409,509 results match your criteria space


A review of linkage mechanisms in animal joints and related bio-inspired designs.

Authors:
Stuart C Burgess

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen's Building, University Walk, BRISTOL, BS8 1TR, Bristol, BS8 1TR, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

This paper gives a review of biological mechanical linkage mechanisms. One purpose is to identify the range of kinematic functions that they are able to perform. A second purpose is to review progress in bioinspired designs. Read More

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Context matters: Examining the factors impacting the implementation of tuberculosis infection prevention and control guidelines in health settings in seven high tuberculosis burden countries.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Feb 8;14(5):588-597. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Room 212, Samuels Building, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries are at increased risk of TB infection due to increased exposures to TB patients and inadequate implementation of TB infection prevention and control (TB IPC) measures in health settings. While various guidelines on TB IPC exist, there is little understanding of the content of these guidelines, whether they are relevant to the context and are being appropriately implemented in low-and middle-income high TB burden countries. This study aimed to critically examine the implementation of TB IPC guidelines, along with factors impacting TB IPC implementation in health settings in seven high TB burden countries. Read More

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February 2021

Habitat heterogeneity helps to mitigate pollinator nectar sugar deficit and discontinuity in an agricultural landscape.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 6;782:146909. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Botany, Mycology, and Ecology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 19 Akademicka St., 20-033 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

The scarcity of floral resources and their seasonal discontinuity are considered as major factors for pollinator decline in intensified agricultural landscapes worldwide. The consequences are detrimental for the stability of the environment and ecosystems. Here, we quantified the production of nectar sugars in plant species occurring in man-made, non-cropped areas (non-forest woody vegetation, road verges, railway embankments, field margins, fallow areas) of an agricultural landscape in SE Poland. Read More

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Parental perceptions of COVID-19-like illness in their children.

Public Health 2021 Mar 2;194:29-32. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Psychological Medicine, Weston Education Centre, Cutcombe Road, London, SE5 9RJ, UK.

Objectives: The objective of the study is to explore parents' perceptions of COVID-19-like symptoms in their child and attitudes towards isolating from others in the household when unwell.

Study Design: The study used qualitative, semistructured interviews.

Methods: The study involved thirty semistructured telephone interviews with parents of children between 4 and 18 years. Read More

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The temporal dimension in the understanding of maternal sensitivity in caregiver-infant interactions: The 'Early Mother-Child Interaction Coding System'.

Infant Behav Dev 2021 Apr 10;63:101563. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

York University Toronto, Canada.

Caregiver-child interaction is known to play a central role in children's socioemotional development, yet the diversity of measures commonly used to evaluate it call into question the nature of the construct being assessed. Contingency within caregiver-child interactions has been identified as a key dyadic process that requires taking a temporal perspective to evaluating interactions. The Early Mother-Child Interaction Coding System is a psychometrically sound measure that sequentially code the flow of interactive and non-interactive behaviours within a caregiver-infant system. Read More

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Evaluating the association between climatic factors and sheep condemnations in the United States using cluster analysis and spatio-temporal modeling.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Apr 1;191:105342. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, United States. Electronic address:

Sheep in the United States are primarily raised and fed on pasture, making them particularly susceptible to the impacts of climatic factors. This study sought to evaluate the association between climate and whole carcass condemnations in the U.S. Read More

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Radiographic Spine Adipose Index An Independent Risk Factor For Deep Surgical Site Infection After Posterior Instrumented Lumbar Fusion.

Spine J 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Whangarei Base Hospital, Whangarei, New Zealand.

Background Context: Surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion surgery increase healthcare costs, morbidity and mortality. Routine measures of obesity fail to consider site specific fat distribution.

Purpose: To assess the association between the spine adipose index and deep surgical site infection and determine a threshold value for spine adipose index that can assist in preoperative risk stratification in patients undergoing posterior instrumented lumbar fusion (PILF). Read More

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Electrophysiological signatures predict clinical outcomes after deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus in Meige syndrome.

