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Differential parasitism by four species of phorid flies when attacking three worker castes of the leaf-cutting ant Atta laevigata (Smith, 1858).

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0250973. Epub 2021 May 5.

Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Curso de Ciências Biológicas, Porto Nacional, Tocantins, Brazil.

Certain species of parasitic flies belonging to the Phoridae are known to attack Atta spp. workers foraging along trails, near nest openings used by the ants to supply the colony with plant material, and in the areas where the ants are actively cutting plant material. However, there have been no previous studies of phorid parasitism of non-foraging worker ants, for example excavators and soldiers. Read More

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Cow bonechar decreases indaziflam pre-emergence herbicidal activity in tropical soil.

J Environ Sci Health B 2021 May 5:1-8. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

The addition of carbonaceous material such as cow bonechar to the soil can affect the availability of applied pre-emergent herbicides such as indaziflam. However, how cow bonechar affects the bioavailability of indaziflam is not yet known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cow bonechar on herbicidal activity of indaziflam on weeds in a tropical soil. Read More

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Restriction endonuclease T.Smu451I with new cleavage specificity-neoschizomer of T.AsuI.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Korean Center for Culture Collection, Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

A specific type II restriction endonuclease T.Smu451I has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the frozen cells of soil bacterium Sphingobacterium multivorum 451 (formerly Flavobacterium multivorum 451), using ultrasonic grinding, nucleic acid removal by streptomycin sulfate, protein precipitation by ammonium sulfate and phosphocellulose P-11, DEAE-Cellulose DE-52, Hepharin-Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, and elucidated several characteristics of T.Smu451I. Read More

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Heavy metal(loid) and Pb isotope compositions of black shale weathering profiles on the northern Yangtze Platform: insights into geochemical behavior, contamination assessment, and source apportionment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 611756, Sichuan Province, China.

Heavy metal(loid) (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, V, Tl, and As) and Pb isotope compositions of two black shale weathering profiles were determined to investigate the geochemical behaviors of these toxic elements during black shale weathering and the heavy metal(loid) contamination and source apportionment of Pb in black shale-associated soils. Black shale has higher heavy metal(loid) concentrations than the upper continental crust and the worldwide average shale. In contrast, the surface soils have much higher heavy metal(loid) concentrations than the profile soils. Read More

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Laboratory and field study on changes in water quality and increase in dissolved iron during riverbank filtration.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Civil Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550beon-gil, Saha-gu, Busan, 49315, Republic of Korea.

Changes in the water quality by the riverbank filtration (RBF) process were investigated in the field-scale demonstration sites. The overall water quality was improved by RBF, but Fe concentration significantly increased in the riverbank-filtered water more than in the river water. This result would be caused by the interaction between the iron minerals and the river water in the aquifer and the influx of the hinterland groundwater into RBF wells. Read More

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Nitrogen accumulation in forest floors with introduced Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster in dune site.

Ender Makineci

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 5;193(6):327. Epub 2021 May 5.

Soil Science and Ecology Department, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Bahçeköy Merkez, Orman Fakültesi No. 2, 34473, Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introduced stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) stands were sampled 60 years after plantation in Istanbul-Durusu (Terkos), Turkey. Sampling was conducted at four different developmental stages (mean diameter of trees at 1. Read More

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Biochar and urea co-application regulates nitrogen availability in soil.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 5;193(6):326. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, Ludhiana, India.

