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The Middle to Later Stone Age transition at Panga ya Saidi, in the tropical coastal forest of eastern Africa.

J Hum Evol 2021 Apr 11;153:102954. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745, Jena, Germany; Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 600 Maryland Ave SW, Washington, D.C., USA; School of Social Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

The Middle to Later Stone Age transition is a critical period of human behavioral change that has been variously argued to pertain to the emergence of modern cognition, substantial population growth, and major dispersals of Homo sapiens within and beyond Africa. However, there is little consensus about when the transition occurred, the geographic patterning of its emergence, or even how it is manifested in the stone tool technology that is used to define it. Here, we examine a long sequence of lithic technological change at the cave site of Panga ya Saidi, Kenya, that spans the Middle and Later Stone Age and includes human occupations in each of the last five Marine Isotope Stages. Read More

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Giant and Reversible Barocaloric Effect in Trinuclear Spin-Crossover Complex Fe (bntrz) (tcnset).

Adv Mater 2021 Mar 2;33(10):e2008076. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Departament de Física de la Matèria Condensada, Facultat de Física, Martí i Franquès 1, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, 08028, Spain.

A giant barocaloric effect (BCE) in a molecular material Fe (bntrz) (tcnset) (FBT) is reported, where bntrz = 4-(benzyl)-1,2,4-triazole and tcnset = 1,1,3,3-tetracyano-2-thioethylepropenide. The crystal structure of FBT contains a trinuclear transition metal complex that undergoes an abrupt spin-state switching between the state in which all three Fe centers are in the high-spin (S = 2) electronic configuration and the state in which all of them are in the low-spin (S = 0) configuration. Despite the strongly cooperative nature of the spin transition, it proceeds with a negligible hysteresis and a large volumetric change, suggesting that FBT should be a good candidate for producing a large BCE. Read More

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Challenges in Plasmonic Catalysis.

ACS Nano 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States.

The use of nanoplasmonics to control light and heat close to the thermodynamic limit enables exciting opportunities in the field of plasmonic catalysis. The decay of plasmonic excitations creates highly nonequilibrium distributions of hot carriers that can initiate or catalyze reactions through both thermal and nonthermal pathways. In this Perspective, we present the current understanding in the field of plasmonic catalysis, capturing vibrant debates in the literature, and discuss future avenues of exploration to overcome critical bottlenecks. Read More

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December 2020

SWR1-Independent Association of H2A.Z to the LINC Complex Promotes Meiotic Chromosome Motion.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 22;8:594092. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Instituto de Biología Funcional y Genómica (IBFG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) and University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

The H2A.Z histone variant is deposited into the chromatin by the SWR1 complex, affecting multiple aspects of meiosis. We describe here a SWR1-independent localization of H2A. Read More

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October 2020

Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae casts NOX-independent NETosis and induces enhanced IL-12, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2 and iNOS gene transcription in caprine PMN.

Exp Parasitol 2021 Jan 12;220:108034. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Parasitology Unit, Department of Animal Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain. Electronic address:

Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae represents a highly pathogenic coccidian parasite causing severe haemorrhagic typhlocolitis in goat kids worldwide. NETosis was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) acting against different parasites in vitro and in vivo. In vitro interactions of caprine PMN with parasitic stages of E. Read More

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January 2021

Data on the generation of two mouse models by CRISPR / Cas9D10A nickase.

Data Brief 2020 Dec 21;33:106447. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 643, Barcelona 08028, Spain.

encodes an orphan nuclear receptor that plays a dual function as both transcriptional activator and repressor in photoreceptors, being necessary for cone fate inhibition as well as rod differentiation and homeostasis. Mutations in this gene cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP), enhanced S cone syndrome (ESCS) and Goldmann-Favre syndrome (GFS). There is one reported isoform that contains all 8 exons and a second -previously unreported- shorter isoform, which only spans the first 7 exons and whose function is still unknown. Read More

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December 2020

Alcohol Control Policy in Europe: Overview and Exemplary Countries.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 4;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Ursula Franklin Street, Toronto, ON M5S 2S1, Canada.

Alcohol is a major risk factor for burden of disease. However, there are known effective and cost-effective alcohol control policies that could reduce this burden. Based on reviews, international documents, and contributions to this special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), this article gives an overview of the implementation of such policies in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region, and of best practices. Read More

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November 2020

A Bayesian joint model for zero-inflated integers and left-truncated event times with a time-varying association: Applications to senior health care.