Brain Stimul 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative therapy for ameliorating medically refractory primary Meige syndrome. However, the associations between DBS target position and surrounding electrophysiological properties as well as patients' clinical outcomes remains largely unknown. In a large number of patients, we investigated electrophysiological features around stimulation targets and explored their roles in predicting clinical outcomes following bilateral GPi-DBS. Read More

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Chemical fingerprinting strategies based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry to capture the unique signature of Piemonte peppermint essential oil (Mentha x piperita var Italo-Mitcham).

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 26;1645:462101. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Soremartec Italia srl, Alba, Cuneo Italy.

Accurate, reliable, and informative mapping of untargeted and targeted components across many samples is here performed by combining off-line GC-Olfactometry (GC-O) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry with variable ionization energy (TOF MS featuring Tandem Ionization™). In particular, untargeted and targeted (UT) features patterns are processed by chromatographic fingerprinting, giving differential priority to potent odorants' retention-times regions. Distinguishing peppermint essential oil (EO) from Piedmont (Italy - Mentha × piperita L. Read More

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Retrospective analysis of the incidence and predictive factors of parametrial involvement in FIGO IB1 cervical cancer.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021 Apr 10:102145. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Radical surgery is the standard primary treatment for patients with stage IB1 (FIGO 2009 staging) cervical cancer due to latent parametrial involvement. Recent studies suggested that less radical surgery was applicable for patients with no or low risk of parametrial involvement. In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence and possible predictive factors of parametrial involvement in patients with stage IB1 cervical cancer so as to evaluate whether less radical surgery was suitable for selected patients. Read More

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Chronic high risk of intimate partner violence against women in disadvantaged neighborhoods: An eight-year space-time analysis.

Prev Med 2021 Apr 10:106550. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibáñez, 21, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

We conducted a small-area ecological longitudinal study to analyze neighborhood contextual influences on the spatio-temporal variations in intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) risk in a southern European city over an eight-year period. We used geocoded data of IPVAW cases with associated protection orders (n = 5867) in the city of Valencia, Spain (2011-2018). The city's 552 census block groups were used as the neighborhood units. Read More

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Secreted Extracellular Cyclophilin A is a Novel Mediator of Ventilator Induced Lung Injury.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Imperial College London, Anaesthetics & Intensive Care, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland;

Rationale: Mechanical ventilation is a mainstay of intensive care but contributes to the mortality of patients through ventilator induced lung injury. Extracellular Cyclophilin A is an emerging inflammatory mediator and metalloproteinase inducer, and the gene responsible for its expression has recently been linked to COVID-19 infection.

Objectives: Here we explore the involvement of extracellular Cyclophilin A in the pathophysiology of ventilator-induced lung injury. Read More

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Racism and oral health inequities; an introduction.

Authors:
L M Jamieson

Community Dent Health 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health, School of Dentistry, University of Adelaide Dental School, South Australia 5005, Australia.

Contemporary evidence shows that: (i) racial minorities often bear the greatest burden of oral diseases; (ii) there are notable differences between socially advantaged and disadvantaged racial groups and; (iii) racial inequities in oral health persist over time and across space. In the four papers that follow, we seek to contribute to the discourse around oral health and racial inequities through recognition that racism has a structural basis and is embedded in long-standing social policy in almost every developed (and developing) nation. The papers formed the basis of a symposium entitled 'Racism and oral health inequities' at the 99th General Session of the International Association of Dental Research held July 2021 in Boston, United States. Read More

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Bilateral Upsampling Network for Single Image Super-Resolution with Arbitrary Scaling Factors.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Apr 13;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Single Image Super-Resolution (SISR) is essential for many computer vision tasks. In some real-world applications, such as object recognition and image classification, the captured image size can be arbitrary while the required image size is fixed, which necessitates SISR with arbitrary scaling factors. It is a challenging problem to take a single model to accomplish the SISR task under arbitrary scaling factors. Read More

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Learning Multi-Modal Nonlinear Embeddings: Performance Bounds and an Algorithm.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Apr 13;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

While many approaches exist in the literature to learn low-dimensional representations for data collections in multiple modalities, the generalizability of multi-modal nonlinear embeddings to previously unseen data is a rather overlooked subject. In this work, we first present a theoretical analysis of learning multi-modal nonlinear embeddings in a supervised setting. Our performance bounds indicate that for successful generalization in multi-modal classification and retrieval problems, the regularity of the interpolation functions extending the embedding to the whole data space is as important as the between-class separation and cross-modal alignment criteria. Read More

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MAPLE: A Microbiome Analysis Pipeline Enabling Optimal Peptide Search and Comparative Taxonomic and Functional Analysis.