Overuse of nitrogenous fertilizers especially urea has been considered a significant source of reactive N causing acute environmental impacts through leaching, volatilization, and NO gas emission from fertilized crop fields. However, some recent studies have proposed that such environmental losses of N can be ignored by adapting an alternative way of combining nitrogenous fertilizer with pyrolyzed biomass (biochar). Therefore, the effect of co-application of rice-residue biochar (RB) or poultry manure biochar (PB) along with urea on N dynamics was investigated by conducting a 60-day incubation experiment. Read More

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OsCOP1 regulates embryo development and flavonoid biosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, and Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Key Message: Novel mutations of OsCOP1 were identified to be responsible for yellowish pericarp and embryo lethal phenotype, which revealed that OsCOP1 plays a crucial role in flavonoid biosynthesis and embryogenesis in rice seed. Successful production of viable seeds is a major component of plant life cycles, and seed development is a complex, highly regulated process that affects characteristics such as seed viability and color. In this study, three yellowish-pericarp embryo lethal (yel) mutants, yel-hc, yel-sk, and yel-cc, were produced from three different japonica cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L). Read More

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Decomposition of leaf litter in the Brazilian savanna on limestone and sandstone Neosols.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 30;93(3):e20200372. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação de Recursos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Biologia, Rua João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Umuarama, 38405-320 Uberlândia, MG, Brazil.

Litter decomposition in the soil is an important stage of the nutrient cycling process that interferes with functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil fertility and litter nutritional quality are fundamental factors that affect decomposition efficiency of plant residues. We evaluated decomposition in two areas of 'cerrado sensu stricto', each with a type of Neosol - limestone (eutrophic) and sandstone (dystrophic). Read More

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Soil respiration analysis using a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser and calibration-free WMS-based dual-gas sensor.

Analyst 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Laboratory, Anhui University, 230601 Hefei, China.

A high response and sensitive dual-gas sensor based on calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy (CF-WMS) has been developed for the simultaneous detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to eliminate the detection errors caused by light intensity variations. A multi-pass cell (MPC) was employed to lengthen the optical path to improve the precision of the sensing system by combining with a 4.56 μm mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (MIR-QCL). Read More

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Soil carbon balance of afforested peatlands in the maritime temperate climatic zone.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

Drainage and conversion of natural peatlands into forestry increases soil CO emissions through decomposition of peat and modifies the quantity and quality of litter inputs and therefore the soil carbon balance. In organic soils, CO net emissions and removals, are reported using carbon emission factors (EF). The choice of specific default Tier 1 EF values from the IPCC 2013 Wetlands supplement depends on land use categories and climate zones. Read More

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Bioaccumulation and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in food crops irrigated with freshwater and treated wastewater: a case study in Southern Cairo, Egypt.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Deanship of Scientific Research, Umm Al-Qura University, Al Mukarramah, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Food safety has often attracted attention worldwide. Few studies have investigated the heavy metal (HM) pollution and health risk assessment of crops and vegetables. The current work was conducted to evaluate the human risk assessment of HM (Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn) in radish, lettuce, tomato, onion, turnip, squash, okra, sunflower, Jews mallow, and garden rocket cultivated in treated wastewater (TWW)-irrigated sites as compared with those cultivated in freshwater (FW)-irrigated sites. Read More

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An environmental risk assessment for a DDX-contaminated agricultural area in Turkey: soil vs. plant or human vs. animal.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Mimar Sinan Campus, Mimar Sinan Boulevard, Eflak Street, 16310, Bursa, Turkey.

This study is the first research attempt to assess the environmental risks of an agricultural area contaminated with the p,p'-DDT and its metabolites (DDX) on human and terrestrial species through exposure to soil and agricultural products, simultaneously. The study was carried out for a DDX-contaminated agricultural area in Turkey. Soil samples obtained in two different harvest applications were analyzed in terms of DDX levels. Read More

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Soil contamination and plant accumulation characteristics of toxic metals and metalloid in farmland soil-food crop system in Qilihe, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

The Third Institute Geological and Mineral Exploration of Gansu Provincial Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu, China.

Toxic metals and metalloids (TMMs) in soil can be accumulated in crops, which poses potential risks to human health. In this paper, 55 topsoil and 23 crop samples, collected in Qilihe, China, were selected to study the contamination, risk, and plant accumulation of TMMs in soil-crop system. TMM concentrations in soil samples were all below the permissible limits, but Hg and Cd exhibited the potential ecological risk due to their slight accumulation in soil. Read More

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Effect of Fe-Mn-La-modified biochar composites on arsenic volatilization in flooded paddy soil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shantou University, Shantou, 515063, China.

