepsis shock, and epilepsy. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the immune responses to teleost BAD bacterial infection and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis remains unclear. In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved, in this study, a Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) BAD gene named GcBAD1 was firstly cloned and characterized. Read More

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October 2021

Identification and functional analysis of the perforin-1 like gene in disease resistance in half smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Sep 15;122:104135. Epub 2021 May 15.

Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi, 214081, China; Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Key Laboratory for Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Qingdao, 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao, 266237, China; Shandong Key Laboratory of Marine Fisheries Biotechnology and Genetic Breeding, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China. Electronic address:

The pore-forming protein perforin is one of the effectors of cell-mediated killing via the granule exocytosis pathway. In this study, a genome-wide association study was conducted in Vibrio harveyi disease-resistant and disease-susceptible families of half smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) to determine the genes accounting for host resistance, and a perforin homologue was identified, designated perforin-1 like (CsPRF1l). The full-length cDNA of CsPRF1l is 1835 bp, and encodes 514 amino acids. Read More

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September 2021

CCL19 variants mediate chemotactic response via CCR7 in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Sep 7;122:104127. Epub 2021 May 7.

Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306, China; International Research Center for Marine Biosciences at Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Science and Technology, China; National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

CC chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) plays a key role in the regulation of immune responses including homeostasis, inflammation, and immune tolerance. In this study, two variants of CCL19 homologues (CCL19a2 and CCL19b) and CCR7 were investigated in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The three genes were widely expressed in immune tissues and could be modulated by stimulation with LPS, PHA and poly(I:C), and infection with Flavobacterium columnare and grass carp reovirus. Read More

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September 2021

Identification of IκBα in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica that impairs the IKKα-dependent activation of NF-κB, AP1, and type I IFN signaling pathways.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Sep 27;122:104044. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Animal Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

As a member of inhibitory κB family (IκB) family, IκBα is best-characterized and plays a central negative feedback regulator of NF-κB pathway in mammals, but the information about IκBα in the regulation of immune responses is still limited in teleost fishes. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of an IκBα homologue, AjIκBα, was cloned by 5' and 3' SMART RACE from Japanese eel, and its characteristics of expression in response to various PAMPs and A. hydrophila infection were investigated both in vivo and in vitro using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Read More

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September 2021

Molecular characterization of a new IgZ3 subclass in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and comparative expression analysis of IgH transcripts during larvae development.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Apr 14;17(1):159. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance Biology of Shandong Province, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, No. 88 East Wenhua Road, Shandong, 250014, Jinan, China.

Background: Immunoglobulins (Igs) distributed among systemic immune tissues and mucosal immune tissues play important roles in protecting teleosts from infections in the pathogen-rich aquatic environment. Teleost IgZ/IgT subclasses with different tissue expression patterns may have different immune functions.

Results: In the present study, a novel secreted IgZ heavy chain gene was cloned and characterized in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Read More

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Differential proteome profile of gill and spleen in three pathogen-infected Paralichthys olivaceus.

Genes Genomics 2021 Jul 13;43(7):701-712. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Parasitology and Genetics, Institute for Medical Science, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Background: Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the major cultured fish species in Asia including Korea. However, the mass mortality of olive flounder caused by various pathogens leads to huge economic loss. The pathogens that lead to fish mortality include parasites, bacteria, and viruses that can cause various kinds of diseases. Read More

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Molecular, Cellular and Functional Analysis of TRγ Chain along the European Sea Bass Development.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 25;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems, University of Tuscia, Largo dell'Università, 01100 Viterbo, Italy.

In jawed vertebrates, adaptive immune responses are enabled by T cells. Two lineages were characterized based on their T cell receptor (TcR) heterodimers, namely αβ or γδ peptide chains, which display an Ig domain-type sequence that is somatically rearranged. γδ T cells have been less extensively characterized than αβ and teleost fish, in particular, suffer from a severe scarcity of data. Read More

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Fish natural killer enhancing factor-A (NKEF-A) enhance cytotoxicity of nonspecific cytotoxic cells against bacterial infection.

Mol Immunol 2021 05 18;133:184-193. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Fisheries College of Guangdong Ocean University, Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhanjiang), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology and Epidemiology for Aquatic Economic Animals & Key Laboratory of Control for Diseases of Aquatic Economic Animals of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Zhanjiang, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

Natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF)-A/B is a member of Peroxiredoxin (Prxs) family, which is named for the function of enhancing NK cells activity. NKEF also plays essential roles in multiple physiology/pathology processes including inflammation regulation, cancer development and redox reactions. However, the regulatory effects of fish NKEF on immune cells remain largely unknown. Read More

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Histological Effects of Light Crude Oil on Sciaenops ocellatus Under Experimental Conditions.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Departamento de Recursos del Mar, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Mérida), Antigua carretera a Progreso Km 6, Cordemex, C.P 97310, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.

