121,505 results match your criteria sperm

Sperm ultrastructure in arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thysanoptera.

Arthropod Struct Dev 2021 Jul 19;64:101084. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Martin-Luther University Halle- Wittenberg, Institute of Biology, Department Zoology, Heinrich-Damerow-Str.4, 06120 Halle, Germany. Electronic address:

Thysanoptera are haplo-diploid insects that reproduce either via arrhenotoky or thelytoky. Beside genetically based thelytoky, this reproduction mode can also be endosymbiont induced. The recovery of these females from their infection again leads to the development of males. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing reveals 12 testis-enriched genes dispensable for male fertility in mice.

Asian J Androl 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Gene expression analyses suggest that more than 1000-2000 genes are expressed predominantly in mouse and human testes. Although functional analyses of hundreds of these genes have been performed, there are still many testis-enriched genes whose functions remain unexplored. Analyzing gene function using knockout (KO) mice is a powerful tool to discern if the gene of interest is essential for sperm formation, function, and male fertility in vivo. Read More

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Male vitamin D status and male factor infertility.

Fertil Steril 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Objective: To determine the association between vitamin D levels in the male partner and fertility outcomes in couples with mild male factor infertility.

Design: Secondary analysis of a randomized, controlled trial.

Setting: Nine fertility centers in the United States. Read More

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Whole-genome sequencing of H3K4me3 and DNA methylation in human sperm reveals regions of overlap linked to fertility and development.

Cell Rep 2021 Jul;36(3):109418

Department of Animal Science, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

The paternal environment has been linked to infertility and negative outcomes. Such effects may be transmitted via sperm through histone modifications. To date, in-depth profiling of the sperm chromatin in men has been limited. Read More

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Intrasurgical parameters associated with successful sperm retrieval in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia undergoing salvage microdissection testicular sperm extraction.

Andrology 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Procrea Institute, Andrology Unit, Lugano, Switzerland.

Background: Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with a previous failed conventional TESE (cTESE) may undergo a salvage microdissection testicular sperm extraction (mTESE) with the probability of successful sperm retrieval (SSR) being almost dependent upon the number of previous surgical attempts and to different histopathologic categories OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the seminiferous tubules (STs) pattern and the histological categories could affect the sperm retrieval rate (SRR) in patients with NOA undergoing salvage mTESE after failed cTESE MATERIALS AND METHODS: 79 patients undergoing unilateral of bilateral salvage mTESE were evaluated. During microTESE, if present, dilated tubules (DTs) were retrieved, otherwise tubules with slightly larger caliber (SDT) than that of the surroundings were removed. When no DT or SDT were found, not dilated tubules (NDTs) were excised. Read More

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The Fertilization Enigma: How Sperm and Egg Fuse.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP), Vienna BioCenter (VBC), 1030 Vienna, Austria; email:

Fertilization is a multistep process that culminates in the fusion of sperm and egg, thus marking the beginning of a new organism in sexually reproducing species. Despite its importance for reproduction, the molecular mechanisms that regulate this singular event, particularly sperm-egg fusion, have remained mysterious for many decades. Here, we summarize our current molecular understanding of sperm-egg interaction, focusing mainly on mammalian fertilization. Read More

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Effects of hydroethanolic extracts of Terminalia chebula and Thymbra spicata on ram fresh semen under normal and oxidative stress conditions.

Vet Med Sci 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

The objective of this study was to evaluate protective effects of hydroethanolic extracts of Terminalia chebula and Thymbra spicata on viability, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA integrity of ram fresh semen under normal and oxidative stress (OS) conditions. Antioxidant activities of different concentrations of Terminalia chebula and Thymbra spicata extracts were evaluated with DPPH assay. Semen samples were taken from three fertile adult rams. Read More

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Gross and histological morphology of the cervical gill slit gland of the pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps).

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina.

Odontocete cetaceans have undergone profound modifications to their integument and sensory systems and are generally thought to lack specialized exocrine glands that in terrestrial mammals function to produce chemical signals (Thewissen & Nummela, 2008). Keenan-Bateman et al. (2016, 2018), though, introduced an enigmatic exocrine gland, associated with the false gill slit pigmentation pattern in Kogia breviceps. Read More

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Transgenerational epigenetic information through the sperm: Sperm cells not just merely supply half of the genome for new life; they also seem to transmit additional information via epigenetic modifications.

EMBO Rep 2021 Jul 20:e53539. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Developmental Neuroscience, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

The biological cause for the increase in Autism Spectrum Disorder may be fathers' older age and the epigenetic marks it leaves on sperm cells. Read More

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Injection funnel persistence time and oolemma resistance during intracytoplasmic sperm injection and subsequent embryo development.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether the injection funnel persistence time and oolemma resistance during the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are associated with subsequent embryo quality.