J Proteome Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland, School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, United States.

Metaproteomics by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful approach to profile a large number of proteins expressed by all organisms in a highly complex biological or ecological sample, which is able to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of the functional makeup of a microbiota. The human gastrointestinal microbiota has been found playing important roles in human physiology and health, and metaproteomics has been shown to shed light on multiple novel associations between microbiota and diseases. MS-powered proteomics generally relies on genome data to define search space. Read More

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Os Doping Suppressed Cu-Fe Charge Transfer and Induced Structural and Magnetic Phase Transitions in LaCuFeOsO ( = 1 and 2).

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

B-site Os-doped quadruple perovskite oxides LaCuFeOsO ( = 1 and 2) were prepared under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. Although parent compound LaCuFeO experiences Cu-Fe intermetallic charge transfer that changes the Cu/Fe charge combination to Cu/Fe at 393 K, in the Os-doped samples, the Cu and Fe charge states are found to be constant 2+ and 3+, respectively, indicating the complete suppression of charge transfer. Correspondingly, Os and mixed Os valence states are determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy for = 1 and = 2 compositions, respectively. Read More

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TWOE Code: An Efficient Tool for Explicit Partition of Coupled Cluster and Configuration Interaction Energies into Atomic and Diatomic Contributions.

Authors:
Pavel Polestshuk

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Butlerova Str., build. 6, Moscow, Russian Federation 117485.

The efficient implementation of the TWOE program for evaluating the atomic and interatomic energy components at post-HF level was developed. The systematic convergence of these terms up to a near full-CI limit was performed for the first time for a series of coupled cluster methods: CCSD → CCSDT → CCSDTQ → CCSDTQP. A comparison with corresponding CI approaches (up to fifth excitation level) is additionally discussed. Read More

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Degradation of Polyamide Nanofiltration Membranes by Bromine: Changes of Physiochemical Properties and Filtration Performance.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

The potential coexistence and interaction of bromine and polyamide membranes during membrane-based water treatment prompts us to investigate the effect of bromine on membrane performance. For fully aromatic polyamide membrane NF90 exposed under a mild bromination condition (10 mg/L), bromine incorporation resulted in more negatively charged (-13 vs -25 mV) and hydrophobic (55.2 vs 58. Read More

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Cell-Based Therapies for Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1256:265-293

Department of Ophthalmology, Hadassah Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The pathogenesis of AMD involves dysfunction and loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of cells that provide nourishment and functional support for the overlying photoreceptors. RPE cells in mammals are not known to divide, renew or regenerate in vivo, and in advanced AMD, RPE loss leads to degeneration of the photoreceptors and impairment of vision. Read More

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January 2021

Methods for Assessment of Interactions of Proteins with Heme: Application for Complement Proteins and Immunoglobulins.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2227:227-236

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM, Sorbonne Université, USPC, Université Paris Descartes, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.

Heme (Fe protoporphyrin IX) serves as a prosthetic group of numerous proteins implicated in oxidative metabolism. This molecule is abundantly present in the red blood cells where it serves as a cofactor of hemoglobin. As consequence of various pathological conditions, the membrane of red blood cells can be damaged and therefore large quantities of hemoglobin and subsequently heme released in the extracellular space. Read More

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January 2021

Enhancement degree of brain metastases: correlation analysis between enhanced T2 FLAIR and vascular permeability parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Objectives: To investigate the correlation between enhancement degrees of brain metastases on contrast-enhanced T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (CE-T2 FLAIR) and vascular permeability parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).

Methods: Thirty-nine patients with brain metastases were prospectively collected. They underwent non-enhanced T2 FLAIR, DCE-MRI, CE-T2 FLAIR, and contrast-enhanced three-dimensional brain volume imaging (CE-BRAVO). Read More

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Two processing stages of the SNARC effect.

