5,182 results match your criteria soluble interleukin-2


Pretreatment levels of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor are useful in selecting the treatment regimen for newly diagnosed advanced-stage follicular lymphoma with low tumor burden.

Int J Hematol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita City, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

High pre-treatment serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels are associated with poor overall survival (OS) of patients with newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma (FL). We evaluated the usefulness of pre-treatment sIL-2R levels in selecting a treatment regimen for advanced-stage FL with low tumor burden (FL-LTB). This retrospective, multicenter observational study enrolled consecutive patients who received a rituximab-containing regimen for newly diagnosed advanced stage FL-LTB (grade 1-3a) between 2008 and 2018. Read More

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Do COVID-19 Infections Result in a Different Form of Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 15;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta Hospital, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality across the world, with no current effective treatments available. Recent studies suggest the possibility of a cytokine storm associated with severe COVID-19, similar to the biochemical profile seen in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), raising the question of possible benefits that could be derived from targeted immunosuppression in severe COVID-19 patients. We reviewed the literature regarding the diagnosis and features of HLH, particularly secondary HLH, and aimed to identify gaps in the literature to truly clarify the existence of a COVID-19 associated HLH. Read More

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Case of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following Epstein-Barr virus infection.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 31;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare diagnosis that carries a high degree of mortality. We present this case of a previously healthy 22-year-old woman, who was admitted acutely ill to the hospital. One week prior, she had been seen by her primary care physician for fatigue and malaise. Read More

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Newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma during pembrolizumab treatment for lung cancer.

Int J Hematol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Nagoya City West Medical Center Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya, Japan.

Malignant lymphoma developing during anti-PD-1 antibody treatment is extremely rare. A 74-year-old female was admitted with left hypochondrial pain. She was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the right upper lobe of the lung, and had undergone surgery and postoperative chemotherapy three years prior. Read More

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A Case of Intravascular Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Initially Suspected as Interstitial Pneumonia Associated With Systemic Scleroderma.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2021 Jan-Dec;9:2324709621999226

Tokyo Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare form of diffuse LBCL. The patient was a 71-year-old female admitted to our hospital with hypoxia. On admission, chest computed tomography revealed a ground-glass opacity. Read More

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Soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels on admission associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 9;105:522-524. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of General Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University Himi Municipal Hospital, Toyama, Japan.

Objectives: Early and simple detection of high-risk groups is crucial for minimizing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related deaths. Soluble interleukin 2 receptors (sIL2R) have been suspected as being prognostic markers for infectious diseases. This study validated the usefulness of sIL2R as a marker for deaths related to COVID-19. Read More

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Cytokine profiles in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

Respir Med Case Rep 2021 3;33:101376. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Yale University Department of Internal Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06513, USA.

It has been postulated that the underlying pathophysiology of COVID-19 is mediated by cytokine storm resulting in a hyperinflammatory state. A similar kind of cytokine-storm has been described in individuals undergoing veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) support. There is therefore concern that initiation of VV ECMO support among COVID19 patients could further exacerbate this dysregulated inflammatory response. Read More

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Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated with Disseminated Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection in a Patient with Mesenteric Panniculitis.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2021 02;253(2):151-157

Department of Rheumatology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine.

Mesenteric panniculitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by non-specific inflammation of the adipose tissue in the mesentery. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threating disease associated with aberrant macrophage overactivation, in which infections can be a leading cause in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we report a rare case of mesenteric panniculitis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis complicated by disseminated Mycobacterium intracellulare. Read More

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February 2021

Cytomegalovirus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome Diagnosed by Liver Biopsy in a Kidney Transplant Recipient.

Yonsei Med J 2021 Mar;62(3):274-277

Department of Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease in kidney transplant recipients, and is caused by systemic proliferation of macrophages actively phagocytizing other blood cells in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and the spleen. Here, we report a 40-year-old male kidney transplant recipient who presented with fever, bicytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes 2 months after transplantation. Given that cytomegalovirus antigenemia and real-time polymerase chain reaction tests were positive, liver biopsy was performed under an assumption of cytomegalovirus-induced hepatitis. Read More

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Combination Immunotherapy With LIGHT and Interleukin-2 Increases CD8 Central Memory T-Cells In Vivo.

J Surg Res 2021 Feb 22;263:44-52. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background: The generation of long-term durable tumor immunity and prolonged disease-free survival depends on the ability to generate and support CD8+ central memory T-cells. Microsatellite-stable colon cancer is resistant to currently available immunotherapies; thus, development of novel mechanisms to increase both lymphocyte infiltration and central memory formation are needed to improve outcomes in these patients. We have previously demonstrated that both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and LIGHT (TNFSF14) independently enhance antitumor immune responses and hypothesize that combination immunotherapy may increase the CD8+ central memory T-cell response. Read More

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February 2021

High Levels of Circulating IL-8 and Soluble IL-2R Are Associated With Prolonged Illness in Patients With Severe COVID-19.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:626235. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Priority Area Asthma & Allergy, Research Center Borstel, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), Members of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Borstel, Germany.