The health status of Sciaenops ocellatus was studied by qualitative and quantitative histopathological analysis through histological damage prevalence and degree of tissue change (DTC) in response to 96 h and 9 days of exposure to 0.1, 0.8, and 8 g/L of light crude oil in seawater. Read More

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Identification and functional characterization of the transcription factor coding gene in large yellow croaker .

Heliyon 2021 Feb 26;7(2):e06299. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Marine Biodiversity Conservation, Beibu Gulf University, Qinzhou, 536011, China.

The transcription factor Dp1, as a binding partner, often forms a dimerization complex with typical E2F to play a central role in regulating gene expression during G1/S cell cycle progression. In this study, a full-length cDNA () was successfully cloned and characterized from the large yellow croaker . The nucleotidic sequence of is 1,427 bp long with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,239 bp encoding a putative protein of 412 amino acids, a 5'-untranslated region of 116 bp and a 3'-untranslated region of 70 bp. Read More

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February 2021

Ozone nanobubble modulates the innate defense system of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) against Streptococcus agalactiae.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 2;112:64-73. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, 10300, Thailand. Electronic address:

Ozone nanobubble (NB-O) is a promising technology for improving dissolved oxygen and reducing bacterial concentration in aquaculture systems. Here, we investigated the effects of NB-O on the innate immunity of fish by monitoring the expression levels of nonspecific immune-related genes (IL-1β, IL-2β, TNF-α), heat-shock protein genes (HSP70, HSP90-α), and a bacteriolytic enzyme, C-type lysozyme, gene (LYZ) post-treatment with this technology. Following exposure to NB-O, the different tissues of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were collected over time for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. Read More

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Genomic and expression characterization of aquaporin genes from Siniperca chuatsi.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 06 25;38:100819. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Shanghai Collaborative Innovation for Aquatic Animal Genetics and Breeding, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China. Electronic address:

Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins that form pores in the membranes of biological cells. We first cloned the full-length sequences of aqp0, 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 genes in Siniperca chuatsi. The 10 S. Read More

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Study on Immune Response of Organs of and After Immersion Vaccination With Inactivated Vaccine.

Front Immunol 2020 9;11:622387. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Key Lab of Aquatic Animal Immune Technology of Guangdong Province, Key Lab of Fishery Drug Development of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Immersion vaccination relies on the response of fish mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, the Crucian carp () and Grouper () were researched in this paper to examine local mucosal immune responses and associated humoral system responses following immersion vaccination. We administered 1.5 × 10 CFU/ml formalin-inactivated cells and measured mucus and serum antibody titers as well as IgM, MHC II mRNA levels in immune organs. Read More

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Expression analysis of tissue factor pathway inhibitors TFPI-1 and TFPI-2 in Paralichthys olivaceus and antibacterial and anticancer activity of derived peptides.

Vet Res 2021 Feb 25;52(1):32. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Marine Science and Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China.

Tissue factor pathway inhibitors (TFPI), including TFPI-1 and TFPI-2, are Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors that mainly inhibit the blood coagulation induced by tissue factors. Previous reports on teleost proved TFPI play important roles in innate immunity. In this study, two TFPI (PoTFPI-1 and PoTFPI-2) molecules from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were analyzed and characterized for their expression patterns, antibacterial and anticancer activities of the C-terminal derived peptides. Read More

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February 2021

Two CD9 tetraspanin family members of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus): characterization and comparative analysis of the anti-infectious immune function.

Vet Res 2021 Feb 17;52(1):28. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hainan Academy of Tropical Agricultural Resource, CATAS, Haikou, 571101, China.

CD9 is a glycoprotein of the transmembrane 4 superfamily that is involved in various cellular processes. Studies related to the immune functions and activities of CD9 in teleost fish are limited. In this study, we characterized two CD9 homologs, PoCD9. Read More

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February 2021

Tissue and gender-related differences in the elemental composition of juvenile ocean sunfish (Mola spp.).

