225,606 results match your criteria spinal cord


Differential activation of colonic afferents and dorsal horn neurons underlie stress-induced and comorbid visceral hypersensitivity in female rats.

J Pain 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore MD 21201, USA; UM Center to Advance Chronic Pain Research, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore MD 21201. Electronic address:

Chronic Overlapping Pain Conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and temporomandibular disorder (TMD), represent a group of idiopathic pain conditions that likely have peripheral and central mechanisms contributing to their pathology, but are poorly understood. These conditions are exacerbated by stress and have a female predominance. The presence of one condition predicts the presence or development of additional conditions, making this a significant pain management problem. Read More

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The thrombin receptor modulates astroglia-neuron trophic coupling and neural repair after spinal cord injury.

Glia 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine Research Center, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Excessive activation of the thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is implicated in diverse neuropathologies from neurodegenerative conditions to neurotrauma. PAR1 knockout mice show improved outcomes after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI), however information regarding the underpinning cellular and molecular mechanisms is lacking. Here we demonstrate that genetic blockade of PAR1 in female mice results in improvements in sensorimotor co-ordination after thoracic spinal cord lateral compression injury. Read More

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3D-Fast Gray Matter Acquisition with Phase Sensitive Inversion Recovery Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 Tesla: Application for detection of spinal cord lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0247813. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Neuroradiology, Foundation Adolphe de Rothschild Hospital, Paris, France.

Background And Purpose: To compare 3D-Fast Gray Matter Acquisition with Phase Sensitive Inversion Recovery (3D-FGAPSIR) with conventional 3D-Short-Tau Inversion Recovery (3D-STIR) and sagittal T1-and T2-weighted MRI dataset at 3 Tesla when detecting MS spinal cord lesions.

Material And Methods: This prospective single-center study was approved by an institutional review board and enrolled participants from December 2016 to August 2018. Two neuroradiologists blinded to all data, individually analyzed the 3D-FGAPSIR and the conventional datasets separately and in random order. Read More

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Modified K-line in Neck Extension is a Prognostic Indicator of the Surgical Outcome at 5 Years after Cervical Laminoplasty for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

aDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Odate Municipal General Hospital, Odate, Japan bDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan cDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mutsu General Hospital, Mutsu, Japan.

Study Design: A retrospective comparison of the surgical outcome after cervical laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) using a modified K-line based on lordosis in neck extension as a predictor: in K-line Back CSM (KB group), the K-line crosses the ventral edge of any of the spinous processes, whereas in K-line Front CSM (KF group), the K-line does not.

Objective: To investigate the neurological and radiological outcomes 5 years after surgery and the contact between the spinal cord and posterior elements after laminoplasty for CSM using the modified K-line.

Summary Of Background Data: No indicators on a lateral radiograph can predict the neurological outcome after laminoplasty for CSM. Read More

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February 2021

miR-124: A Promising Therapeutic Target for Central Nervous System Injuries and Diseases.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

The Key Laboratory of Pathobiology, Ministry of Education, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130000, People's Republic of China.

Central nervous system injuries and diseases, such as ischemic stroke, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative diseases, glioblastoma, multiple sclerosis, and the resulting neuroinflammation often lead to death or long-term disability. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression in both physiological and pathological cellular processes, including central nervous system injuries and disorders. Studies on miR-124, one of the most abundant microRNAs in the central nervous system, have shown that its dysregulation is related to the occurrence and development of pathology within the central nervous system. Read More

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Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Oxytocin Receptor Modulation in Healthy Volunteers - a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study.

Eur J Pain 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Bioingeniería y Bioinformática (IBB), CONICET-UNER, Oro Verde, Argentina.

Background: There is increasing evidence for oxytocin as a neurotransmitter in spinal nociceptive processes. Hypothalamic oxytocinergic neurons project to the spinal dorsal horn, where they activate GABA-ergic inhibitory interneurons. The present study tested whether the long-acting oxytocin-analogue carbetocin has anti-nociceptive effects in multi-modal experimental pain in humans. Read More

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Unilateral brain injury to pregnant rats induces asymmetric neurological deficits in the offspring.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Effects of environmental factors may be transmitted to the following generation, and cause neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder in the offspring. Enhanced synaptic plasticity induced by environmental enrichment may be also transmitted. We here test the hypothesis that the effects of brain injury in pregnant animals may produce neurological deficits in the offspring. Read More

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Central, but not peripheral, nervous system ERK2 is essential for itch signals in murine allergic skin inflammation.

