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Different patterns of belowground fungal diversity along altitudinal gradients with respect to microhabitat and guild types.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Fungi are key components of belowground ecosystems with various ecological roles in forests. Although the changes in the richness and composition of belowground fungi across altitudinal gradients have been widely reported, only a few studies have focused on the microhabitat types along altitudinal gradients. Here, we analysed the effect of altitude on the ectomycorrhizal and non-ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in belowground microhabitats. Read More

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Integrative taxonomy: combining molecular and morphological characteristics to identify Lymnaea (Galba) cubensis, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2021 21;30(2):e026320. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Laboratório de Helmintologia Veterinária, Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Despite the epidemiological importance of the Lymnaeidae family regarding transmission of Fasciola hepatica, knowledge about the diversity and distribution of these molluscs and the role of each species in the expansion of fasciolosis remains sparse. Classical morphological (n=10) identification was performed in lymneids from Lagoa Santa, a municipality in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, along with molecular and phylogenetic analysis (n=05) based on the partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI mtDNA) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer II (ITS-2 rDNA). The shell morphology made it possible to distinguish the lymneids of Lagoa Santa from Pseudosuccinea columella. Read More

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First report of root rot of Polygonatum odoratum caused by Fusarium acuminatum in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Liaoning Research Institute of Cash Crops, Liaoyang, Liaoning, China.

Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce is used in traditional Chinese medicine and also consumed as a vegetable. In July of 2020, a root rot was observed on P. Read More

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First report of marine horsehair worms (Nematomorpha: Nectonema) parasitic in isopod crustaceans.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0810, Japan.

Nectonema, the only horsehair worm (Nematomorpha) genus found in marine environments, was previously known to be parasitic only in decapod crustaceans. We report Nectonema sp. as the first record of a marine nematomorph parasitic in isopod crustaceans. Read More

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First Report of Sea buckthorn Stem Wilt Caused by Fusarium sporotrichioides in Gansu, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Shenyang Agricultural University, 98428, College of Plant Protection, Shenyang, China;

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is an important deciduous shrub for fruit and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions of China. Twelve Chinese and Russian cultivars (cv. Shenqiuhong, eshi01, . Read More

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First report of Fusarium sacchari causing sugarcane wilt in Bangladesh.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, 198780, Department of Biotechnology, Salna, Gazipur, Bangladesh;

Wilt is one of the destructive fungal diseases of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) affecting sugarcane production in many sugarcane growing regions including Bangladesh. In July 2018, sugarcane plants showing wilting symptom including withered, dried leaves and shriveling stalks with brown to pinkish discoloration in internal tissues (Viswanathan, 2013) were collected from sugarcane field from Gazipur district (23°54'41″ N, 90°23'20″ E) of Bangladesh. Read More

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Occurrence of Powdery Mildew Caused by Erysiphe buhrii on Dianthus chinensis in Inner Mongolia, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, 117454, College of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China;

Dianthus chinensis is widely cultivated for ornamental and medicinal use in China (Guo et al. 2017). The plant has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of urinary problems such as strangury and diuresis (Han et al. Read More

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Retrospective study of phaeohyphomycosis in aquarium-housed fish, with first descriptions of Exophiala lecanii-corni and Neodevriesia cladophorae in fish.

J Fish Dis 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

A broadening fish host range is affected by novel and known pigmented fungal pathogens. A review of 2,250 piscine submissions received by the Aquatic Pathology Service, University of Georgia, revealed 47 phaeohyphomycosis cases (2.1%), representing 34 bony and cartilaginous fish species. Read More

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Short communication: Characterization of vaginal fungal communities in healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis (BV); a pilot study.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 16:105055. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

IFF Health & Biosciences, International Flavors & Fragrances, Sokeritehtaantie 20, FIN-02460 Kantvik, Finland.

The role of the vaginal fungal community, the mycobiota, in women's health is an emerging area of research. Utilization of novel molecular technology enables more in-depth characterization and identification of fungal diversity, and their potential associations to health. The present study is a substudy of a larger observational clinical trial investigating the vaginal microbiota composition before and after antibiotic treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) infection in comparison to the microbiota of healthy women (Clinicaltrials. Read More

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Establishment of spruce plantations in native birch forests reduces soil fungal diversity.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Jun;97(7)

Section for Genetics and Evolutionary Biology (EVOGENE), University of Oslo, Blindernveien 31, 0316 Oslo, Norway.

Plantations of Norway spruce have been established well beyond its natural range in many parts of the world, potentially impacting native microbial ecosystems and the processes they mediate. In this study, we investigate how the establishment of spruce plantations in a landscape dominated by native birch forests in western Norway impacts soil properties and belowground fungal communities. Soil cores were collected from neighboring stands of planted spruce and native birch forests. Read More

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A novel duplex ddPCR assay for detection and differential diagnosis of Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum eggs from chickens feces.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Jun 11;296:109499. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Section for Parasitology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7036, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.