Design: A prospective observational study at a university hospital.

Methods: One hundred and twenty normal-appearing metaphase II oocytes were collected from 54 ICSI cycles. Read More

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Is neutral genetic diversity related to quantitative variation in semen traits in bulls?

Reprod Domest Anim 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Germplasm and Reproductive Technology Laboratory, Department of Animal Production & Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Private Bag, 7724, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe.

Conservation decisions based on neutral genetic diversity have been observed to promote retention of useful quantitative variation in biological populations. An experiment was undertaken to determine the association between microsatellite marker polymorphisms and phenotypic variation in semen production and cryosurvival traits in bulls. Thirty-five ejaculates were collected from ten bulls of two breeds and evaluated before and after cryopreservation for several semen traits. Read More

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Mouse and Fly Sperm Motility Changes Differently under Modelling Microgravity.

Irina V Ogneva

Curr Issues Mol Biol 2021 Jul 5;43(2):590-604. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Cell Biophysics Laboratory, State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 76a, Khoroshevskoyoe shosse, 123007 Moscow, Russia.

Sperm motility is essential for the natural fertilization process in most animal species. Despite the fact that evolution took place under conditions of constant gravity, the motility of spermatozoa of insects and mammals under microgravity conditions changes in different ways. In this work, an attempt was made to explain this effect. Read More

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Ultrastructural analysis of Lyophilized Human Spermatozoa.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2021 Jul 21;25(3):473-479. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Medical School, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Objective: Lyophilization is potentially more practical and cost-effective alternative for sperm preservation. However, there are no studies that evaluate the ultrastructure of human spermatozoa after lyophilization. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the ultrasctructure of lyophilized spermatozoa using Transmission Electron Microscopy. Read More

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Off-gassing plasticware to decrease the toxicity effect in embryo culture.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2021 07 21;25(3):428-433. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Genesis Fertility Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

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Decline in semen quality of North African men: a retrospective study of 20,958 sperm analyses of men from different North African countries tested in Tunisia over a period of 6 years (2013-2018).

Ann Hum Biol 2021 Jul 21:1-24. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Reproductive Medicine, Reproductive Biology & Genetics. University Hospital & School of Medicine Jules Verne, 80054 Amiens France.

Background: According to numerous studies from around the world, semen quality seems to have declined dramatically over the last years. However, the data investigated on male fertility status and semen quality in North Africa is limited.

Aim: To investigate on the status of semen quality in North-African men and to understand its variations. Read More

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Specialist management of testicular cancer: Report of the last 10 years at a Portuguese tertiary referral academic centre.

Arch Ital Urol Androl 2021 Jun 28;93(2):153-157. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Urology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto; Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Porto.

Objectives: To describe our experience on testicular cancer (TC) management, underlining the clinical/pathological scope, administered treatments, outcomes, and challenges. TC incidence is rising globally. The predominant histology is germ cell tumour (GCT). Read More

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A Comparative Study of the Effects of Valproate and Oxcarbazepine on Sexual Function, Sperm Quality, and Sex Hormones in Males with Epilepsy.

Biomed Res Int 2021 3;2021:6624101. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Aims: Although several studies have indicated that valproate (VPA) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) cause reproductive endocrine disorders and sexual dysfunction, there remains some controversy regarding these issues in males with epilepsy. This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of VPA and OXC on sexual function, sperm quality, and sex hormones in young males with epilepsy.

Methods: Males with newly diagnosed epilepsy treated with VPA and OXC were recruited, and sexual function questionnaires (International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5)), sperm quality, and sex hormone levels were assessed before treatment and at 6 months after treatment with VPA or OXC monotherapy. Read More

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Application of genetic modification technologies in molecular design breeding of sheep.

Yi Chuan 2021 Jun;43(6):580-600

Innovation Academy for Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Genetic modification technologies can be used for modifying animal genome to express exogenous genes or affect the function of endogenous genes. In animal breeding, genetic modification technologies allow the rapid generation of germplasms with beneficial traits. It includes traditional genetic modification, virus or sperm carrier-mediated genetic modification and nuclease-mediated genome editing, especially the CRISPR/Cas9, one of the artificial nuclease genome editing technologies, have been applied in genome editing in many domestic animals including sheep (Ovis aries). Read More

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Construction of genome-wide protein tagging cell and mouse libraries.

Yi Chuan 2021 Jul;43(7):704-714

Genome Tagging Project Center, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.

