85,133 results match your criteria species ros

Protective Effects of 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3 against High-Glucose-Induced Damage in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Involve Activation of Nrf2 Antioxidant Signaling.

J Vasc Res 2021 May 4:1-10. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Putian University, Affiliated Putian Hospital, Southern Medical University, Putian, China.

Aim: To explore the protective effects and related mech-anisms of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on en-dothelial dysfunction under hyperglycemic conditions.

Methods: Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with normal glucose (glucose concentration of 5.5 mmol/L), high glucose (glucose concentration of 33 mmol/L), and high glucose plus 1,25(OH)2D3, respectively. Read More

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Synthesis of a novel ternary (g-CN nanosheets loaded with Mo doped ZnOnanoparticles) nanocomposite for superior photocatalytic and antibacterial applications.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Apr 27;219:112202. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Chemistry, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

This article reports the synthesis of a novel ternary Visible-Light-Driven (VLD) photocatalyst and antibacterial agent. The two-dimensional graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-CN NSs) and 7% molybdenum doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (Mo doped ZnO NPs) were used for the synthesis of the 65% g-CN hybridized with 7% Mo doped ZnO novel ternary nanocomposite (Mo doped ZnO/g-CN ternary NC). The synthesis process, as well as the structures, morphologies, photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of the synthesized ternary NC and constituents, were investigated by using several spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Read More

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Activation of the eIF2α/ATF4 axis drives triple-negative breast cancer radioresistance by promoting glutathione biosynthesis.

Redox Biol 2021 Apr 28;43:101993. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

St George and Sutherland Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, NSW, 2052, Australia; Cancer Care Centre, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW, 2217, Australia; School of Basic Medicine, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China. Electronic address:

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype. Radiotherapy is an effective option for the treatment of TNBC; however, acquired radioresistance is a major challenge to the modality. In this study, we show that the integrated stress response (ISR) is the most activated signaling pathway in radioresistant TNBC cells. Read More

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Sustained oxidative stress instigates differentiation of cancer stem cells into tumor endothelial cells: Pentose phosphate pathway, reactive oxygen species and autophagy crosstalk.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 1;139:111643. Epub 2021 May 1.

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

Tumor angiogenesis plays a vital role in tumor growth and metastasis. It is proven that in tumor vasculature, endothelial cells (ECs) originate from a small population of cancer cells introduced as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Autophagy has a vital role in ECs differentiation from CSCs and tumor angiogenesis. Read More

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Aconitine induces mitochondrial energy metabolism dysfunction through inhibition of AMPK signaling and interference with mitochondrial dynamics in SH-SY5Y cells.

Toxicol Lett 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Pharmacy and School of Public Health, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

Aconitine, a highly toxic alkaloid derived from Aconitum L., affects the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. However, the underlying mechanism of aconitine-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. Read More

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Novel antiadipogenic effect of menadione in 3T3-L1 cells.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 May 1:109491. Epub 2021 May 1.

Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Bahía Blanca, Universidad Nacional Del Sur (UNS)-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, UNS, Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Electronic address:

Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation can be used as a strategy for preventing adipose tissue expansion and, consequently, for obesity management. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as key modulators of adipogenesis, the effect of menadione (a synthetic form of vitamin K known to induce the increase of intracellular ROS) on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation was studied. Menadione (15 μM) increased ROS and lipid peroxidation, generating mild oxidative stress without affecting cell viability. Read More

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Evaluating the efficacy of anti-fungal blue light therapies via analyzing tissue section images.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, China.

Anti-fungal blue light (ABL) therapies have been studied and applied in treating various diseases caused by fungal infection. The existing work has been mainly devoted to study the effect of various light dosages on the fungal viability and on the induced cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogens. While in vivo experimental studies have also been reported, there is still no work targeted on quantifying the effect of light on prohibiting the pathogens from invading into the deeper sites in the skin of their host. Read More

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BAPTA, a calcium chelator, neuroprotects injured neurons in vitro and promotes motor recovery after spinal cord transection in vivo.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Stem Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.