Stat Med 2021 Jan 26;40(1):147-166. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Population aging in most industrialized societies has led to a dramatic increase in emergency medical demand among the elderly. In the context of private health care, an optimal allocation of the medical resources for seniors is commonly done by forecasting their life spans. Accounting for each subject's particularities is therefore indispensable, so the available data must be processed at an individual level. Read More

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January 2021

Holm oak death is accelerated but not sudden and expresses drought legacies.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 21;754:141793. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

CICYTEX-ICMC, Polígono Industrial El Prado, c/ Pamplona 64, 06800 Mérida, Badajoz, Spain.

The increase in abiotic and biotic stress driven by global change threatens forest ecosystems and challenges understanding of mechanisms producing mortality. Phytophthora spp. like P. Read More

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February 2021

Little genetic structure in a Bornean endemic small mammal across a steep ecological gradient.

Mol Ecol 2020 11 28;29(21):4074-4090. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Center for Conservation Genomics, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute and National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA.

Janzen's influential "mountain passes are higher in the tropics" hypothesis predicts restricted gene flow and genetic isolation among populations spanning elevational gradients in the tropics. Few studies have tested this prediction, and studies that focus on population genetic structure in Southeast Asia are particularly underrepresented in the literature. Here, we test the hypothesis that mountain treeshrews (Tupaia montana) exhibit limited dispersal across their broad elevational range which spans ~2,300 m on two peaks in Kinabalu National Park (KNP) in Borneo: Mt Tambuyukon (MT) and Mt Kinabalu (MK). Read More

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November 2020

Towards a cancer mission in Horizon Europe: recommendations.

Mol Oncol 2020 08;14(8):1589-1615

The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

A comprehensive translational cancer research approach focused on personalized and precision medicine, and covering the entire cancer research-care-prevention continuum has the potential to achieve in 2030 a 10-year cancer-specific survival for 75% of patients diagnosed in European Union (EU) member states with a well-developed healthcare system. Concerted actions across this continuum that spans from basic and preclinical research through clinical and prevention research to outcomes research, along with the establishment of interconnected high-quality infrastructures for translational research, clinical and prevention trials and outcomes research, will ensure that science-driven and social innovations benefit patients and individuals at risk across the EU. European infrastructures involving comprehensive cancer centres (CCCs) and CCC-like entities will provide researchers with access to the required critical mass of patients, biological materials and technological resources and can bridge research with healthcare systems. Read More

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Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients Presenting With COVID-19 and ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Am J Cardiol 2020 09 3;131:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Baylor Scott and White Heart and Vascular Hospital, Dallas, Texas; Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute, Dallas, Texas.

There is limited information regarding clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) disease presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this multicenter retrospective study, we reviewed charts of patients admitted with symptomatic COVID-19 infection and STEMI to a total of 4 hospitals spanning Italy, Lithuania, Spain and Iraq from February 1, 2020 to April 15, 2020. A total of 78 patients were included in this study, 49 (63%) of whom were men, with a median age of 65 [58, 71] years, and high comorbidity burden. Read More

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September 2020

Microglia: Agents of the CNS Pro-Inflammatory Response.

Cells 2020 07 17;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBIS)-Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/University of Seville, 41012 Seville, Spain.

The pro-inflammatory immune response driven by microglia is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Though the research of microglia spans over a century, the last two decades have increased our understanding exponentially. Here, we discuss the phenotypic transformation from homeostatic microglia towards reactive microglia, initiated by specific ligand binding to pattern recognition receptors including toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) or triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2), as well as pro-inflammatory signaling pathways triggered such as the caspase-mediated immune response. Read More

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A framework to assess the quality and impact of bioinformatics training across ELIXIR.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 07 23;16(7):e1007976. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

ELIXIR is a pan-European intergovernmental organisation for life science that aims to coordinate bioinformatics resources in a single infrastructure across Europe; bioinformatics training is central to its strategy, which aims to develop a training community that spans all ELIXIR member states. In an evidence-based approach for strengthening bioinformatics training programmes across Europe, the ELIXIR Training Platform, led by the ELIXIR EXCELERATE Quality and Impact Assessment Subtask in collaboration with the ELIXIR Training Coordinators Group, has implemented an assessment strategy to measure quality and impact of its entire training portfolio. Here, we present ELIXIR's framework for assessing training quality and impact, which includes the following: specifying assessment aims, determining what data to collect in order to address these aims, and our strategy for centralised data collection to allow for ELIXIR-wide analyses. Read More

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Toward Engineering Biosystems With Emergent Collective Functions.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 26;8:705. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Many complex behaviors in biological systems emerge from large populations of interacting molecules or cells, generating functions that go beyond the capabilities of the individual parts. Such collective phenomena are of great interest to bioengineers due to their robustness and scalability. However, engineering emergent collective functions is difficult because they arise as a consequence of complex multi-level feedback, which often spans many length-scales. Read More

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A spiking neural network-based long-term prediction system for biogas production.