Allergy 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Dermatology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan.

Background: Itch is a common cutaneous symptom in a variety of dermatological diseases, but detailed neuropathological mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to assess in vivo ERK2 functions in the nervous system for itch responses.

Methods: We generated conditional-knockout mice deficient in ERK2 of the central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS), respectively, and assessed chemical and mechanical itch responses in vivo. Read More

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Tabes Dorsalis in a Patient Presenting With Right Lower Extremity Paresthesia and Cervical Spine Pain.

Cureus 2021 Mar 20;13(3):e14011. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Internal Medicine, HCA Westside-Northwest, Plantation, USA.

Syphilitic myelitis, also known as tabes dorsalis, is a disease affecting the posterior columns of the spinal cord and dorsal roots and presents as sensory ataxia and neuropathic pain and less commonly as paresthesia and gastrointestinal disturbance. Tabes dorsalis is the clinical manifestation of a previous infection with syphilis, and the average latency period from initial infection to presentation of symptoms is approximately 25 years. This is a rarely encountered manifestation of syphilis since the widespread usage of antibiotics. Read More

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Cervical Pediatric Spine Trauma Managed With Open Spinal Fixation and Instrumentation and a Review of the Literature.

Cureus 2021 Mar 19;13(3):e14004. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Neurological Surgery, Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, USA.

Cervical spine injuries in the pediatric population are rare. Most injuries to the cervical spinal cord and vertebral column can be managed nonoperatively; however, surgical management may be required in certain clinical scenarios. A posterior surgical approach has been previously preferred; however, the utilization of anterior spinal fixation and instrumentation has been limited. Read More

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Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis: A Retrospective Study Differentiating Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder From Other Etiologies.

Cureus 2021 Mar 18;13(3):e13968. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Neurology, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, NPL.

Background Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is characterized by contiguous immune-mediated inflammatory lesion of the spinal cord extending more than three vertebral segments. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is the most common and important cause of LETM. This study aims to evaluate the demographic profile, clinical presentations, neuroimaging features, laboratory parameters, and etiologies of LETM and differentiates NMOSD from other etiologies of LETM. Read More

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Prevalence of Spasticity and Below-Level Neuropathic Pain Related to Spinal Cord Injury Level and Damage to the Lower Spinal Segments.

J Rehabil Med Clin Commun 2020 8;3:1000039. Epub 2020 Mar 8.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, and Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Section of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objective: To evaluate spasticity and below-level spinal cord injury neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury in patients with, or without, damage to the lumbar spinal cord and roots.

Design/patients: Chart review of 269 patients with spinal cord injury from segments C1 to T11.

Methods: Patients were interviewed concerning leg spasticity and below-level spinal cord injury neuropathic pain in the lower trunk and legs. Read More

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Serotonin Syndrome Mimicking Intrathecal Baclofen Withdrawal in a Patient with Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis.

J Rehabil Med Clin Commun 2020 21;3:1000026. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, CHU UCL Namur site Godinne, Yvoir, Belgium.

Context: Serotonin syndrome is a drug-induced condition related to an increased level of serotonin in the brain, which may induce neuromuscular, autonomic and mental symptoms.

Case Report: A 40-year-old woman with hereditary spastic paraparesis (Strumpell-Lorrain disease) with an implanted intrathecal baclofen pump for severe spasticity. Two days after starting a medication known to inhibit serotonin re-uptake (paroxetine), she developed a sudden increase in lower limb spasticity with continuous spasms, fever, tachycardia and hypertension. Read More

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January 2020

Dysarthria Consequent to Cervical Spinal Cord Injury and Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Damage: A Case Report.

J Rehabil Med Clin Commun 2019 12;2:1000022. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities, Muttukadu, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objective: To assess and describe the involvement of all speech subsystems, including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody, in an individual with cervical spinal cord injury.