As can be volatilized naturally; however, this has adverse environmental effects. In this study, we investigated As volatilization in flooded paddy soil with the addition of biochar (BC) and Fe-Mn-La-modified BC composites (FMLBCs). The addition of BC and FMLBCs caused decreases in total As volatilization in the soil over 7 weeks. Read More

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Selecting low-carbon technologies and measures for high agricultural carbon productivity in Taihu Lake Basin, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China.

In this paper, Delphi method was used to evaluate the low-carbon technologies and measures for high agricultural carbon productivity in Taihu Lake Basin. We established the selecting process and standards and obtained the final list of low-carbon technologies and management measures of high agricultural carbon productivity in Taihu Lake Basin: (1) the initial list of low-carbon technologies and measures of planting industry included 19 items, of which 10 items were included in the final list. The 10 technologies and measures included in the final list were reducing fertilizers, mixed use of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer, soil testing and formulated fertilization, application of controlled release fertilizer, deep application of fertilizers, cultivation of new variety, extension of conservation tillage, extension of midseason/alternate drainage, paddy-upland rotation (rice-rape/rice-wheat), and reducing pesticides. Read More

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Tree diversity and carbon stocks in agroforestry systems in northern Ethiopia.

Carbon Balance Manag 2021 May 4;16(1):14. Epub 2021 May 4.

Mekele Environment and Forest Research Center, Mekelle, Ethiopia.

Background: Agroforestry (AF) is an ancient tradition in Ethiopian dryland farming system. Several studies have examined system design, soil fertility management and system interactions, but the biodiversity and mitigation aspects of climate change have received less focus. We assessed the diversity of woody species, biomass carbon (C), and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock associated with indigenous dryland AF practices. Read More

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Hymenobacter negativus sp. nov., bacteria isolated from mountain soil collected in South Korea.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul, 02707, Republic of Korea.

Two novel Gram-negative bacterial strains BT442 and BT584 were isolated from dry soil collected in mountains Busan and Guri, Korea during wintertime. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains BT442 and BT584 both belong to a distinct lineage within the genus Hymenobacter (family Hymenobacteraceae, order Cytophagales, class Cytophagia). Strain BT442 was closely related to Hymenobacter soli PB17 (98. Read More

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Sources of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (ARB) and Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) in the Soil: A Review of the Spreading Mechanism and Human Health Risks.

Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria at Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Soil is an essential part of our ecosystem and plays a crucial role as a nutrient source, provides habitat for plants and other organisms. Overuse of antibiotics has accelerated the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARB and ARGs are recognized as emerging environmental contaminants causing soil pollution and serious risks to public health. Read More

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Environmental sustainability and prevention of heavy metal pollution of some geo-materials within a city in southwestern Nigeria.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 16;7(4):e06796. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Increased anthropogenic activities may cause the release of potentially hazardous metals into the environment. This is a major public health concern. The study was aimed at accessing ways by which pollution can be prevented with enhanced environmental sustainability in Ibadan, Southwestern, Nigeria. Read More

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Impact of land use type and altitudinal gradient on topsoil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks in the semi-arid watershed of northern Ethiopia.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 16;7(4):e06770. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Soil and Environmental Science, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Nepal.

Understanding the role of soils in the soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) cycle is essential, assumed that these parameters are among the key soil quality indicators in a given landscape. Nothing but their status is in a state of continual flux due to land-use, soil management practices, and nature of topographic features. Thus, this study has evaluated the effect of land-use types and altitudinal gradient on SOC and TN concentrations and stocks at a watershed scale in northern Ethiopia. Read More

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Synergy between a shallow root system with a DRO1 homologue and localized P application improves P uptake of lowland rice.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9484. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Crop Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-2, Kan-nondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 3058518, Japan.