Objectives: The coordinated immune response of the host is the key of the successful combat of the body against SARS-CoV-2 infection and is decisive for the development and progression of COVID-19. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the immunological phenotype of patients are associated with duration of illness in patients with severe COVID-19.

Method: In this single-center study, 69 patients with severe or critical COVID-19 were recruited retrospectively. Read More

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February 2021

Interleukin-6, procalcitonin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio: Potential immune-inflammatory parameters to identify severe and fatal forms of COVID-19.

Cytokine 2021 05 15;141:155428. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Immunology Department, Beni-Messous Teaching Hospital, University of Algiers 1, Algeria. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence supports that the viral-induced hyper-inflammatory immune response plays a central role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. It might be involved in the progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-organ failure leading to death. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the immune-inflammatory biomarkers in COVID-19, then determine optimal thresholds for assessing severe and fatal forms of this disease. Read More

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NK/T cell ratios associate with interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain expression and shedding in multiple sclerosis.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Apr 24;353:577499. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Central Diagnostic Laboratory, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

NK/T-cell ratios predict disease activity in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We investigated in 50 RRMS patients whether interleukin-2 receptor alpha-chain (IL-2Rα) expression and shedding associates with NK/T-cell balance, as suggested by daclizumab-trials in RRMS. A subsample (N = 31) was genotyped for IL2RA-associated MS risk SNPs. Read More

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Serum Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor as a Potential Biomarker for Immune-related Adverse Events.

Anticancer Res 2021 Feb;41(2):1021-1026

Division of Medical Oncology/Hematology, Department of Medicine, Kobe University Hospital and Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

Background/aim: Biomarkers for immune-related adverse events (irAEs) induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are required. We encountered a patient whose skin irAE fluctuated in parallel with serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R).

Patients And Methods: We examined 15 patients with cancer who received ICIs. Read More

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February 2021

Interleukin 6, soluble interleukin 2 receptor alpha (CD25), monocyte colony-stimulating factor, and hepatocyte growth factor linked with systemic hyperinflammation, innate immunity hyperactivation, and organ damage in COVID-19 pneumonia.

Cytokine 2021 04 15;140:155438. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Udine, ASUFC, Udine, Italy.

Background: Patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 can develop interstitial pneumonia, requiring hospitalisation or mechanical ventilation. Increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers are associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of the present study was to determine which cytokines are associated with respiratory insufficiency in patients hospitalised for COVID-19. Read More

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Acute liver injury secondary to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection.

JGH Open 2021 Jan 22;5(1):166-168. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Endoscopy Mie University Hospital Tsu Japan.

We present a 23-year-old man with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) triggered by Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) infection. This patient presented with persistent fever and acute liver injury 6 weeks after having an infectious mononucleosis associated with EBV infection. He had hypofibrinogenemia, hyperferritinemia, increased soluble interleukin-2 receptor, elevated prothrombin time, and pancytopenia. Read More

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January 2021

A case of autoimmune enteropathy with CTLA4 haploinsufficiency.

Intest Res 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Japan.

Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is a rare disease, characterized by intractable diarrhea, villous atrophy of the small intestine, and the presence of circulating anti-enterocyte autoantibodies. Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome, and mutations in FOXP3, which is a master gene of regulatory T cells (Tregs), are major causes of AIE. Recent studies have demonstrated that mutations in other Treg-associated genes, such as CD25 and CTLA4, show an IPEX-like phenotype. Read More

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January 2021

Cytokine Profiles Before and After Immune Modulation in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Section of Rheumatology, Allergy & Immunology, Yale University School of Medicine, TAC S469c, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.

We describe the cytokine profiles of a large cohort of hospitalized patients with moderate to critical COVID-19, focusing on IL-6, sIL2R, and IL-10 levels before and after receiving immune modulating therapies, namely, tocilizumab and glucocorticoids. We also discuss the possible roles of sIL2R and IL-10 as markers of ongoing immune dysregulation after IL-6 inhibition. We performed a retrospective chart review of adult patients admitted to a tertiary care center with moderate to critical SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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January 2021

Lipoprotein (a) and coronary artery calcification: prospective study assessing interactions with other risk factors.

Metabolism 2021 03 7;116:154706. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Lipid Research Group, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Elevated plasma lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are established cardiovascular risk factors that correlate with each other. We hypothesized that other cardiovascular risk factors could affect their relationship.

Methods: We tested for interactions of 24 study variables related to dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, inflammation and coagulation with baseline Lp(a) on change in CAC volume and density over 9. Read More

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Validation of systemic parameters for the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 9;65(2):191-198. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N-15, W-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan.

Purpose: Ocular sarcoidosis is diagnosed based on suggestive intraocular findings and systemic investigations. In this study, we assessed the clinical usefulness of systemic parameters in the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis.

Study Design: A retrospective study. Read More

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease Presenting With Concurrent COVID-19 Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome.

