20,842 results match your criteria spatial features

A state-of-the-art implementation of a binaural cochlear-implant sound coding strategy inspired by the medial olivocochlear reflex.

Hear Res 2021 Jul 24;409:108320. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y León, Universidad de Salamanca, Calle Pintor Fernando Gallego 1, Salamanca 37007, Spain.; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca Salamanca 37007 Spain; Departamento de Cirugía, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca 37007 Spain. Electronic address:

Cochlear implant (CI) users find it hard and effortful to understand speech in noise with current devices. Binaural CI sound processing inspired by the contralateral medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex (an approach termed the 'MOC strategy') can improve speech-in-noise recognition for CI users. All reported evaluations of this strategy, however, disregarded automatic gain control (AGC) and fine-structure (FS) processing, two standard features in some current CI devices. Read More

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A Portrait of Sentinel Surveillance Networks for Vector-Borne Diseases: A Scoping Review Supporting Sentinel Network Design.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Département de pathologie et microbiologie, Groupe de recherche en épidémiologie des zoonoses et santé publique (GREZOSP), Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are continuing to emerge globally, requiring new surveillance systems to follow increasing VBD risk for human populations. Sentinel surveillance is an approach that allows tracking of disease risk through time using limited resources. However, there is no consensus on how best to design a sentinel surveillance network in the context of VBDs. Read More

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Towards a better characterisation of deep-diving whales' distributions by using prey distribution model outputs?

PLoS One 2021 4;16(8):e0255667. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Observatoire PELAGIS, UMS 3462 CNRS-La Rochelle Université, La Rochelle, France.

In habitat modelling, environmental variables are assumed to be proxies of lower trophic levels distribution and by extension, of marine top predator distributions. More proximal variables, such as potential prey fields, could refine relationships between top predator distributions and their environment. In situ data on prey distributions are not available over large spatial scales but, a numerical model, the Spatial Ecosystem And POpulation DYnamics Model (SEAPODYM), provides simulations of the biomass and production of zooplankton and six functional groups of micronekton at the global scale. Read More

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Deep Hybrid 2-D-3-D CNN Based on Dual Second-Order Attention With Camera Spectral Sensitivity Prior for Spectral Super-Resolution.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Aug 4;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

A largely ignored fact in spectral super-resolution (SSR) is that the subsistent mapping methods neglect the auxiliary prior of camera spectral sensitivity (CSS) and only pay attention to wider or deeper network framework design while ignoring to excavate the spatial and spectral dependencies among intermediate layers, hence constraining representational capability of convolutional neural networks (CNNs). To conquer these drawbacks, we propose a novel deep hybrid 2-D-3-D CNN based on dual second-order attention with CSS prior (HSACS), which can excavate sufficient spatial-spectral context information. Specifically, dual second-order attention embedded in the residual block for more powerful spatial-spectral feature representation and relation learning is composed of a brand new trainable 2-D second-order channel attention (SCA) or 3-D second-order band attention (SBA) and a structure tensor attention (STA). Read More

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Peripheral facial features guiding eye movements and reducing fixational variability.

J Vis 2021 Aug;21(8)

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Face processing is a fast and efficient process due to its evolutionary and social importance. A majority of people direct their first eye movement to a featureless point just below the eyes that maximizes accuracy in recognizing a person's identity and gender. Yet, the exact properties or features of the face that guide the first eye movements and reduce fixational variability are unknown. Read More

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Analyzing differences between spatial exposure estimation methods: A case study of outdoor food and beverage advertising in London, Canada.

Health Place 2021 Jul 31:102641. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Geography & Environment, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Health Studies, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada; Human Environments Analysis Lab, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada. Electronic address:

Exposure assessment in the context of mobility-oriented health research often is challenged by the type of spatial measurement technique used to estimate exposures to environmental features. The purpose of this study is to compare smartphone global positioning system (GPS), shortest network path mobility, and buffer-based approaches in estimating exposure to outdoor food and beverage advertising among a sample of 154 teenagers involved in the SmartAPPetite study during 2018 in London, Ontario, Canada. Participants were asked to report their home postal code, age, gender identity, ethnicity, and number of purchases they had made at a retail food outlet in the past month. Read More

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Approach to the postnatal sonographic evaluation of prenatally detected abdominopelvic cysts.