Aim: Despite animal evidence of a role of calcium in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury, several studies conducted in the past found calcium blockade ineffective. However, those studies involved oral or parenteral administration of Ca++ antagonists. We hypothesized that Ca++ blockade might be effective with local/immediate application (LIA) at the time of neural injury. Read More

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Receptor-mediated mitophagy regulates EPO production and protects against renal anemia.

Elife 2021 May 4;10. Epub 2021 May 4.

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Erythropoietin (EPO) drives erythropoiesis and is secreted mainly by the kidney upon hypoxic or anemic stress. The paucity of EPO production in renal EPO-producing cells (REPs) causes renal anemia, one of the most common complications of chronic nephropathies. Although mitochondrial dysfunction is commonly observed in several renal and hematopoietic disorders, the mechanism by which mitochondrial quality control impacts renal anemia remains elusive. Read More

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DNA damage and repair in differentiation of stem cells and cells of connective cell lineages: A trigger or a complication?

Eur J Histochem 2021 May 3;65(2). Epub 2021 May 3.


The review summarizes literature data on the role of DNA breaks and DNA repair in differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSC) and connective cell lineages. PSC, including embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), are rapidly dividing cells with highly active DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms to ensure the stability and integrity of the DNA. In PSCs, the most common DDR mechanism is error-free homologous recombination (HR) that is primarily active during S phase of the cell cycle, whereas in quiescent, slow-dividing or non-dividing tissue progenitors and terminally differentiated cells, error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) mechanism of the double-strand break (DSB) repair is dominating. Read More

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Sestrin2 as a gatekeeper of cellular homeostasis: Physiological effects for the regulation of hypoxia-related diseases.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Tianjin Institute of Environmental and Operational Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Sestrin2 (SESN2) is a conserved stress-inducible protein (also known as hypoxia-inducible gene 95 (HI95)) that is induced under hypoxic conditions. SESN2 represses the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provides cytoprotection against various noxious stimuli, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and DNA damage. In recent years, the determination of the regulation and signalling mechanisms of SESN2 has increased our understanding of its role in the hypoxic response. Read More

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Chlorine disinfection facilitates natural transformation through ROS-mediated oxidative stress.

ISME J 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Advanced Water Management Centre (AWMC), The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

The bacterial infection that involves antimicrobial resistance is a rising global threat to public health. Chlorine-based water disinfection processes can inactivate antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, at the same time, these processes may cause the release of antibiotic resistance genes into the water as free DNA, and consequently increase the risk to disseminate antibiotic resistance via natural transformation. Read More

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Comparative transcriptome analysis of cells from different areas reveals ROS responsive mechanism at sclerotial initiation stage in Morchella importuna.

Sci Rep 2021 May 3;11(1):9418. Epub 2021 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, NO.3 1st Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, China.

Morels are some of the most highly prized edible and medicinal mushrooms, with great economic and scientific value. Outdoor cultivation has been achieved and expanded on a large scale in China in recent years. Sclerotial formation is one of the most important phases during the morel life cycle, and previous reports indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role. Read More

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ROS and TGFβ: from pancreatic tumour growth to metastasis.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 3;40(1):152. Epub 2021 May 3.

Botnar Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Windmill Road, OX3 7LD, Oxford, UK.

Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signalling pathway switches between anti-tumorigenic function at early stages of cancer formation and pro-tumorigenic effects at later stages promoting cancer metastasis. A similar contrasting role has been uncovered for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Down-regulation of ROS favours premalignant tumour development, while increasing ROS level in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) enhances metastasis. Read More

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MiR-939-5p suppresses PM-induced endothelial injury targeting HIF-1α in HAECs.

Nanotoxicology 2021 May 3:1-15. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, PR China.

Ambient air pollution is a leading cause of non-communicable disease in the world. PM has the potential to change the miRNAs profiles, which in turn causes cardiovascular effects. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Read More

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Toll-like receptor-7/8 agonist kill Leishmania amazonensis by acting as pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory agent.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Objectives: Evaluation of the anti-Leishmanial activity of imidazoquinoline-based TLR7/8 agonists.