Methods: Detailed speech and voice assessment was performed that included Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment, cranial nerve examination, voice (per-ceptual and instrumental) and nasometric evalua-tion, and intelligibility and communicative effecti-veness.

Results: Impaired respiratory and phonatory con-trol correlated with the physical impairment of C4 and C5 prolapsed intervertebral disc. Read More

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November 2019

Sacral Insufficiency Fractures in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury: A Report of Two Unusual Cases and Review of Literature.

J Rehabil Med Clin Commun 2019 4;2:1000019. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Spinal Injury Rehabilitation Centre, Pinderfields General Hospital, Pinderfields, WF1 4DG, United Kingdom.

Objective: Sacral insufficiency fractures should be considered in differential diagnosis as a cause of autonomic dysreflexia and other vague symptoms in patients with spinal cord injury.

Setting: The Supra Regional Tertiary Centre, Midlands Centre for Spinal Injuries, Oswestry, UK.

Method: Outpatient clinic review of 2 patients with long-standing spinal cord injury presenting with vague symptoms of abdominal discomfort, and increased spasms including autonomic dysreflexia in which no evidence of causation was found on clinical examination. Read More

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October 2019

Birth prevalence of neural tube defects and associated risk factors in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Apr 21;21(1):190. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Gondar, Gondar, Amhara, Ethiopia.

Background: Neural tube defects are common congenital anomalies that result from early malformation in the development of the spinal cord and brain. It is related to substantial mortality, morbidity, disability, and psychological and economic costs. The aim of this review is to determine the pooled birth prevalence of neural tube defects and associated risk factors in Africa. Read More

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Natural Progression of Routine Laboratory Markers following Spinal Trauma: A longitudinal, multi-cohort study.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

ETH Zurich D-BSSE, 211122, Basel, Basel-Stadt, Switzerland.

Our objective was to track and quantify the natural course of serological markers over the first year following spinal cord injury. For that purpose, data on serological markers, demographics, and injury characteristics were extracted from medical records of a clinical trial (Sygen) and an ongoing observational cohort study (Murnau Study). The primary outcomes were concentration/levels/amount of commonly collected serological markers at multiple time-points. Read More

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Core Temperature Lability Predicts Sympathetic Interruption and Cognitive Performance during Heat Exposure in Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

James J Peters VA Medical Center, VA RR&D National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, Bronx, New York, United States.

Among persons with high spinal cord injury (Hi-SCI: >T5), changes in core body temperature (Tcore) and cognitive performance during heat exposure appear related to degree of sympathetic interruption. 20 men with Hi-SCI (C4-T4, AIS A-B) and 19 matched, able-bodied controls were acclimated to 27°C baseline (BL) before exposure to 35°C Heat Challenge (HC). Two groups, differentiated by increase in Tcore during HC, were identified: High Responders (HR-SCI: ΔTcore≥0. Read More

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Delay in Diagnosis of Cauda Equina Syndrome with a Malfunctioning Spinal Cord Stimulator.

Pain Med 2021 Apr;22(4):1002-1004

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange, California, USA.

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Ageing promotes pathological alpha-synuclein propagation and autonomic dysfunction in wild-type rats.

Brain 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Neuronal aggregates of misfolded alpha-synuclein protein are found in the brain and periphery of patients with Parkinson's disease. Braak and colleagues have hypothesized that the initial formation of misfolded alpha-synuclein may start in the gut, and then spread to the brain via peripheral autonomic nerves hereby affecting several organs, including the heart and intestine. Age is considered the greatest risk factor for Parkinson's disease, but the effect of age on the formation of pathology and its propagation has not been studied in detail. Read More

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Early-Onset Multiple Sclerosis With Frequent Relapses: A Challenging Diagnosis With a Less Favorable Prognosis.

Cureus 2021 Mar 18;13(3):e13963. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Paediatrics, Base Hospital Mahaoya, Mahaoya, LKA.

Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) is a rare demyelinating disease of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve caused by immune modulators mediating against the neuronal axons of the central nervous system. MS is usually characterized by a series of neurological events, without any features of encephalopathy, separated in time and space. The complications arise from the permanent degeneration of the nerves. Read More

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Percutaneous Thoracic Spinal Cord Stimulator Placement.