Ultrasonography 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Radiology, British Columbia Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Prenatally detected abdominal and pelvic masses are commonly cystic in morphology and usually seen on mid-trimester sonography. Sonography is the favored imaging modality for the postnatal evaluation of these lesions in newborns, given its availability, low cost, lack of ionizing radiation, lack of sedation, and high spatial resolution in small patients. The differential diagnosis of abdominopelvic cystic masses in newborns is broad given that they can arise from many organs and may have overlapping features on imaging. Read More

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Improving the understanding of cytoneme-mediated morphogen gradients by in silico modeling.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Aug 3;17(8):e1009245. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Tissue and Organ Homeostasis, Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa" (CSIC-UAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.

Morphogen gradients are crucial for the development of organisms. The biochemical properties of many morphogens prevent their extracellular free diffusion, indicating the need of an active mechanism for transport. The involvement of filopodial structures (cytonemes) has been proposed for morphogen signaling. Read More

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Interleaved Deep Artifacts-aware Attention Mechanism for Concrete Structural Defect Classification.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Aug 3;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Automatic machine classification of concrete structural defects in images poses significant challenges because of multitude of problems arising from the surface texture, such as presence of stains, holes, colors, poster remains, graffiti, marking and painting, along with uncontrolled weather conditions and illuminations. In this paper, we propose an interleaved deep artifacts-aware attention mechanism (iDAAM) to classify multi-target multi-class and single-class defects from structural defect images. Our novel architecture is composed of interleaved fine-grained dense modules (FGDM) and concurrent dual attention modules (CDAM) to extract local discriminative features from concrete defect images. Read More

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Nuclear compartmentalization as a mechanism of quantitative control of gene expression.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.

Gene regulation requires the dynamic coordination of hundreds of regulatory factors at precise genomic and RNA targets. Although many regulatory factors have specific affinity for their nucleic acid targets, molecular diffusion and affinity models alone cannot explain many of the quantitative features of gene regulation in the nucleus. One emerging explanation for these quantitative properties is that DNA, RNA and proteins organize within precise, 3D compartments in the nucleus to concentrate groups of functionally related molecules. Read More

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The Music of Silence. Part I: Responses to Musical Imagery Encode Melodic Expectations and Acoustics.

J Neurosci 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Laboratoire des Systèmes Perceptifs, Département d'Étude Cognitive, École Normale Supérieure, PSL, Paris, France.

Musical imagery is the voluntary internal hearing of music in the mind without the need for physical action or external stimulation. Numerous studies have already revealed brain areas activated during imagery. However, it remains unclear to what extent imagined music responses preserve the detailed temporal dynamics of the acoustic stimulus envelope and, crucially, whether play any role in modulating responses to imagined music, as they prominently do during listening. Read More

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Free Energy Calculations Shed Light on the Nuclear Pore Complex's Selective Barrier Nature.

Biophys J 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Molecular Cell Biomechanics Laboratory, Departments of Bioengineering and Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720; Molecular Biophysics and Integrative Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720. Electronic address:

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the exclusive gateway for traffic control across the nuclear envelope. While smaller cargoes (less than 5-9 nm in size) can freely diffuse through the NPC, the passage of larger cargoes is restricted to those accompanied by nuclear transport receptors (NTRs). This selective barrier nature of the NPC is putatively associated with the intrinsically disordered, phenylalanine-glycine repeat domain containing nucleoporins, termed FG-Nups. Read More

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Geomorphology of the Mirador-Calakmul Karst Basin: A GIS-based approach to hydrogeologic mapping.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0255496. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Mirador Conservation Fund, Redwood City, California, United States of America.

This paper classifies the karst landscapes of the Petén Plateau and defines the Mirador-Calakmul Karst Basin by illustrating the distribution of its karst hydrologic features. Archaeological and spatial research of the Mirador-Calakmul area of Guatemala and Mexico has shown it to be a karst basin with geopolitical implications. Current research characterizes the karst landscapes of the Petén Plateau, maps the distribution of karst hydrologic features, and delineates the basin in geomorphological terms. Read More

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Ecological risk and source analysis of soil heavy metals pollution in the river irrigation area from Baoji, China.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0253294. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Disaster Monitoring and Mechanism Simulation, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Baoji, China.

Due to various human activities, soil quality under different land use patterns is deteriorating all over the world. This deterioration is very complex in the river irrigation area and is caused by multi-point and non-point source pollution and seasonal variation. Therefore, the characteristics and sources of soil metal pollution in river irrigation area of Baoji city were analyzed. Read More

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Recent Progress on the Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy Study of Semiconductor Heterojunctions.

Small 2021 Aug 1:e2100655. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310027, China.