Pediatrics 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and

Coronavirus disease 2019 is associated with a postinfectious multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This syndrome is marked by cytokine storm and multiorgan dysfunction, often affecting the gastrointestinal tract, the heart, and the hematopoietic system. We describe the case of a 16-year-old boy with an initial presentation of severe inflammatory bowel disease and concurrent MIS-C. Read More

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January 2021

Cessation of methotrexate and a small intestinal resection provide a good clinical course for a patient with a jejunum perforation induced by a methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorder: a case report.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Jan 2;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Surgery, Kohnodai Hospital, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-7-1 Konodai, Ichikawa-shi, Chiba, 272-8156, Japan.

Background: Methotrexate (MTX) is a frequently used drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but occurrences of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) have been reported in patients undergoing an MTX regimen. Almost half of the patients with methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (MTX-LPD) have extranodal lesions; moreover, although extremely rare, digestive tract perforations resulting from the extranodal lesions of MTX-LPD have also been reported.

Case Presentation: We describe the case of an 81-year-old woman with RA who had been prescribed MTX at 6 mg per week for the past 11 years. Read More

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January 2021

A retrospective matched cohort single-center study evaluating outcomes of COVID-19 and the impact of immunomodulation on COVID-19-related cytokine release syndrome in solid organ transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 Dec 30:e13556. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

This retrospective matched cohort study describes 30 solid organ transplant (SOT) patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) matched 1:2 to 60 non-SOT patients (control group) based on age, body mass index (BMI), and comorbidities (hypertension and diabetes mellitus with hemoglobin A1c > 8.0%). The SOT group had a higher proportion of cardiovascular disease (P < . Read More

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December 2020

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis as the Presenting Manifestation of Relapsed Classic Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the Presence of Concurrent Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Genital Herpes, Epstein-Barr Virus and Mycobacterium Avium Complex Infection.

Cureus 2020 Nov 19;12(11):e11563. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Hematology/Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (New York City Health and Hospitals/Queens), Jamaica, USA.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disorder of uncontrolled immune activation which is usually divided into two main types. Primary, which is associated with genetic mutation and familial predisposition and secondary, which is usually associated with infections, malignancies and autoimmune conditions. More often multiple risk factors are present at the time of initial presentation. Read More

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November 2020

Soluble interleukin-2 receptor in exhaled breath condensate in pulmonary sarcoidosis: a cross-sectional pilot study.

J Breath Res 2020 Dec 18;15(1):016016. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Norwich Medical School, The University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom. Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology with a variable clinical course and prognosis. There is an urgent need to identify new and novel biomarkers to help differentiate between clinical phenotypes and guide clinical decisions with respect to commencing and monitoring treatment. Across the spectrum of respiratory disease there has been a growing interest in the role of breath-based biomarkers given their non-invasive nature and ability to repeat sampling with ease for serial monitoring. Read More

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December 2020

Overall survival and post-spontaneous regression relapse-free survival of patients with lymphoproliferative disorders associated with rheumatoid arthritis: a multi-center retrospective cohort study.

Mod Rheumatol 2021 Feb 15:1-16. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Working Group on the Rheumatoid Arthritis-associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders of the Japan College of Rheumatology, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: To clarify factors affecting 5-year survival rates and relapse rates after spontaneous regression (SR) of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: This retrospective longitudinal study comprised 232 patients with RA diagnosed with LPDs between January 2000 and March 2017 at eight hospitals in Japan. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival and the Cox proportional hazard model was applied to identify predictive factors. Read More

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February 2021

Interleukin-2 receptor alpha as a biomarker for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosis.

J Chin Med Assoc 2021 Mar;84(3):261-266

Division of Digestive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Two recent studies in the adult and pediatric Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis-Clinical Research Network (NASH-CRN) cohorts have shown that soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (IL2RA) levels increased with fibrosis severity. However, no hepatic study has been conducted in Asian morbidly obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery. In this study, we proposed IL2RA as a biomarker for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosis and performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of IL2RA. Read More

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Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the Spleen: A Case Report.

Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2020 Dec 20;45(4):236-242. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Department of Surgery, Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, 1838 Ishikawa-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0032, Japan.

Background: Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen is a non-tumorous benign lesion that originates in the spleen and It is rare.

Case Presentation: A 59-year-old man visited his physician for a checkup. Ultrasonography showed a mass in the spleen, and the patient was referred to our hospital. Read More

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December 2020

Disease activity and response to therapy monitored by [F]FDG PET/CT using volume-based indices in IgG4-related disease.

EJNMMI Res 2020 Dec 9;10(1):153. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa, 761-0793, Japan.

Purpose: The efficiency of [F]FDG PET/CT using volume-based indices was evaluated to assess the disease activity and response to therapy in patients with immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD).

Methods: A total of 17 patients with IgG4-RD were examined with [F]FDG PET/CT before and during treatment. The lesion boundary was determined using a fixed threshold of standardized uptake value (SUV) ≥ 2. Read More

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December 2020