Psychol Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Psychology and Center for Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, School of Education, Guangzhou University, 230 Wai Huan Xi Road, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect showed that small/large numbers represented in the left/right space facilitated left/right responses, respectively. However, the processing stage (semantic representation or response selection) of the SNARC effect is still controversial. To investigate this issue, we adopted a modified magnitude comparison task in which the effects of SNARC, Stroop (semantic-representation stage), and Simon (response-selection stage) could be simultaneously induced. Read More

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A call to action for new global approaches to cardiovascular disease drug solutions.

Eur Heart J 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Université de Lorraine, INSERM CIC 1493, INI CRCT, CHRU Nancy, France.

Whilst we continue to wrestle with the immense challenge of implementing equitable access to established evidence-based treatments, substantial gaps remain in our pharmacotherapy armament for common forms of cardiovascular disease including coronary and peripheral arterial disease, heart failure, hypertension, and arrhythmia. We need to continue to invest in the development of new approaches for the discovery, rigorous assessment, and implementation of new therapies. Currently, the time and cost to progress from lead compound/product identification to the clinic, and the success rate in getting there reduces the incentive for industry to invest, despite the enormous burden of disease and potential size of market. Read More

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Increased heterogeneity of brain perfusion predicts the development of cerebrovascular accidents.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25557

Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Abstract: The heterogeneity of brain perfusion is related to the risk factors of thromboembolic events such as antiphospholipid syndrome. However, the effectiveness of brain perfusion heterogeneity as a marker to predict thromboembolic events has not been confirmed. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of brain perfusion heterogeneity as a marker to predict the development of cerebrovascular accidents. Read More

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Blockchain Personal Health Records: Systematic Review.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 13;23(4):e25094. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Blockchain technology has the potential to enable more secure, transparent, and equitable data management. In the health care domain, it has been applied most frequently to electronic health records. In addition to securely managing data, blockchain has significant advantages in distributing data access, control, and ownership to end users. Read More

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Quantitative Three-dimensional Assessment of Knee Joint Space Width from Weight-bearing CT.

Radiology 2021 Apr 13:203928. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

From the Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UY, England (T.D.T., J.W.M.); Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, England (T.D.T., J.W.M.); Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, England (S.B.L.); Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Bristol and Weston NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, England (S.R.); Departments of Engineering (G.M.T., A.H.G.) and Medicine (K.E.S.P.), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif (J.A.L.); and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City, Kan (N.A.S.).

Background Imaging of structural disease in osteoarthritis has traditionally relied on MRI and radiography. Joint space mapping (JSM) can be used to quantitatively map joint space width (JSW) in three dimensions from CT images. Purpose To demonstrate the reproducibility, repeatability, and feasibility of JSM of the knee using weight-bearing CT images. Read More

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Through-space B- Al Correlation: influence of the recoupling channel.

Magn Reson Chem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

National Centre for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.

Through-space heteronuclear correlation (D-HETCOR) experiments based on heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (D-HMQC) and refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (D-RINEPT) sequences have been proven to be useful approaches for the detection of the spatial proximity between half-integer quadrupolar nuclei in solids under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The corresponding pulse sequences employ coherence transfers mediated by heteronuclear dipolar interactions, which are reintroduced under MAS by radiofrequency irradiation of only one of the two correlated nuclei. We investigate herein using numerical simulations of spin dynamics and solid-state NMR experiments on magnesium aluminoborate glass how the choice of the channel to which the heteronuclear dipolar recoupling is applied affects the transfer efficiency of D-HMQC and D-RINEPT sequences between B and Al nuclei. Read More

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The Efficacy of Transanal Opening of Intersphincteric Space Procedure in High Complex Anal Fistulas on Long-term Follow-up.

Am Surg 2021 Apr 13:31348211011092. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of General Surgery, 552925Nishtha Surgical Hospital and Research Centre, Patan, Gujarat, India.

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The Efficacy and Safety of Disease-Modifying Osteoarthritis Drugs for Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis-a Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, #28 Fuxing Rd, Beijing, China.

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is common and burdensome for patients and health care systems. Our study purpose was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of DMOADs in adults with knee and hip osteoarthritis.

Methods: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge without language, publication, or date restrictions from inception through November 2018 for randomized controlled trials assessing 12 classes of DMOADs with at least 12 months of follow-up. Read More

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