Yi Chuan 2021 Jul;43(7):704-714
Genome Tagging Project Center, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.
Mice are the most widely used model organism for the study of gene functions and disease mechanisms through the generation of gene-modified mice. Since the 1980s, different genetic manipulation technologies have been developed to reveal gene functions in vivo, including homologous recombination strategies mediated by embryonic stem cells, transgenic strategies mediated by gametes, and the latest genetic modification strategies based on CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Semi-cloning technology mediated by "artificial spermatids" (androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells, also termed sperm-like stem cells) is developed by Chinese scientists in 2012. Read More