Improved phosphorus (P) use efficiency for crop production is needed, given the depletion of phosphorus ore deposits, and increasing ecological concerns about its excessive use. Root system architecture (RSA) is important in efficiently capturing immobile P in soils, while agronomically, localized P application near the roots is a potential approach to address this issue. However, the interaction between genetic traits of RSA and localized P application has been little understood. Read More

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Trichovariability in rhizosphere soil samples and their biocontrol potential against downy mildew pathogen in pearl millet.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9517. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Studies in Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru, Karnataka, 570 006, India.

The present work is aimed to examine the genetic variability and the distribution pattern of beneficial Trichoderma spp. isolated from rhizosphere samples and their mode of action in improving the plant health. A total of 131 suspected fungi were isolated from the rhizospheric soil and 91 isolates were confirmed as Trichoderma spp. Read More

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Dominant egg surface bacteria of Holotrichia oblita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) inhibit the multiplication of Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9499. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China.

Holotrichia oblita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and some other scarab beetles are the main soil-dwelling pests in China. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Beauveria bassiana (Bb) are entomopathogens that have been used as biocontrol agents of various pests. However, scarab larvae especially H. Read More

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Carbon sphere-zinc sulphate nanohybrids for smart delivery of zinc in rice (Oryza sativa L).

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9508. Epub 2021 May 4.

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

The laboratory research was attempted to find nano zinc fertilizer utilizing the carbon sphere as a substrate. Typically the encapsulation techniques are followed in the drug delivery system, the limited work was done in nano-based zinc micronutrient for slow release of nutrients to crop. The use efficiency of zinc micronutrients in the soil is only less than 6 percentage. Read More

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Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic and wild felids as public health concerns: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9509. Epub 2021 May 4.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Felidae as definitive hosts for Toxoplasma gondii play a major role in transmission to all warm-blooded animals trough oocysts dissemination. Therefore the current comprehensive study was performed to determine the global status of T. gondii infection in domestic and wild felids aiming to provide comprehensive data of interest for further intervention approaching the One Health perspective. Read More

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Network Properties of Local Fungal Communities Reveal the Anthropogenic Disturbance Consequences of Farming Practices in Vineyard Soils.

mSystems 2021 May 4;6(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

Biome Makers Inc., West Sacramento, California, USA

Agroecosystems are human-managed ecosystems subject to generalized ecological rules. Understanding the ecology behind the assembly and dynamics of soil fungal communities is a fruitful way to improve management practices and plant productivity. Thus, monitoring soil health would benefit from the use of metrics that arise from ecological explanations that can also be informative for agricultural management. Read More

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Mangrove sinkholes () of the Yucatan Peninsula, a global hotspot of carbon sequestration.

Biol Lett 2021 May 5;17(5):20210037. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

Mangroves are among the most carbon-dense ecosystems on the planet. The capacity of mangroves to store and accumulate carbon has been assessed and reported at regional, national and global scales. However, small-scale sampling is still revealing 'hot spots' of carbon accumulation. Read More

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Environmental Impact of Food Preparations Enriched with Phenolic Extracts from Olive Oil Mill Waste.

Foods 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (DiSAA), Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Reducing food waste as well as converting waste products into second-life products are global challenges to promote the circular economy business model. In this context, the aim of this study is to quantify the environmental impact of lab-scale food preparations enriched with phenolic extracts from olive oil mill waste, i.e. Read More

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Shift of Dominant Species in Plant Community and Soil Chemical Properties Shape Soil Bacterial Community Characteristics and Putative Functions: A Case Study on Topographic Variation in a Mountain Pasture.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 29;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, RDA, Wanju 55365, Korea.

Reducing management intensity according to the topography of pastures can change the dominant plant species from sown forages to weeds. It is unclear how changes in species dominance in plant community drive spatial variation in soil bacterial community characteristics and functions in association with edaphic condition. Analysing separately the effects of both plant communities and soil chemical properties on bacterial community is crucial for understanding the biogeographic process at a small scale. Read More

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