ILAR J 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.
Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc., Sterling, Virginia, USA.
Non-mammalian vertebrates including birds, fish, and amphibians have a long history of contributing to ground-breaking scientific discoveries. Because these species offer several experimental advantages over higher vertebrates and share extensive anatomic and genetic homology with their mammalian counterparts, they remain popular animal models in a variety of fields such as developmental biology, physiology, toxicology, drug discovery, immunology, toxicology, and infectious disease. As with all animal models, familiarity with the anatomy, physiology, and spontaneous diseases of these species is necessary for ensuring animal welfare, as well as accurate interpretation and reporting of study findings. Read More