Mice are the most widely used model organism for the study of gene functions and disease mechanisms through the generation of gene-modified mice. Since the 1980s, different genetic manipulation technologies have been developed to reveal gene functions in vivo, including homologous recombination strategies mediated by embryonic stem cells, transgenic strategies mediated by gametes, and the latest genetic modification strategies based on CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Semi-cloning technology mediated by "artificial spermatids" (androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells, also termed sperm-like stem cells) is developed by Chinese scientists in 2012. Read More

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MiR-191 promotes the porcine immature Sertoli cell proliferation by targeting the BDNF gene through activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

Yi Chuan 2021 Jul;43(7):680-693

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Genetic Improvement of Domestic Animal, College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.

The number of Sertoli cells in the testis is a major regulator on the sperm production capacity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of porcine immature Sertoli cells. However, the functions and mechanisms of action of most identified miRNAs in porcine Sertoli cells remain largely unknown. Read More

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Research Note: The effect of crude protein and calcium intake on fertility of male broiler breeders.

Poult Sci 2021 May 27;100(9):101284. Epub 2021 May 27.

Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X54001, Durban, 4000, South Africa.

This experiment investigated the effect of excess crude protein and/or calcium on male broiler breeder fertility. Forty-eight broiler breeder males, from a group of 60 that consistently produced a semen sample were allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments, formulated to provide either the male or female recommendation for crude protein and calcium, or their combinations. Birds were provided a constant daily feed allocation. Read More

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An actin-related protein that is most highly expressed in testes is critical for embryonic development.

Elife 2021 Jul 20;10. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, United States.

Most actin-related proteins (Arps) are highly conserved and carry out well-defined cellular functions in eukaryotes. However, many lineages like and mammals encode divergent non-canonical Arps whose roles remain unknown. To elucidate the function of non-canonical Arps, we focus on , which is highly expressed in testes and retained throughout evolution. Read More

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Oestrogenic metabolite equol negatively impacts the functionality of ram spermatozoa in vitro.

Theriogenology 2021 Jul 15;172:216-222. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

UWA Institute of Agriculture and UWA School of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia. Electronic address:

Oestrogenic pastures are known to cause infertility in the ewe, due primarily to the oestrogen-like actions of the metabolite equol. Despite strong evidence that phytoestrogens and their metabolites compromise male reproductive function in many other species, there is little information concerning the effect of oestrogenic pastures on ram sperm quality and function. To investigate this, ram spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to physiologically relevant concentrations of either 0, 0. Read More

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Unconventional translation initiation factor EIF2A is required for Drosophila spermatogenesis.

Dev Dyn 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California.

Background: EIF2A is an unconventional translation factor required for initiation of protein synthesis from non-AUG codons from a variety of transcripts, including oncogenes and stress related transcripts in mammalian cells. Its function in multicellular organisms has not been reported.

Results: Here, we identify and characterize mutant alleles of the CG7414 gene, which encodes the Drosophila EIF2A ortholog. Read More

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Fertility and reproductive technology use in testicular cancer survivors in Japan: A multi-institutional, cross-sectional study.

Int J Urol 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Urology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Objective: To evaluate fertility and use of reproductive technology of testicular cancer survivors in a multi-institutional, cross-sectional study.

Methods: This study recruited testicular cancer survivors who were followed after treatment for testicular cancer at eight high-volume institutions between 2018 and 2019. The participants completed the questionnaires on marital status, fertility and use of reproductive technology. Read More

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Cumulative live birth rates do not increase after 4 complete cycles in women with poor ovarian response: a retrospective study of 1,825 patients.

F S Rep 2021 Jun 2;2(2):201-208. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Reproductive Medicine Center, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To investigate whether the cumulative clinical pregnancy rates (CCPR) and cumulative live birth rates (CLBR) increase as the oocyte retrieval cycle increases in women with poor ovarian response.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Not applicable. Read More

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Comparison of electronic versus manual witnessing of procedures within the in vitro fertilization laboratory: impact on timing and efficiency.

F S Rep 2021 Jun 28;2(2):181-188. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

CCRM IVF Network, Lone Tree, Colorado.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of an electronic witnessing system (EWS) on witnessing standard operating procedures and to assess embryologist perceptions of the EWS.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Private in vitro fertilization laboratory network. Read More

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Assessing the clinical value of the Kruger strict morphology criteria over the World Health Organization fourth edition criteria.

F S Rep 2021 Jun 19;2(2):176-180. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Center for Reproductive Medicine and Surgery, Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

Objective: To assess if the newer Kruger strict morphology (WHO5; normal ≥4%) adds any clinical value beyond the criteria of the World Health Organization fourth edition (WHO4; normal ≥14%).

Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: Tertiary hospital. Read More

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Optimal timing for repeat semen analysis during male infertility evaluation.

F S Rep 2021 Jun 18;2(2):172-175. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Center for Reproductive Medicine and Surgery, Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

Objective: To assess whether the 4-week time period between semen analyses during the workup of male infertility is optimal and whether two samples are needed.

Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: Tertiary hospital. Read More

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