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 13;272:129131. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Division of Oceanography and Marine Environment, IPMA - Portuguese Institute of the Sea and Atmosphere, Av. Doutor Alfredo Magalhães Ramalho, 6, 1495-165, Algés, Portugal. Electronic address:

Trace elements are potentially critical contaminants of aquatic environments and fish, occupying upper trophic levels, are especially vulnerable to bioaccumulation. Due to public health concerns, however, data on the elemental composition of non-commercially important marine species are particularly lacking. Ocean sunfish (Mola spp. Read More

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In silico characterization and expression analysis of eight C-type lectins in obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Apr 5;234:110200. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

College of Oceanography, Hohai University, 1 Xikang Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210098, China. Electronic address:

C-type lectins (CTLs) are a group of carbohydrate-binding proteins that play crucial roles in innate immune defense against invading pathogens. CTLs have been extensively studied in lower vertebrates, such as fish, for their roles in eliminating pathogens; however, their homologs in pufferfish are not well known. In the present study, eight CTLs from obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus (designated as ToCTL3-10 according to the order they were discovered) were obtained. Read More

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Development of monoclonal antibody against IgT of a perciform fish, large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and characterization of IgT B cells.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 29;119:104027. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology of Fujian Province, Institute of Oceanology, College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266071, China. Electronic address:

Teleost immunoglobulin T (IgT) is considered to be a primitive immunoglobulin class specialized in mucosal immunity. In the present study, a recombinant protein containing the CH2 region of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) IgT heavy chain was expressed, purified, and used as an immunogen to produce a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against large yellow croaker IgT. Western blotting results indicated that the obtained mouse anti-IgT mAb could specifically recognize a 45 kDa protein in the skin mucus of large yellow croaker, which was identified as the IgT heavy chain by mass spectrometric analysis. Read More

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Identification and functional characterization of CD154 in T cell-dependent immune response in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Apr 26;111:102-110. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Institute of Modern Aquaculture Science and Engineering, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, Guangdong, 510631, PR China. Electronic address:

CD154, a member of the TNF superfamily, is a multifunctional molecule highly expressed in activated T cells, and plays important roles in T cell-dependent humoral immune response. In this study, CD154 of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was identified, and its functions in the T cell-dependent immune response were demonstrated. The open reading frame (ORF) of OnCD154 is 699 bp, encoding a protein of 232 amino acids with a 23 amino acid transmembrane region. Read More

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Thermal acclimation of tropical coral reef fishes to global heat waves.

Elife 2021 Jan 26;10. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.

As climate-driven heat waves become more frequent and intense, there is increasing urgency to understand how thermally sensitive species are responding. Acute heating events lasting days to months may elicit acclimation responses to improve performance and survival. However, the coordination of acclimation responses remains largely unknown for most stenothermal species. Read More

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January 2021

Molecular and cellular characterization of European sea bass CD3ε T lymphocytes and their modulation by microalgal feed supplementation.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Apr 12;384(1):149-165. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy.

The CD3 coreceptor is a master T cell surface marker, and genes encoding CD3ζ, γδ, and ε chains have been reported in several teleost fish. Here, a complete cDNA sequence of CD3ɛ chain was identified from a sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) gill transcriptome. Read More

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Morphostructural data and phylogenetic relationships of a new cnidarian myxosporean infecting spleen of an economic and ecological important bryconid fish from Brazil.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jan 29;150:104718. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Technology, University of São Paulo, 13635-900, São Paulo, Brazil.

A new cnidarian myxosporean infecting the spleen of an economic and ecological important bryconid fish (Salminus franciscanus) is described based on integrative taxonomic approach including morphological, ultrastructural, biological traits, geography, molecular data and phylogenetic analysis. In a total of thirty specimens examined, nineteen (63.3%) were infected by an undescribed parasite species belonging to the genus Myxobolus. Read More

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January 2021

Molecular and functional identification of a β-defensin homolog in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

J Fish Dis 2021 Apr 19;44(4):391-400. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology of Fujian Province, Institute of Oceanology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

β-defensin (BD) is a cysteine-rich cationic antibacterial peptide that is active against a wide range of bacteria. Here, a β-defensin homolog (LcBD2) was identified in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The open reading frame of LcBD2 contains 195 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 64 amino acids that possesses a typical arrangement of six conserved cysteine residues (C , C , C , C , C and C ). Read More

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Immune, inflammatory, autophagic and DNA damage responses to long-term HO exposure in different tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 21;757:143831. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, China; International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, China. Electronic address:

Hydrogen peroxide (HO) is a stable reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aquatic environment, and high concentration of ambient HO may directly or indirectly affect aquatic animal health. However, the response mechanism of fish to ambient HO has not been well studied yet. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the immune, inflammatory, autophagic and DNA damage responses to long-term HO exposure in different tissues of common carp. Read More

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February 2021