Methods: TLR7/8-active imidazoquinolines (2 and 3) were synthesized and assessed for activity against Leishmania amazonensis-intracellular amastigotes using mouse peritoneal macrophages. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines was determined in infected and non-infected macrophages. Read More

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CaMK II -induced Drp1 phosphorylation contributes to blue light-induced AIF-mediated necroptosis in retinal R28 cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 30;559:113-120. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Eye Center of Xiangya Hospital and Hunan Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan Province, China. Electronic address:

Retinal damage caused by blue light has become an important public health concern. Mitochondria have been found to play a key role in light-induced retinal cell death. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanism involved in mitochondrion-related retinal cell damage caused by blue light, the major component of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Read More

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Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) changes nutritional compositions in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves by activating oxidative stress.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 29;285:117246. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, 100044, China. Electronic address:

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a typical persistent organic pollutant commonly detected in ecosystem. Insights into the risks of PFOA in crops, from the perspectives of food nutritional compositions, are sparse. In this study, the physiological responses to PFOA induced oxidative stress were investigated in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves hydroponically exposed to 5 and 50 μg/L PFOA. Read More

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In-silico screening and identification of potential inhibitors against 2Cys peroxiredoxin of Liberibacter asiaticus.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 May 3:1-15. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India.

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a worldwide citrus plant disease-related to non-culturable and fastidious α-proteobacteria Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). In CLas, Peroxiredoxin (Prx) plays a major role in the reduction of the level of reactive species such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), free radicals and peroxides, Here, we have used structure-based drug designing approach was used to screen and identify the potent molecules against 2Cys Prx. The virtual screening of fragments library was performed against the three-dimensional validated model of Prx. Read More

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Mechanism Insight into Rapid Photodriven Sterilization Based on Silver Bismuth Sulfide Quantum Dots.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Guangdong Engineering & Technology Research Centre of Graphene-like Materials and Products, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, P.R. China.

Microbial contamination and the prevalence of resistant bacteria is considered a worldwide public health problem. Therefore, recently, great efforts have been made to develop photoresponsive platforms for the simultaneous photodynamic antibacterial (PDA) and photothermal antibacterial (PTA) therapy processes as mediated by specific light. However, owing to the absorption mismatches of the photothermal agents and photodynamic photosensitizers, it has been discovered that many synergistic photoresponsive antibacterial platforms cannot be excited by a single-wavelength light. Read More

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Making Aggregation-Induced Emission Luminogen More Valuable by Gold: Enhancing Anticancer Efficacy by Suppressing Thioredoxin Reductase Activity.

ACS Nano 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction and Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong 999077, China.

Gold complexes have been recognized as potential anticancer agents against various kinds of diseases due to their inherent suppressions of antioxidant thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity. Herein, a powerful aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen), TBP-Au, was designed and synthesized by integrating an anticancer Au(I) moiety with an AIE-active photosensitizer (TBP), in which both the production and consumption routes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were elaborately considered simultaneously to boost the anticancer efficacy. It has been demonstrated that TBP-Au could realize superior two-photon fluorescence imaging in tumor tissues with high resolution and deep penetration as well as long-term imaging in live animals due to its AIE property. Read More

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Metallothionein Attenuated Arsenic-Induced Cytotoxicity: The Underlying Mechanism Reflected by Metabolomics and Lipidomics.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Academy of Food Interdisciplinary Sciecne, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Qinggongyuan 1, Ganjingzi District, Dalian, 116034 Liaoning, China.

Arsenic ions (As) have been recognized as a hazard that threatens the health of humans. Metallothionein (MT) rich in cysteine may provide favorable binding sites for chelation of As. However, the influence of MT on As-induced toxicity and the underlying mechanism are poorly understood, especially at the metabolic level. Read More

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Metabolic regulation adapting to high methanol environment in the methylotrophic yeast Ogataea methanolica.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1193, Japan.