Cureus 2021 Mar 16;13(3):e13916. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA.

Spinal cord stimulation is a safe, effective, and reversible method for the management of chronic neuropathic pain. Spinal cord stimulation was found to be superior to traditional conservative management in recent clinical trials. The superiority of this therapeutic strategy is in part due to the many benefits, such as decreased use of prescription pain medications, cost-effectiveness, and improvement in patient quality of life. Read More

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Case of the week: Updating a cervical MR scan avoided unnecessary cervical surgery.

Authors:
Nancy E Epstein

Surg Neurol Int 2021 30;12:134. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Clinical Professor of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine, State U. of NY at Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Background: As spinal surgeons, we have all likely seen cases in which lumbar disc herniations regressed/resolved on successive MR studies. Here, we present a patient whose original cervical MR showed a large C4-C5 cervical disc herniation that completely resolved on the follow-up MR obtained 9 months later, thus avoiding cervical surgery.

Case Description: A young patient (e. Read More

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Surgical management of a rare myxopapillary ependymoma of the gluteal region: A case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 30;12:130. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, UCI Medical Center, Orange, United States.

Background: Ependymomas are rare tumors originating from neuroepithelial cells lining the wall of the ventricles or central canal of the spinal cord. While these tumors mainly occur within the central nervous system (CNS), there are occasional reports in children and young adult patients with a primary tumor occurrence outside of the CNS. Ependymomas of the sacrococcygeal region have been infrequently described in the literature with no standard of care established. Read More

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Intradural extramedullary hemangioblastoma of the thoracic cord: A case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 30;12:126. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neurology, Uji Takeda Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Spinal hemangioblastomas account for 1-3% of all spinal cord tumors and are mostly intramedullary in location. Here, we report an intradural extramedullary hemangioblastoma of the thoracic spine, occurring in in a patient without von Hippel-Lindau disease.

Case Description: A 58-year-old female had a 5-year history of progressive left lower extremity weakness. Read More

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Circumferential intradural meningioma of the thoracic spine: Case report and literature review.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 24;12:120. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, United Kingdom.

Background: Meningiomas are common intradural extramedullary spinal tumors with a predilection for the thoracic spine. They are mostly benign (90%), with only a few showing malignant potential. However, circumferential intradural meningiomas surrounding the spinal cord are exceptionally rare. Read More

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Spinal cord compression from hypertrophic nerve roots in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy - A case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 24;12:114. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom.

Background: Spinal cord compression secondary to nerve root hypertrophy is often attributed to hereditary neuropathies. However, to avoid misdiagnosis, rare immune-mediated neuropathy such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) should not be overlooked. This report presents a case of multilevel nerve root hypertrophy leading to significant cord compression from CIDP. Read More

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Two cases of retained medullary cord running parallel to a terminal lipoma.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 24;12:112. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kyushu University, Saga, Japan.

Background: Retained medullary cord (RMC) is a newly defined entity believed to originate from the late arrest of secondary neurulation. Some RMCs contain varying amounts of lipomatous tissues, which need to be differentiated from spinal lipomas, such as filar and caudal lipomas (terminal lipomas).

Case Description: We surgically treated two patients with a nonfunctional cord-like structure (C-LS) that was continuous from the cord and extended to the dural cul-de-sac, and ran parallel to the terminal lipoma. Read More

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Multiple extradural spinal arachnoid cysts: A case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 17;12:101. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, North Regional Hospital, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil.

Background: Extradural spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) rarely cause neural compression and disability.

Case Description: A 38-year-old female presented with a history of two episodes of falling due to transient weakness in the lower limbs. The neurological examination showed normal motor and sensory function, but hyperreflexia. Read More

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Subacute Post-Traumatic Ascending Myelopathy (SPAM) in a Spinal Cord Injured Patient - a Rare Presentation: A Case Report.

Malays Orthop J 2021 Mar;15(1):135-137

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The optimisation of blood pressure management is critical in managing hypotensive episodes in patients with spinal cord injury. Improper handling of this preventable factor will negatively impact the patient recovery prognosis. A 42-year-old man was admitted for a complete spinal cord injury after fell from height. Read More

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