Neural Netw 2020 Sep 5;129:271-279. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Laboratory of Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience (UCM-UPM), Centre for Biomedical Technology Technical University of Madrid Madrid, Spain; Department of Experimental Psychology, Cognitive Processes and Logopedy, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.

Efficient energy production from biomass is a central issue in the context of clean alternative energy resource. In this work we propose a novel model based on spiking neural networks cubes in order to model the chemical processes that goes on in a digestor for the production of usable biogas. For the implementation of the predictive structure, we have used the NeuCube computational framework. Read More

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September 2020

LUZP1, a novel regulator of primary cilia and the actin cytoskeleton, is a contributing factor in Townes-Brocks Syndrome.

Elife 2020 06 18;9. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Center for Cooperative Research in Biosciences (CIC bioGUNE), Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Bizkaia Technology Park, Derio, Spain.

Primary cilia are sensory organelles crucial for cell signaling during development and organ homeostasis. Cilia arise from centrosomes and their formation and function is governed by numerous factors. Through our studies on Townes-Brocks Syndrome (TBS), a rare disease linked to abnormal cilia formation in human fibroblasts, we uncovered the leucine-zipper protein LUZP1 as an interactor of truncated SALL1, a dominantly-acting protein causing the disease. Read More

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Optical Camera Communications for IoT-Rolling-Shutter Based MIMO Scheme with Grouped LED Array Transmitter.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jun 13;20(12). Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Optical Communications Research Group, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU, UK.

In optical camera communications (OCC), the provision of both flicker-free illumination and high data rates are challenging issues, which can be addressed by utilizing the rolling-shutter (RS) property of the image sensors as the receiver (Rx). In this paper, we propose an RS-based multiple-input multiple-output OCC scheme for the Internet of things (IoT) application. A simplified design of multi-channel transmitter (Tx) using a 7. Read More

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A synthesis of bacterial and archaeal phenotypic trait data.

Sci Data 2020 06 5;7(1):170. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, 2109, Australia.

A synthesis of phenotypic and quantitative genomic traits is provided for bacteria and archaea, in the form of a scripted, reproducible workflow that standardizes and merges 26 sources. The resulting unified dataset covers 14 phenotypic traits, 5 quantitative genomic traits, and 4 environmental characteristics for approximately 170,000 strain-level and 15,000 species-aggregated records. It spans all habitats including soils, marine and fresh waters and sediments, host-associated and thermal. Read More

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Size- and Temperature-Dependent Intraband Optical Properties of Heavily n-Doped PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Solid-State Films.

ACS Nano 2020 Jun 15;14(6):7161-7169. Epub 2020 May 15.

Institut de Ciències Fotòniques (ICFO), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain.

Steady-state access to intraband transitions in colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), doping, permits exploitation of the electromagnetic spectrum at energies below the band gap. CQD intraband optoelectronics allows envisaging cheap mid- and long-wavelength infrared photodetectors and light-emitting devices, which today employ epitaxial materials. As intraband devices start to emerge, thorough studies of the basic properties of intraband transitions in different CQD materials are needed to guide technological research. Read More

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Prokaryotic sigma factors and their transcriptional counterparts in Archaea and Eukarya.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 May 30;104(10):4289-4302. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

RNA polymerases (RNAPs) carry out transcription in the three domains of life, Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Transcription initiation is highly regulated by a variety of transcription factors, whose number and subunit complexity increase during evolution. This process is regulated in Bacteria by the σ factor, while the three eukaryotic RNAPs require a complex set of transcription factors (TFs) and a TATA-binding protein (TBP). Read More

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Integrated multi-omics framework of the plant response to jasmonic acid.

Nat Plants 2020 03 13;6(3):290-302. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Plant Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Understanding the systems-level actions of transcriptional responses to hormones provides insight into how the genome is reprogrammed in response to environmental stimuli. Here, we investigated the signalling pathway of the hormone jasmonic acid (JA), which controls a plethora of critically important processes in plants and is orchestrated by the transcription factor MYC2 and its closest relatives in Arabidopsis thaliana. We generated an integrated framework of the response to JA, which spans from the activity of master and secondary regulatory transcription factors, through gene expression outputs and alternative splicing, to protein abundance changes, protein phosphorylation and chromatin remodelling. Read More

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Defining the Substrate Spectrum of the TIM22 Complex Identifies Pyruvate Carrier Subunits as Unconventional Cargos.