Since methylotrophic yeasts such as Ogataea methanolica can use methanol as a sole carbon feedstock, they could be applied to produce valuable products from methanol, a next-generation energy source synthesized from natural gases, using genetic engineering tools. In this study, metabolite profiling of O. methanolica was conducted under glucose (Glc) and low and high methanol (L- and H-MeOH) conditions to show the adaptation mechanism to a H-MeOH environment. Read More

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6-Shogaol induces apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells by targeting p53 signalling pathway and generation of reactive oxygen species.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Combination therapies, using medicinal herbs, are broadly recommended to attenuate the chemotherapy adverse effects. Based on our previous findings considering the anti-leukaemic effects of ginger extract on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells, the present study was aimed to investigate the anti-cancer role of this pharmaceutical plant on ALL mice models. Moreover, we worked towards identifying the most anti-leukaemic derivative of ginger and the mechanism through which it may exert its cytotoxic impact. Read More

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Elucidation of Mechanisms in Cu (II) Caused Hypercontraction of Rat Tracheal Rings.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025, India.

Airway smooth muscle contraction is one of the primary factors involved in the initiation and progression of asthma which in turn is regulated by increased cytosolic Ca concentration from intracellular stores and through transmembrane ion channels. Calcium-independent factors such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) depletion and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways also contribute to tracheal smooth muscle contraction. Studies on copper toxicity suggest significance of this essential micronutrient overdose in acute respiratory disorders, allergic asthma and ciliary motion in tracheal explants. Read More

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Protection of the neurovascular unit from calcium-related ischemic injury by linalyl acetate.

Chin J Physiol 2021 Mar-Apr;64(2):88-96

Department of Basic Nursing Science, School of Nursing; BK21 FOUR Program of Transdisciplinary Major in Learning Health Systems, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Calcium-related ischemic injury (CRII) can damage cells of the neurovascular unit (NVU). Here, we investigate the protective effects of linalyl acetate (LA) against CRII-induced NVU damage and evaluate the underlying mechanisms. The protective effects of LA in cell lines representative of NVU components (BEND, SH-SY5Y, BV2, and U373 cells) were evaluated following exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation alone (OGD/R-only) or OGD/R in the presence of 5 mM extracellular calcium ([Ca]) to mimic CRII. Read More

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Thymoquinone reduces mitochondrial damage and death of cardiomyocytes induced by clozapine.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Traditional Medicine and Hydrotherapy Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

The generation of a reactive nitrenium ion by microsomal/mitochondrial cytochrome P450 (CYPs) from clozapine (CLZ) has been suggested as the main cause of cardiotoxicity by this drug. Previous studies indicated that thymoquinone (TQ) as an active constituent of Nigella sativa has pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, and inhibitory effect on CYPs enzymes. Therefore, we hypothesized that TQ with these pharmacological effects can reduce CLZ-induced toxicity in isolated cardiomyocytes and mitochondria. Read More

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ROS-Driven selection pressure on COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular comorbidities.

Innovation (N Y) 2021 Apr 27:100107. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School of Chemistry and Physics and Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has imposed a global health threat which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently available data point out that ACE2, the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 in host cells, does not predispose the risk or severity of COVID-19, but rather elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) impose abnormal selection pressure on patients having cardiovascular comorbidities. As clinical and preventative practice, ROS scavengers are thus recommended for effective therapeutic control of COVID-19 and cardiovascular diseases. Read More

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Mitochondrial Chaperones and Proteases in Cardiomyocytes and Heart Failure.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 15;8:630332. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Oncogenomics, School of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China.

Heart failure is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In cardiomyocytes, mitochondria are not only essential organelles providing more than 90% of the ATP necessary for contraction, but they also play critical roles in regulating intracellular Ca signaling, lipid metabolism, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. Because mitochondrial DNA only encodes 13 proteins, most mitochondrial proteins are nuclear DNA-encoded, synthesized, and transported from the cytoplasm, refolded in the matrix to function alone or as a part of a complex, and degraded if damaged or incorrectly folded. Read More

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Acetate Induces Growth Arrest in Colon Cancer Cells Through Modulation of Mitochondrial Function.

Front Nutr 2021 15;8:588466. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Centre of Optimal Health, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom.

Acetate is one of the main short chain fatty acids produced in the colon when fermentable carbohydrates are digested. It has been shown to affect normal metabolism, modulating mitochondrial function, and fatty acid oxidation. Currently, there is no clear consensus regarding the effects of acetate on tumorigenesis and cancer metabolism. Read More

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