Since the EU ban on battery cages, many studies have listed Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum as the most common roundworms in the European laying hen population. A complicating factor is that the eggs of these parasites are almost identical. Thus, lack of molecular diagnostic approaches has driven epidemiological studies to take on necropsy for species discrimination, which is labor and cost intensive. Read More

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First Report of Tomato Powdery Mildew Caused by in Taiwan.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, 56091, Plant Pathology, Taichung, Taiwan;

Tomato ( L.) is one of the common and important economic crops in Taiwan. In July 2018, tomato leaves with unusual yellowing and lesions were observed in Taichung, Changhua, Nantou, and Yunlin counties in Taiwan. Read More

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Rapid and sensitive detection of potato cyst nematode by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

3 Biotech 2021 Jun 24;11(6):294. Epub 2021 May 24.

Division of Nematology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012 India.

Cyst nematodes of the species and are devastating parasites of the potato crop. Early detection of cyst nematodes in the field is critical for adopting an appropriate management strategy. A specific and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay using four oligonucleotide primers has been developed to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA of potato cyst nematode The PCN-LAMP reaction could be completed within 75 min at 68 °C followed by termination at 85 °C for 7 min. Read More

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First Report of Brown Spot Needle Blight on Pinus thunbergii Parl. Caused by Aureobasidium pullulans in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Nanjing Forestry University, 74584, College of Forestry, 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing, China, 210037;

Pinus thunbergii Parl., known as black pine, is widely distributed all over China. This pine variety can prevent soil desertification and promote soil conservation and is excellent for constructing fast-growing forests and shelter belts. Read More

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Intragenomic sequence variations in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) ribosomal DNA of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(6):e0253173. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India.

Second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS2) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence is a widely used molecular marker for species-identification or -delimitation due to observed concerted evolution which is believed to homogenize rDNA copies in an interbreeding population. However, intra-specific differences in ITS2 of Anopheles stephensi have been reported. This study reports the presence of intragenomic sequence variation in the ITS2-rDNA of An. Read More

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Interfacial spin-orbit torques.

J Appl Phys 2020 Oct;128

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA.

Spin-orbit torques offer a promising mechanism for electrically controlling magnetization dynamics in nanoscale heterostructures. While spin-orbit torques occur predominately at interfaces, the physical mechanisms underlying these torques can originate in both the bulk layers and at interfaces. Classifying spin-orbit torques based on the region that they originate in provides clues as to how to optimize the effect. Read More

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October 2020

Effectiveness of rectal displacement devices during prostate external-beam radiation therapy: A review.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Apr-Jun;17(2):303-310

Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences; Department of Medical Physics, Roshana Cancer Institute, Tehran, Iran.

Dose-escalated prostate radiotherapy (RT) can improve treatment outcomes, but rectal toxicity is the main limiting factor for introducing dose-escalated RT. Pushing rectal wall away from the prostate reduces the volume of the rectum in high-dose region, which can decrease both short- and long-term rectal toxicities after RT. This review focuses on the literature using different rectal displacement devices such as endorectal balloons, tissue spacers, rectal retractor, and ProSpare during prostate External beam radiotherapy, with regard to dosimetric effects, clinical benefits, prostate motion, and postoperative RT setting. Read More

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Phylogenetic study of rhizobia nodulating pea (Pisum sativum) isolated from different geographic locations in Tunisia.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2021 May 30;44(4):126221. Epub 2021 May 30.

Laboratory of Legumes and Sustainable Agroecosystems, Centre of Biotechnology of Borj-Cédria, BP 901, Hammam-lif 2050, Tunisia. Electronic address:

Nodulated Pisum sativum plants showed the presence of native rhizobia in 16 out of 23 soil samples collected especially in northern and central Tunisia. A total of 130 bacterial strains were selected and three different ribotypes were revealed after PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequence analyses of rrs and four housekeeping genes (recA, atpD, dnaK and glnII) assigned 35 isolates to Rhizobium laguerreae, R. Read More

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Natural contaminants in bee pollen: DNA metabarcoding as a tool to identify floral sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and fungal diversity.

Food Res Int 2021 Aug 25;146:110438. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padova, Legnaro, PD, Italy.

The use of bee pollen as a food supplement has increased in recent years as it contains several nutrients and phytochemicals. However, depending on floral composition, bee pollen can be contaminated by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), PA N-oxides (PANOs) and toxigenic fungi found in plants, which may pose a potential health risk for consumers. Thus, a DNA metabarcoding approach based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region was used to identify the plant sources of 17 PAs/PANOs detected by a validated method in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), as well as floral and fungal diversity in 61 bee pollen samples. Read More

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Microbial profiles of Greek PDO cheeses assessed with amplicon metabarcoding.

Food Microbiol 2021 Oct 25;99:103836. Epub 2021 May 25.

Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute of Applied Biosciences, Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 60361, GR-57001, Greece; Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of the Aegean, Myrina, 81400, Lemnos, Greece.

Greece is a country possessing many cheese products granted with a PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) certificate, with high exporting activities. In this study, we analyzed six popular cheese PDO products purchased from different industries to assess their microbial communities using amplicon metabarcoding analysis. To this end, using Next Generation Sequencing technology, we sequenced the 16S rRNA gene and the ITS spacer for prokaryotes and fungi, respectively. Read More

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October 2021

Electron-Deficient Heteroacenes that Contain Two Boron Atoms: Near-Infrared Fluorescence Based on a Push-Pull Effect.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Nagoya University, Department of Chemistry Graduate School of Science, Furo, Chikusa, 464-8602, Nagoya, JAPAN.