Curr Biol 2020 03 5;30(6):1119-1127.e5. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Cellular Biochemistry, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

In mitochondria, the carrier translocase (TIM22 complex) facilitates membrane insertion of multi-spanning proteins with internal targeting signals into the inner membrane [1-3]. Tom70, a subunit of TOM complex, represents the major receptor for these precursors [2, 4-6]. After transport across the outer membrane, the hydrophobic carriers engage with the small TIM protein complex composed of Tim9 and Tim10 for transport across the intermembrane space (IMS) toward the TIM22 complex [7-12]. Read More

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Tracing Urban Wastewater Contaminants into the Atlantic Ocean by Nontarget Screening.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 04 11;54(7):3996-4005. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland.

Oceans are the ultimate sink for many of the over 100 million man-made substances. Until now, monitoring was limited to a reduced number of targeted persistent organic pollutants, reaching open waters mainly via atmospheric deposition. However, the composition and fate of the thousands of pollutants reaching the marine environment though wastewater discharges from coastal sources remain largely unexplored. Read More

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Twenty-four-hour, weekly and annual patterns in serious falls of non-institutionalized independent Spanish seniors.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020 02;24(3):1440-1453

Department of Nursing, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Córdoba, Spain.

Objective: The study aimed to explore clock hour, day-of-week, and month-of-year patterns of serious falls experienced by non-institutionalized Spanish seniors (age ≥65 years) in relation to associated conventional intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

Patients And Methods: Intake emergency department records from January 1 to December 31, 2013 of a tertiary hospital of southern Spain were abstracted for particulars of falls, including the time of occurrence, experienced specifically by non-institutionalized seniors. Chi-squares and Single and Multiple-Component Cosinor (time series) Analyses were applied to determine the statistical significance of observed 24-hour, 7-day, and annual variation. Read More

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February 2020

Diversity buffers winegrowing regions from climate change losses.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 02 27;117(6):2864-2869. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

The Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02131.

Agrobiodiversity-the variation within agricultural plants, animals, and practices-is often suggested as a way to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on crops [S. A. Wood , 30, 531-539 (2015)]. Read More

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February 2020

Diffusion and capture permits dynamic coupling between treadmilling FtsZ filaments and cell division proteins.

Nat Microbiol 2020 03 20;5(3):407-417. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Institute for Science and Technology Austria, Klosterneuburg, Austria.

Most bacteria accomplish cell division with the help of a dynamic protein complex called the divisome, which spans the cell envelope in the plane of division. Assembly and activation of this machinery are coordinated by the tubulin-related GTPase FtsZ, which was found to form treadmilling filaments on supported bilayers in vitro, as well as in live cells, in which filaments circle around the cell division site. Treadmilling of FtsZ is thought to actively move proteins around the division septum, thereby distributing peptidoglycan synthesis and coordinating the inward growth of the septum to form the new poles of the daughter cells. Read More

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Building a custom large-scale panel of novel microhaplotypes for forensic identification using MiSeq and Ion S5 massively parallel sequencing systems.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2020 03 30;45:102213. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Forensic Genetics Unit, Institute of Forensic Sciences, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

A large number of new microhaplotype loci were identified in the human genome by applying a directed search with selection criteria emphasizing short haplotype length (<120 nucleotides) and maximum levels of polymorphism in the composite SNPs. From these searches, 107 autosomal microhaplotypes and 11 X chromosome microhaplotypes were selected, with well-spaced autosomal positions to ensure their independence in relationship tests. The 118 microhaplotypes were assembled into a single multiplex assay for the analysis of forensic DNA with massively parallel sequencing (MPS). Read More

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An updated and unified earthquake catalog from 1787 to 2018 for seismic hazard assessment studies in Mexico.

Sci Data 2019 10 29;6(1):241. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Postgraduate School in Earth Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico.

Here we present a new updated and unified Poissonian earthquake catalog for Mexico. The details about the catalog compilation, the removal of duplicate events, unifying the magnitude scales, removal of dependent events through the declustering process and its completeness analysis are presented. Earthquake and focal mechanism data have been compiled from various local, regional and international sources. Read More

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October 2019

Candidate genes expression profiling during wilting in chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(10):e0224212. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Genetics - ETSIAM, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Córdoba, Spain.

Chickpea production may be seriously threatened by Fusarium wilt, a disease caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Read More

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