The band alignment, interface states, interface coupling, and carrier transport of semiconductor heterojunctions (SHs) need to be well understood for the design and fabrication of various important semiconductor structures and devices. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with high spatial resolution and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) with high energy resolution are significantly contributing to the understanding on the important properties of SHs. In this work, the recent progress on the use of STM and STS to study lateral, vertical and bulk SHs is reviewed. Read More

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Progressive use of multispectral imaging flow cytometry in various research areas.

Analyst 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

University of Maribor, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Taborska ulica 8, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia. and University of Maribor, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Taborska ulica 8, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia.

Multi-spectral imaging flow cytometry (MIFC) has become one of the most powerful technologies for investigating general analytics, molecular and cell biology, biotechnology, medicine, and related fields. It combines the capabilities of the morphometric and photometric analysis of single cells and micrometer-sized particles in flux with regard to thousands of events. It has become the tool of choice for a wide range of research and clinical applications. Read More

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Development of a standardized histopathology scoring system for human intervertebral disc degeneration: an Orthopaedic Research Society Spine Section Initiative.

JOR Spine 2021 Jun 19;4(2):e1167. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery University of California at San Francisco San Francisco California USA.

Background: Histopathological analysis of intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues is a critical domain of back pain research. Identification, description, and classification of attributes that distinguish abnormal tissues form a basis for probing disease mechanisms and conceiving novel therapies. Unfortunately, lack of standardized methods and nomenclature can limit comparisons of results across studies and prevent organizing information into a clear representation of the hierarchical, spatial, and temporal patterns of IVD degeneration. Read More

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The Detailed Emissions Scaling, Isolation, and Diagnostic (DESID) module in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 5.3.2.

Geosci Model Dev 2021 Jun;14(6):3407-3420

Center for Environmental Measurement and Modeling, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA.

Air quality modeling for research and regulatory applications often involves executing many emissions sensitivity cases to quantify impacts of hypothetical scenarios, estimate source contributions, or quantify uncertainties. Despite the prevalence of this task, conventional approaches for perturbing emissions in chemical transport models like the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model require extensive offline creation and finalization of alternative emissions input files. This workflow is often time-consuming, error-prone, inconsistent among model users, difficult to document, and dependent on increased hard disk resources. Read More

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Word embeddings and deep learning for location prediction: tracking Coronavirus from British and American tweets.

Soc Netw Anal Min 2021 27;11(1):66. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Laboratory of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Systems, ENIT, Tunis, Tunisia.

With the propagation of the Coronavirus pandemic, current trends on determining its individual and societal impacts become increasingly important. Recent researches grant special attention to the Coronavirus social networks infodemic to study such impacts. For this aim, we think that applying a geolocation process is crucial before proceeding to the infodemic management. Read More

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Structural Features of the Human Connectome That Facilitate the Switching of Brain Dynamics via Noradrenergic Neuromodulation.

Front Comput Neurosci 2021 14;15:687075. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Instituto Milenio Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencia de Valparaíso, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

The structural connectivity of human brain allows the coexistence of segregated and integrated states of activity. Neuromodulatory systems facilitate the transition between these functional states and recent computational studies have shown how an interplay between the noradrenergic and cholinergic systems define these transitions. However, there is still much to be known about the interaction between the structural connectivity and the effect of neuromodulation, and to what extent the connectome facilitates dynamic transitions. Read More

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Intrinsic Network Brain Dysfunction Correlates With Temporal Complexity in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 15;15:647518. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Nanjing Brain Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) are the two severe subtypes of anxiety disorders (ADs), which are similar in clinical manifestation, pathogenesis, and treatment. Earlier studies have taken a whole-brain perspective on GAD and PD in the assumption that intrinsic fluctuations are static throughout the entire scan. However, it has recently been suggested that the dynamic alternations in functional connectivity (FC) may reflect the changes in macroscopic neural activity patterns underlying the critical aspects of cognition and behavior, and thus may act as biomarkers of disease. Read More

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Novel ECG features and machine learning to optimize culprit lesion detection in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.

J Electrocardiol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Acute & Tertiary Care Nursing, PA, USA; Department of Emergency Medicine, PA, USA; Division of Cardiology at University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Novel temporal-spatial features of the 12‑lead ECG can conceptually optimize culprit lesions' detection beyond that of classical ST amplitude measurements. We sought to develop a data-driven approach for ECG feature selection to build a clinically relevant algorithm for real-time detection of culprit lesion.

Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study of chest pain patients transported by emergency medical services to three tertiary care hospitals in the US. Read More

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Population structure and the influence of microenvironment and genetic similarity on individual growth at Alaskan white spruce treelines.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 26;798:149267. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Institute of Botany und Landscape Ecology, University of Greifswald, Soldmannstr. 15, 17487 Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:

Knowledge on the adaptation of trees to rapid environmental changes is essential to preserve forests and their ecosystem services under climate change. Treeline populations are particularly suitable for studying adaptation processes in trees, as environmental stress together with reduced gene flow can enhance local adaptation. We investigated white spruce (Picea glauca) populations in Alaska on one moisture-limited and two cold-limited treeline sites with a paired plot design of one forest and one treeline population each, resulting in six plots. Read More

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Protein structure prediction using deep learning distance and hydrogen-bonding restraints in CASP14.

Proteins 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

In this article, we report 3D structure prediction results by two of our best server groups ("Zhang-Server" and "QUARK") in CASP14. These two servers were built based on the D-I-TASSER and D-QUARK algorithms, which integrated four newly developed components into the classical protein folding pipelines, I-TASSER and QUARK, respectively. The new components include: (i) a new multiple sequence alignment (MSA) collection tool, DeepMSA2, which is extended from the DeepMSA program; (ii) a contact-based domain boundary prediction algorithm, FUpred, to detect protein domain boundaries; (iii) a residual convolutional neural network-based method, DeepPotential, to predict multiple spatial restraints by co-evolutionary features derived from the MSA; and (iv) optimized spatial restraint energy potentials to guide the structure assembly simulations. Read More

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calcium imaging of CA3 pyramidal neuron populations in adult mouse hippocampus.

eNeuro 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Laboratory of Neural Circuit Dynamics, Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland

Neuronal population activity in the hippocampal CA3 subfield is implicated in cognitive brain functions such as memory processing and spatial navigation. However, because of its deep location in the brain, the CA3 area has been difficult to target with modern calcium imaging approaches. Here, we achieved chronic two-photon calcium imaging of CA3 pyramidal neurons with the red fluorescent calcium indicator R-CaMP1. Read More

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An in silico validation framework for quantitative DCE-MRI techniques based on a dynamic digital phantom.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jul 20;73:102186. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Oden Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, 201 E 24th St, Austin, TX 78712, United States; Livestrong Cancer Institutes, United States; Departments of Biomedical Engineering, United States; Departments of Diagnostic Medicine, United States; Departments of Oncology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, United States; Department of Imaging Physics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, United States.

Quantitative evaluation of an image processing method to perform as designed is central to both its utility and its ability to guide the data acquisition process. Unfortunately, these tasks can be quite challenging due to the difficulty of experimentally obtaining the "ground truth" data to which the output of a given processing method must be compared. One way to address this issue is via "digital phantoms", which are numerical models that provide known biophysical properties of a particular object of interest. Read More

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Multi-model and multi-slice ensemble learning architecture based on 2D convolutional neural networks for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jul 22;136:104678. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Intelligent Physiological Measurement and Clinical Translation, Beijing International Platform for Scientific and Technological Cooperation, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Environment and Life Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease without effective medications or supplemental treatments. Thus, predicting AD progression is crucial for clinical practice and medical research. Due to limited neuroimaging data, two-dimensional convolutional neural networks (2D CNNs) have been commonly adopted to differentiate among cognitively normal subjects (CN), people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD patients. Read More

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Efficient direct mapping of the nonlinear optical response via modulated Airy beams.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3725-3728

We report a scheme to achieve efficient direct mapping of the nonlinear optical response into a spatial beam profile. Compared with previous methods where a standard two-dimensional Airy beam was used as a probe, a modulated beam configuration allows for an improved mapping efficiency, stemming from the induced nonlinearity caused by the applied modulation. We find that the mapping efficiency along different orientations is highly related to the beam patterns and the type of nonlinearity. Read More

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Quantitative Biomarkers for Cancer Detection Using Contrast-Free Ultrasound High-Definition Microvessel Imaging: Fractal Dimension, Murray's Deviation, Bifurcation Angle & Spatial Vascularity Pattern.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Jul 30;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

A growing body of evidence indicates that there is a strong correlation between microvascular morphological features and malignant tumors. Therefore, quantification of these features might allow more accurate differentiation of benign and malignant tumors. The main objective of this research project is to improve the quantification of microvascular networks depicted in contrast-free ultrasound microvessel images. Read More

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Research progresses of microplastic pollution in freshwater systems.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 7;795:148888. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Microplastics (MPs) have received widespread attention as an emerging environmental pollutant. They are ubiquitous in the freshwater system, causing a global environmental issue. The current features and perspectives of MPs in the freshwater systems can provide the concerns of their ecological effects, which has not been addressed widely. Read More

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