Electron-deficient heteroacenes that contain two tricoordinate boron atoms in their acene skeletons and planarized phenyl ether moieties at their periphery were synthesized via the borylation of silicon-bridged precursors. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed quinoidal structures, which give rise to two-step  reversible redox processes for both the reduction and oxidation . These compounds exhibit intense absorption and sharp fluorescence bands with vibronic structures in the near-infrared (NIR) region. Read More

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First report of stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis, and crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata var. avenae f. sp. avenae, on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) in Georgia, USA.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Georgia, 1355, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Griffin, Georgia, United States, 30223.

Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis, and crown rust, caused by P. coronata, are common rust diseases on cool-season grasses (Karakkat et al. 2018), for which long-distance spore dispersal was recorded in northern US (Harder and Haber 1992). Read More

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Structural basis of copper-efflux-regulator-dependent transcription activation.

iScience 2021 May 16;24(5):102449. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Section of Transcription & Gene Regulation, The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, MN, USA.

The copper efflux regulator (CueR), a representative member of mercury resistance regulator (MerR) family metalloregulators, controls expression of copper homeostasis-regulating genes in bacteria. The mechanism of transcription activation by CueR and other MerR family regulators is bending the spacer domain of promoter DNA. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of the intact CueR-dependent transcription activation complexes. Read More

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Phylogenetic relationships among false truffle genera of Paxillaceae-, and , gen. nov.

Mycologia 2021 Jun 10:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Carrer Massaballs 10, 17118 Sant Sadurní de l'Heura, Girona, Spain.

A phylogenetic analysis of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS), nuc rDNA 28S domains D1-D2 (28S), and the region between conserved domains 6 and 7 of RNA polymerase II second largest subunit () from multiple species of and revealed four major clades, proposed here as distinct genera: s. str. Read More

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Effects of Mountain Uplift and Climatic Oscillations on Phylogeography and Species Divergence of (Apiaceae).

Front Plant Sci 2021 24;12:673200. Epub 2021 May 24.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Exploring the effects of orographic events and climatic shifts on the geographic distribution of organisms in the Himalayas-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) region and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is crucial to understand the impact of environmental changes on organism evolution. To gain further insight into these processes, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of nine species distributed across the HHM and QTP regions. In total, 525 individuals from 56 populations of the nine species were analyzed based on three maternally inherited chloroplast fragments (, , and ) and one nuclear DNA region (internal transcribed spacer, ITS). Read More

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Occurrence and potentially zoonotic genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) living in Nanwan Monkey Island, Hainan, China: a public health concern.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jun 9;17(1):213. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Parasitology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a microsporidian species, is a zoonotic pathogen found in both humans and animals. Here, we determined the prevalence, explored the different genotypes of E. bieneusi in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) (Hainan Island of China), and assessed their zoonotic potential. Read More

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Additions to the knowledge of hydnoid Steccherinaceae: , and .

Mycologia 2021 Jun 9:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Núcleo de Pesquisa em Micologia, Instituto de Botânica, Av. Miguel Estefano 3687, 04301-902, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The family Steccherinaceae includes genera with smooth, hydnoid, and poroid hymenophores, monomitic to dimitic hyphal systems, and generative hyphae with clamps or simple septa. is the largest genus in the family, with a worldwide distribution, and is characterized mainly by a dimitic hyphal system and presence of thick-walled encrusted cystidia. Species traditionally included in , however, have been transferred to other genera based on results of molecular phylogenetic analyses. Read More

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First Report of Aloe vera Rust Caused by Uromyces aloes in an Ornamental Nursery in the United States.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Penn State University, Plant Pathology, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States;

Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Read More

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A comparative GC-MS analysis of bioactive secondary metabolites produced by halotolerant Bacillus spp. isolated from the Great Sebkha of Oran.

Int Microbiol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Laboratory of Applied Microbiology in Food, Biomedical and Environment (LAMAABE), Faculty of Nature and Life, Earth and Universe Sciences, Department of Biology, Aboubekr Belkaïd University of Tlemcen, Tlemcen, Algeria.

The reemergence of infectious diseases and resistant pathogens represents a serious problem for human life. Hence, the screening for new or alternative antimicrobial compounds is still urgent. Unusual ecosystems such as saline habitats are considered promising environments for the purposes of isolating bacterial strains able to produce potent natural products. Read More

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Synthetic biology open language visual (SBOL Visual) version 2.3.

J Integr Bioinform 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

People who are engineering biological organisms often find it useful to communicate in diagrams, both about the structure of the nucleic acid sequences that they are engineering and about the functional relationships between sequence features and other molecular species. Some typical practices and conventions have begun to emerge for such diagrams. The Synthetic Biology Open Language Visual (SBOL Visual) has been developed as a standard for organizing and systematizing such conventions in order to produce a coherent language for expressing the structure and function of genetic designs. Read More

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